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reciprocally upon him, so that he being made acquainted with all the histories taken in the hospital, laboratory, anatomical chamber, garden, &c. snay give the reason of the most notable phænomena happening in either of them. All which he shall commit to writing, and, out of them, by the end of the term of his service, shall collect a system of physick, and the most approved medicinal aphorisms; taking notice by the way, where those of Hippocrates are deficient or true, and by how many several experiments he hath so found them. He shall either dissect, or overlook the dissection of bodies dying of diseases; and, lastly, shall take care that all luciferous experiments whatsoever may be carefully brought to him, and recorded for the benefit of posterity.
The vice-physician's proper charge is to see the history of the patient most exactly and constantly kept. He may now-and-then read some good author, but in all other things shall endeavour to assist, and be subordinate to the physician in all parts of his duty, still acting by his directions; but shall not prescribe any physick without the consent of the chief, nor in his absence, upon emergent occasions, without the advice of the master-surgeon. He should be always walking up and down from bed to bed, feeling the pulses, and looking on the urine and other excrements of the sick; that no considerable punctilio, in any circumstance whatsoever, escape his observation. For the compleating of the history, he shall apply himself to the making of luciferous experiments, and to take notice of such as shall be made by others.
The student shall assist the surgeon and apothecary in making the history of their practices, to the end he may have always occasions to instruct himself in these ministrant parts of physick; to read such authors as the chief physician shall appoint him, and compare all his reading with the things themselves, whereof he readeth, as herbs, drugs, compound medicaments, anatomy, chirurgical instruments, bandages, operations, &c. all which we call the real elements of the art. He shall, by leave from the physician, in cases of need, put his hand to help the surgeon or apothecary, and sometimes watch by night with the nurses, that the perfection of the history may by no means be hazarded on their ignorance or carelessness. He may serve the physician as an amanuensis, especially in such things, the transcribing whereof may tend much to the advancement of his own knowledge.
Of the surgeons. The master-surgeon shall dress every patient belonging to his care the first time himself, in the presence of him to whom he shall commit the said cure afterwards, and, as it were, read him a lecture thereupon. When the other surgeons under him are dressing, he shall, accompanied with the student, go from patient to patient, to give them directions pro re natû, in their proceedings on the cure, and dictate to the student the most pertinent passages happening from time to time, that he may keep a true and uninterrupted history of them. He shall make experiments, by dissecting sundry sorts of animals; shall teach his mates anatomy, expound good authors to them; shew them the manner of making bandages, and making all manner of operations, such as are the laryngotomia, cutting for the stone, hernia, dropsy, and applying the trepan, both upon living brutes and dead carcases of men, to the end that, by practising upon these, the best places for making incision may be known, and all the dangerous parts in the way taken notice of; and upon the others, how to avoid the inconveniences of hæmorrhages, strugglings, and the like.
The mate shall dress all the more difficult griefs, apply cauteries, make fontanels, practise anatomy, and manual operations; make skeletons of the sundry rare animals which he shall have the opportunity to cut up; excarnate bowels, artificially dry the muscles, tan the ventricle, guts, &c. and do what'else tendeth to the perfection of anatomy; he shall also, at leisure times, transcribe the history of their practice first and originally taken by the student.
The apprentice shall serve the master in spreading plaisters, letting blood in the arm, threading pease for issues, wetting instruments, scraping lint, and sowing together bandages, which he shall also learn to apply; he shall sec dissections, read good surgery, and see the practice of operations made by his superiors. He shall also see the apothe. caries make all such plaisters, unguents, balsams, &c. (learning to choose and know all the gums and other ingredients going into them) as are used in their practice.
