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her maternal duties; and, 2d, Either false pride, or an indisposition to be burdened with the care of her offspring. Both of these conditions exist in this, as in all large cities, and we are not a little surprised that an educated physician should have failed to recognize them. The first unquestionably renders the practice, to a limited extent, a necessity; the second springs from that social refinement which sets at naught all natural laws, and renders life, as far as possible, entirely artificial. The former of these causes, we are inclined to believe, leads to the employment of the wet-nurse in the majority of instances in this community, though the latter exerts an influence to no inconsiderable extent. We have before us a paper on "The Practice of Hiring Wet-Nurses considered as it affects Public Health and Public Morals," which was presented to the "National Association for the Promotion of Social Science," England, in 1859, by M. L. Baines. The evils of wet-nursing are here presented in a two-fold light: 1st, moral and social; and 2d, physical. The former grow out of the employment of fallen women, a practice urged by a class of philanthropists, but which can not be too severely condemned, not only on account of its immoral tendencies, but also of the physical evils that are liable to be entailed upon the nurseling by the imbibition of constitutional proclivities to disease. The latter evils result both to the child of the nurse, which is either put out to an inferior nurse,

or is hand-fed; and to the child which she assumes to nurse, owing to its deprivation of maternal milk. It is stated by this writer that, "It may be fairly assumed that the children of wetnurses form a very large proportion of those who die prematurely." We are not prepared to indorse this, as a general statement, but we have the most undoubted proof of the great mortality among foundlings in this city; while they were put out to nurse, nearly one-half died annually. It appears also that out of every one hundred children in Paris, nursed by their mothers, eighteen die in the first year, while of those wetnursed, twenty-nine die. The practice of employing wet-nurses, therefore, can but be considered an evil, and one which is destined doubtless to increase in the ratio of our increase in wealth and luxury. What is the remedy? The entire responsibility of resisting its progress rests with the medical profession. We should endeavor to remove the causes of the evil, by inducing mothers to rear their own children by the means that nature has given them. The arguments which may be employed are too strong to be resisted, if kindly, conscientiously, and firmly presented by the medical attendant. If this duty were thoroughly discharged, in every instance, the system of wet-nursing would at once fall into disrepute, and the custom would truly become what Dr. Jarvis represented it, "almost unknown" in this country. In the comparatively few cases where

the mother is absolutely disqualified, it is still a question if artificial lactation, in the hands of a competent nurse, might not be preferable to wetnursing. But admitting that the wet-nurse must be obtained, the physician is still the adviser, and has it in his power to make the selection. And here occurs an important duty, which is almost invariably overlooked; if the wet-nurse has a child of her own, it is liable to be put aside without a care, or even thought, on the part of the employer. The physician should remember that, in providing a nurse for his patient, he is not less responsible for the life of the helpless human being which is set aside, and should insist that it be properly provided for. It is a most unjustifiable and inhuman act to condemn an infant to leave its mother and run the risks of bottle feeding for the sake of saving the life of another. No conscientious medical attendant could be a silent partner to such a crime. We have done little more than open this subject, but if we have succeeded in impressing upon even a single physician the importance of discharging a duty long neglected, our purpose has been accomplished.

X.

WOMAN AS PHYSICIAN.

A

BOUT twenty years ago the Faculty of a Medical College, in an interior town, was surprised by the receipt of a letter from a lady making application for admission as a medical student. The application was accompanied by testimonials of moral character, and proficiency in her studies, from a medical man of high standing. In their extremity the faculty determined to leave the question of her admission to the class, with the avowal that if one member dissented, the application of the lady student should be refused. A class meeting was held, and influenced by the novelty of the request, a unanimous approval was unhesitatingly given. Several days after, one of the professors, on entering the classroom, was accompanied by a short, thick-set young lady, with features expressive of decision, resolution, and energy, who took her seat upon the first tier, and without embarrassment began taking notes of the lecture. Time wore on, and though the first effects of the presence of the lady upon the class gradually passed away, still there was no time that her appearance a few minutes preceding the lecturer would not instantly hush

to perfect silence the most noisy and uproarious gathering of medical students which we ever met. She attended the lectures with scrupulous punctuality, and in the public examinations by the professors proved herself as capable as the best qualified students in attendance. She was absent but once during the term, and the occasion of this delinquency reflected creditably upon her character, and gained for her the admiration of the class. At the close of a lecture on the anatomy of the organs of generation, the professor read a letter from the lady-student, who had been refused admittance, administering a stern rebuke for his refusal to allow her to be present at these lectures, expressing her determination to attend the complete course, and modestly offering to take the highest seat in the theatre, and remove her bonnet, if thereby he would feel less embarrassed. She completed her course, and graduated with honor. Subsequently she visited the hospitals of Europe, and everywhere won the respect of the medical men whose acquaintance she made. On her return to this country she commenced general practice, but failing of success she opened a private hospital, which is now in active operation, and is doing good service among our medical institutions. Since that period considerable progress has been made in the education of female physicians; we have chartered medical schools for females exclusively, and also for males and females, while public opin

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