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'sure guides and helps to reason, and especial remedies for a volatile and unsteady mind.
That effectual courses be taken to try the abilities of the bodies and minds of children, the strength of their memory, inclination of their affections either to vice or virtue, and to which of them in particular; and, withal, to alter what is bad in them, and increase and improve what is good, applying all, whether good or bad, to the least inconveniency, and most advantage.
That such as shall have need to learn foreign languages (the use whereof would be much lessened, were the real and common characters brought into practice) may be taught by incomparably more easy ways, than are now usual.
That no ignoble, unnecessary, or condemned part of learning be taught in those houses of education; so that, if any man shall vainly fall upon them, he himself only may be blamed.
That such as have any natural ability and fitness to musick, be encouraged and instructed therein.
That all children, though of the highest rank, be taught some gentech manufacture in their minority ; such as are,
Turning of curious figures.
Making mathematical instruments, dials, and how to use them in astronomical observations.
Making watches and other trochilick motions.
Engraving, etching, carving, embossing, and moulding in sundry matters.
The lapidary's art of knowing, cutting, and setting jewels.
3. They will certainly bring to pass most excellent works, being, as gentlemen, ambitious to excel ordinary workmen.
4. They, being able to make experiments themselves, may do it with less charge, and more care, than others will do it for them.
5. The respublica artium will be much advanced, when such, as are rich and able, are also willing to make luciferous experiments. 6. It may engage
em to be Mecænates and patrons of arts. 7. It will keep them from worse occasions of spending their time and estates.
8. As it will be a great ornament in prosperity, so it will be a great refuge and stay in adversity and common calamity.
As for what remains of education, we cannot but hope, that those whom we have desired should make it their trade, will supply it, and render the idea thereof much more perfect.
We have already recommended the study of the elements of arithmctick and geometry to all men in general ; but they being the best grounded parts of speculative knowledge, and of so vast use in all practical arts, we cannot but commend deeper enquiries into them. And although the way of advancing them, in particular, may be drawn from what we have already delivered, concerning the advancement of learning in general; yet, for the more explicit understanding of our meaning herein, we refer to Mr. Pell's most excellent idea thereof, written to Master Hartlib.
In the next place, for the advancement of all mechanical arts and manufactures, we wish that there were erected a gymnasium mechanicum, or a college of tradesmen (or, for more expedition, until such a place could be built, that the most convenient houses, for such a purpose, niay be either bought or hired) wherein we would that one, at least, of every trade (but the prime most ingenious workman, the inost desirous to improve his art) might be allowed therein a handsome dwelling rent-free, which, with the credit of being admitted into this society, and the quick sale, which certainly they would have of their commodities, when all men would repair thither, as to a market of rare and exquisite pieces of workmanship, would be a sufficient motive to attract the very ablest of mechanicks, and such as we have described, to desire a fellowshipin this college.
From this institution we may clearly hope, when the excellent in all arts are not only neighbours, but intimate friends and brethren, united in a common desire and zcal to promote them, that all trades will miraculously prosper, and new inventions would be more frequent, than new fashions of cloaths and houshold-stuff. Here would be the best and most effectual opportunities and means, for writing a history of trades, in perfection and exactness; and what experiments and stuff would all those shops and operations afford to active and philosophical beads, out of which, to extract that interpretation of nature, whereof there is so little, and that so bad, as yet extant in the world?