Of the apothecary. The master-apothecary, being a most exquisite botanist, shall take care of the garden, that store of all useful plants be kept therein, and also that such as are for beauty or rarity be not wanting. He shall give order for all-experiments of grafting, transplanting, meliorating the tastes, smells, &c. of plants, accelerating of germination and maturation in them, conservation of exoticks so, as in time to make them domesticks, to try the effect of all artificial composts. He shall see that all herbs, roots, &c. be gathered in their due seasons, and that all the most proper courses be used for conserving them. He shall write of the sensible and evident qualities of all drugs, as of their smell, taste, ponderosity, rarity, friability, transparency, colour, hardness, &c. omitting such as are not discernible by sense, or deprensible by certain experiments, and declaring the several operations, chymical or pharmaceutical, by which these drugs are usually, or may be best prepared. He shall set down all the experiments solitary or in consort, that he' meeteth with, in the mixing or preparing any of them; as that camphire will of itself evaporate ; turpentine washed in water becometh white; euphorbium in the beating will cause excessive sneesing; that the seeds of cucumis asininus will of themselves leap out with great impetuosity one after another; that spirit of vitriol, mixed with syrup of violets, turneih into a fair crimson colour, and others of the like nature. He shall with the student keep an exact history of all rare and unusual accidents, happening in his operations; he shall take care that all medicaments be made according to art, or the physician's particular directions: he shall ever now and then visit the apotheca, to cast out thereof all decayed drugs and compositions; shall read pharmaceutical and chymical institutions to his inferiors, and teach the plants to any of the society that shall desire to learn them.
The apothecary's mate shall transcribe the prescriptions taken by the vice-physician, and see them carefully made up; shall attend the hos.' pital, in administring to each patient his physick according to directions, applying epithemes, cucupha's, embrocha's, fomentations, frica tious, unctions, giving glysters, applying leeches, &c. He shall tran-. scribe the history compiled by the master-apothecary, and the student, and at leisure times, when he cannot study things, he may read good authors in his own art, without meddling either with physick or surgery
The apprentice shall read some good pharmaceutical botanick and chymical institutions, shall be much conversant in the garden to see the curing of tender and exotick plants, where he shall observe the working of nature in their growing, flowering, &c. He shall see the herbs, roots, and seeds, gathered according to directions; he shall work in beating and picking drugs, and on all other operations belonging to the preparation of medicaments,
The nurses shall be always at hand in the hospital to help the sick, that, by reason of their absence, they may not be put to strain and offend themselves by often and loud crying and calling. They shall dress their diet, and give them in quality, quantity, time, and order, according to the physician's directions; they shall see their linnen conveniently changed, so as to prevent all annoyance to the sick. They shall in watching endeavour to observe all remarkable accidents happening in the night, as whether they raved or talked much in their sleep, snored, coughed, &c. All which they shall punctually report to the physician, shewing him the urines and other excrements, telling him the time and manner wherein they were voided, and in brief, they being the lowest members of the house, they shall be in all things obedient to their superiors.
It is hard so to assign to every minister his particular duty, as that the business, (which is the recovery of the patients, and the improvement of every man's knowledge in his proper way) cannot be done better than by this distribution: and it would be of ill consequence, if hereupon the apprentice, having done his own work, should refuse to help his
fellow, being perchance at some time over-burthened; wherefore it is to be understood that this contrivance shall be no warrant to any man, not to help his fellow, in case of exigence, but chiefly to shew what we desire should be done amongst them all. For we hope that their conmon friendship and desire of helping the sick, and enabling themselves, will tie them enough to perform all these things in the most advantageous manner to these ends.
Having now after a fashion gone through the description of such societies and institutions, as we have thought most fit for the advancement of real learning, and among the rest, of the Ergastulum Literarium for the education of children, we now come to speak of such books, as, being well studied and expounded in those schools, would lay a very firm foundation of learning in the scholars.
We recommend therefore in the first place (besides those books of collection, by us formerly mentioned, and Master Pell's three mathematical treatises) the compiling of a work, whose title might justly be
Vellus Aureum sive Facultatum Lucriferarum Descriptio magna, wherein all the practised ways of getting a subsistence, and whereby men raise their fortunes, may be at large declared. And, among these, we wish that the history of arts or manufactures might first be undertaken as the most pleasant and profitable of all the rest, wherein should be described the whole process of manual operations and applications of one natural. thing, (which we cail the elements of artificials) to another, with the necessary instruments and machines, whereby every piece of work is elaborated, and made to be what it is; unto which work bare words being not sufficient, all instruments and tools must be pictured, and colours added, when the descriptions cannot be made intelligible without them.
