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OF

Iniversal Literature

A BIOGRAPHICAL AND BÆBLIOGRAPHICAL
SUMMARY OF THE WORLD'S MOST EME
NENT AUTHORS, INCLUDING THE
CHOICEST EXTRACTS AND MASTER
PIECES FROM THEIR WRITINGS

CAREFULLY REVISED AND ARRANGID BY A
CORPS OF THE MOST CAPABLE SCHOLARS

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

John Clark Ridpath, A.M., LL.D.
Editor of “ The Arena," Author of " Ridpath's
History of the United States," “ Easyolo.
pedia of Universal History,'

Races of Mankind," cit.,

* Great

etc.

Edition de Lure

TWENTY-FIVE VOLUMES

Vol. XIII.

FIFTH AVENUE LIBRARY SOCIETY

NEW YORK

COPYRIGHT, 1899 BY THE GLOBE PUBLISHING COMPANY

KEY TO PRONUNCIATION.

sound is variable to, and in ordinary utterance actually becomes, the short 10 sound (of but, pun, etc.). Thus: a as in errant, republican.

as in prudent, difference. i as in charity, density. o as in valor, actor, idiot. Ä as in Persia, peninsula. į, as in the book. ll as in nature, feature.

e

a as in fat, man, pang. ā as in fate, mane, dale. ä as in far, father, guard. å as in fall, talk. á as in ask, fast, ant. à as in fare.

as in met, pen, bless. ē as in mete, meet. ė as in her, fern. i as in pin, it. រ as in pine, fight, file. o as in not, on, frog. Ő as in note, poke, floor. ö as in move, spoon. ô as in nor, song, off u as in tub ū as in mute, acute. ů as in pull. ü German ü, French u. oi as in oil, joint, boy. ou as in pound, proud.

A mark ( - )under the consonants t, d, s, z indicates that they in like manner are variable to ch, j, sh, zh.

Thus: $ as in nature, adventure. das in arduous, education. $ as in pressure. ?

as in seizure. у

as in yet. B Spanish b (medial). ch as in German ach, Scotch loch.

as in German Abensberg, Hamburg. H Spanish g before e and i; Spanish j;

G

A single dot under a vowel in an unaccented syllable indicates its abbreviation and lightening, without absolute loss of its distinctive quality. Thus: à as in prelate, courage. ē as in ablegate, episcopal. © as in abrogate, eulogy, democrat. ♡ as in singular, education.

A double dot under a vowel in an unaccented syllable indicates that, even in the mouths of the best speakers, its

etc. (a guttural h). n French nasalizing n, as in ton, en. S final s in Portuguese (soft). th as in thin. PH as in then. D=FH.

denotes a primary," a secondary accent. (A secondary accent is not marked if at its regular interval of two syllables from the primary, or from another sec ondary.)

6201.88

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