Within the walls of this gymnasium, or college, should be a nosocomium academicum, according to the most exact and perfect idca thereof; a complete theatrum botanicum, stalls and cages for all strange beasts and birds, with ponds and conservatories for all exotick fishes; here all animals, capable thereof, should be made fit for some kind of labour and employment, that they may as well be of use living as dead. Here should be a repository of all kinds of raritiros, natural and artificial pieces of antiquity, models of all great and noble engines, with designs and platforms of gardens and buildings. The most artificial fountains and waterworks, a library of select books, an astronomical observatory for celestial bodies and metcors, large pieces of ground for several experiments of agriculture, galleries of the rarest paintings and statucs, with the fairest gobes, and geographical maps of the best descriptions, and so far as is possible, we would have this place to be the rpitome or abstract of the whole world : So that a man, conversant within those walls, would certainly prove a greater scholars than the walking libraries so called, al. though he could neither write nor read. But if a child, before he learned to write or read, were made acquainted with all things, and actions, as he might be in this college, how easily would he understand all good books afterwards, and smell out the fopperies of bad ones ? As for the situation, model, policy, and oeconomy, with the number of officers, and retainers to this college, and the privileges thereof, it is as yet time enough to delineate. Only we wish, that a society of men might be instituted as careful to advance arts, as the jesuits are to propagate their religion, for the government and managing of it.
But what relish will there be in all those dainties whereof we have spoken, if we want a palate to taste them, which certainly is health, the most desirable of all earthly blessings; and how can we, in any reason, expect health, when there are so many great difficulties in the curing of diseases, and no proportionable course taken to remove them? We shall therefore pursue the means of acquiring the publick good, and comfort of mankind a little further, and vent our conceits concerning a nosocomium academicum, or an hospital to cure the infirmities both of physician and patient.
We intended 10 have given the most perfect idea of this nosocomium academicum, and consequently to have treated of the situation and fabrick of the house, garden, library, chynical laboratory, anatomical theatre, apotheca, with all the instruments and furniture belonging to cach of them, as also of the whole policy and oeconomy thereof. But since such a work could not be brought to pass without much charge (the very naming whercof doth deter men even from the most noble and necessary attempts) we are contented to portrait only such a nosocomium, as may be made out of one of our old hospitals, without any new donations or creeping to benefactors, only with a little pains taken by the reforming band of authority. For we do not doubt, but that we have so contrived the business, that there is no hospital, in its corrupt state, can be more thrittily managed than nurs. For the number of our ministers are no greater than usual, and absolutely necessary; their pensions no larger than are allowed to those, who do not make the service of the hospital the sixth part of their employment and means of subsistence; and yet we give encouragement enough to able men to undertake it, without meddling with any other business, which we strictly forbid. For, as the salaries are but small, so the charge of the ministers are not great, they being all to be unmarried persons, their accommodation handsome, their employment, being a work of publick and honest charity, honourable, and to philosophical men, who only are to have a hand in this business, most pleasant and delightful. Besides, when their respective times are expired, their profit and esteem in the world cannot but be very great: for their way of breeding will both procure them practice amongst such as are able to reward them, and give them a dexterity and ability, to manage and go through a great deal thereof.
Moreover, the smallness of the salary, the long servitude amongst poor wretches, and restraint from marriages, the great pains and natural parts required to perform duties, will, I hope, prevent all intrusions of those, whose genius doth not incline them to take pleasure in this way of life.
Wherefore, being not at leisure to frame Utopia's, we shall only speak of the number and salary of ministers, the time of their service, with their qualifications in general, and duties in particular, which are to be employed in this nosocomium academicum.
The nosocomium, being fitted with all nianner of necessaries, shall be overseen by three or four curators, men of learning, honour, and worth, such as shall, out of charity, and goodwill to the publick, perform ihis trust, who are to be protectors and chancellors thereof, as also auditors of the steward's accounts.