This history must not be made out of a farrago of imperfect relations made to the compiler, either by too rude or cozening workmen, but all things thereunto appertaining must be by himself observed and at : tested by the most judicious and candid of each respective profession, as well to make the work the more authentick (it being to be the basis of many future inferences and philosophations) as the more clearly and distinctly to inform the compiler himself, by whose judgment as the alembick, and industry as the fire, it is hoped that the quintessence and magisteries of all present inventions may be extracted, and new ones produced in abundance.
Although it be intended to teach the making of all artificials, yet it is not to be understood, that when there hath been taught how to make a stool, or a nail of one fashion, that the art of making a chair or a nail of another fashion should be long insisted on. But the compiler should strive to reduce the making of all artificials in each trade to a certain nuinber and classes of operations, tools, and materials ; neither need he to set the figures, or mention the names of all artificials that ever were made, but only of such as are most known, and of common use amongst inen; he needeth not to describe every punctilio in making all the afore-mentioned particulars, and yet leave no more defects, than may be supplied by every common understanding. For we question whether (if he should engage himself in such an endless labour) a man by the bare light and instruction of the book could attain to a dexterous practice of trade, whereunto hath been required seven years autopsia: but are confident that the help of this book will lessen the former tædium by more than half. He should not so abridge the work as not to distinguish between instruments of the same name, as between a loom, to weave kersies, and another, wherein to weave silk ribbans or stockings.
He should all along give the mechanical reason of every instrument, material, and operation, when the same is sensible and clear. He should all along note his own defects in setting down these histories, in case he had not at the time of writing thereof sufficient information, and withal the deficiencies of the trades themselves.
Now, whereas there be divers ways and methods of working most manufactures, he should in cach thing stick close to the way of some one master, but note all the diversities he knoweth, and give his opinion of the use and goodness of each.
Moreover the neconomy, sive ars, augendæ rei familiaris, in all pro. fessions, ought to be enquired into, viz. What seasons of the year are most proper to each work, which the best places and times to buy materials, and to put off the commodities when finished; how most thriftily to hire, entertain, and oversee servants and workmen : how to dispose of every excrement and refuse of materials, or of broken, worn, or otherwise unserviceable tools and utensils, with all cauteles, impose tures, and other sleights, good or bad, whereby men use to over-reach one another,
There ought to be added to this work many and various indexes, besides the alphabetical ones, as namely one of all the artificials mentioned in the whole work.
Another of all the natural materials or elements of artificials, by what artificers used, from whence they come, where to be had, and what are the ordinary and middle prices of them.
Another of all the qualities or schemes of matter, as of all liquefiable things, viscid, friable, heavy, transparent, abstersive, or otherwise qualified, according to all the classes of 1, 2, and 3 qualities, to the end that materials for all intentions and experiments may be at hand and in sight.
Another of all operations mentioned in the whole work, as sawing, hewing, filing, boring, melting, dissolving, turning, beating, grinding, boiling, calcining, knitting, spinning, sowing, twisting, &c. To the end that they all may be at hand for the purposes aforesaid. Another of all tools and machines, as files, saws, chissels, sheers, sieves, looms, shuttles, wheels, wedges, knives, screws, &c. for the same purpose also.
The compiler ought to publish all his conjectures, how old inventions may be perfected and new ones produced, giving directions how to try the truth of them.' So that by all those unto whose hands these books shall come, perchance, all the said suppositions inay be tried, and the success reported to the compiler himself.
The compiler's first scope in inventions shall be, how to apply all materials that grow in abundance in this kingdom, and whereof but inconsiderable use and profits are as yet made, to more advantage to the common-wealth. And also how all impotents, whether only blind, or only lame, and all children of above seven years old might earn their bread, and not be so long burdensome to their parents and others.
There should be made a preface to the work to teach men how to make the most of experiments, and to record the successes of them whatsoever, whether according to hopes or no, all being equally luciferous, although not equally lucriferous.
There ought to be much artifice used, that all the aforementioned indexes may handsomely refer one to another, that all things contained in the whole book may be most casily found, and most readily attend the'seekers of new inventions.
The way to accomplish this work must be to enquire what to this purpose is already done, or in hand, in all places, and also by whom, so that communication of counsels and proceeding, may, (if possible) be had with those undertakers.