Besides these, there shall be a mathematician for steward, a physician, surgeon, and apothecary, each well versed, both in the theory and practice, of their respective professions. A young physician, capable at least of the degree of doctor, who may be called the vicephysician, and another of about five or six years standing in the univer. sity, who may be called the student. There should be also a surgeon and an apothecary, who have served their apprenticeships in the said faculties, called the surgeon's and apothecary's mate, with two other young men, the one to serve the surgeon, and the other the apothecary, all understanding, at least, the Latin tongue, which may be called the apprentices. All these are to be chosen, at first, by the curators, but afterwards by the society itself, being such as they shall be certified are pious, ingenious, laborious, lovers of knowledge, and particularly of the faculty of physick, courteous, not covetous; and lastly, such amongst whom there may be an harmony of natures and studies, so as all fear of discords, envy, and emulation may be taken away. There ought also to be entertained as many honest, careful, ancient widows, to serve as nurses to the sick, as will be proportionable to their number, some whereof are to be ordinary, and some extraordinary, whereof the latter may
be taken in, and dismissed again, as occasion of their help requires.
There should be allowed out of the revenues of the hospital to the aforenamed ministers, besides their diets, house-room, washing, firing, &c. and exemption from all taxes and employments in the commonwealth, the several sums following, viz.
To the steward
80 To the physician
120 To the vice-physician
50 To the surgeon & apothec. each 60
£ per An. To the student
25 To the surgeon & apothec. mate 20 To each of the apprentices
10 To each ordinary nurse
4 To an extraordinary by the week 3 shillings. It should be granted by the state, that whosoever hath served his respective time in the nosocomium, and hath a certificate thereof from the society, shall be thereby licensed to practise his profession in any place or corporation whatsoever, notwithstanding any former law to the contrary.
The steward shall not be obliged to stay any longer, than from year to year. Each of the faculty of physick may serve five years in each degree thereof, each of the surgeons and apothecaries but four.
These circumstances being premised, we now come to the very essence of the whole business; that is, to the description of each of the aforesaid ministers, their particular duty and function, which are as follow, viz.
The steward shall be a man of approved honesty, able to give order for all reparations about the house, garden, &c. to agree and bargain with workmen, and all that shall serve in any commodities into the house; he is to receive and pay all monies, and submit the. accounts thereof to the whole society, and they again to the curators.
For which, and other like duljes, he ought to be skilled in mathematicks; chiefly in arithmetick and keeping accounts; measuring of land, tinber, hoard, architecture, frugal contrivances, and the like. But, as
, to the advancement of physick, we desire he may be skilled in the best rules of judicial astrology, which he may apply to calculate the events of diseases, and prognosticate of the weather; to the end that, by his judicious and careful experiments, the wheat may be separated from the chaff in that faculty likewise ; and what is good therein may be applied to good uses, and the rest exploded. He shall keep a journal of all notable changes of weather, and fertility of seasons, taking notice what fruits, &c. have abounded, and what have failed; which have been good, and which bad, with the reasons thereof, whether the same were caused by mildews, blasts, unseasonable weather, caterpillars, or other vermin; he shall take notice of the several diseases, as staggers, murrain, rot, &c. which, in each year, have infested each species of animals, and what insects have most abounded; all which particulars, with the epidemical diseases befalling man, he may compare with the aspects of the celestial bodies, and so examine the precepts delivered unto us by the professors of that art.
The physician must be a philosopher, skilled at large in the phænomena of nature; must understand the Greek tongue, be well read in good authors, and seen in the practice of all the ministrant parts of physick, willing to instruct and forward all that are under him: his work shall be twice every day deliberately to visit and examine all the sick, and, after due consideration of their condition, to prescribe them convenient medicines; and shall dictate, in Latin, to the vice-physician attending him, the history of their several diseases, excluding impertinencies; he shall see all patients in outward griefs (to whom he administreth any inward remedies) opened and dressed every now-and-then, to the end that himself and the surgeon may both have the same intention and scope in their practice. He must take care that the surgeon and student keep the history of their cures likewise, and that the apothecary and student do the same in their pharmacy and botanicks. He shall oversee the dispensation of all compound, and preparation of all chymical medicaments, giving the apothecary directions for the making of new enquiries and experiments in his way; and likewise to the surgeon and the rest, in theirs, when he seeth them not otherwise employed. In brief, he shall have an iufluence upon all the rest, and all the rest