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To illustrate these important points, to shew how trade in general, and to the North of Europe in particular, may be combined and extended to the benefit of all parties; and, at the same time, how the disadvantage that would accrue from the loss and interruption of that trade might be made up to the United Kingdom, and the opportunities it would afford of introducing and extending various branches of manufactures, is one of the main designs of the work now offered to the public.

It appears to me particularly important to prove, that though our trade to the interior of the continent, by the North of Europe, be very beneficial, yet our trade to the northern nations themselves is far from being so; the Reader, therefore, will please to attend to the distinction between the one and the other.

The northern powers treat us, in our commercial intercourse, as if we were dependent upon them; when, in fact, theirs are the only branches of trade, the balance of which is considerably against us.


To set this matter in its proper light is among the particular objects of the present publication. And, as I attribute my knowledge of the subject not to superior abilities, but to peculiar advantages in point of local information, derived from a long residence abroad; so my aim has been to give useful information in the most intelligible form in my power, without pretending to any of the niceties of composition, to which I am conscious I have no pretensions.

This work I began last year, and in the progress, finding that many materials were wanting, I again visited the Continent, to procure authentic, more recent, and accurate information, on various points of importance.

The volume concludes with a short analysis of the whole of our foreign commerce, shewing, that, as it is liable to great Auctuations and changes, true policy directs us to study and cultivate those internal resources, which may counterbalance them, and preserve the prosperity

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of the facility of carrying on commerce with the interior of the continent, by means

of the Baltic Sea and the North of Germany, where it flourished earlier than in Eng-

land, France, or Holland ; illustrated with an account of the rise and progress of

commerce in those parts. -- Of the Hanseatic Towns. The armed neutrality of

1780. — The convention between the Northern Powers and Great Britain, in 1801.

The present state of those countries.



Of the Russian empire in general. - Its extent, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, and inte-

rior communication. - Its produce: 'iron, wood, hemp and flax, linens, tallow,

grain, &c.


Of the White Sea and its ports. Of Archangel and its trade. --- Its amount and ex-

ports, and in what it consists. -- The estiinate of ship-building there. - Prices of corn

for some time past, &c. &c.



Of the Baltic Sea, as connected with the Russian empire. - Its ports in that sea. — A

table shewing when they are open, and when they are shut by the frost. — The ac-

count of the shipping, &c. in 1797 and 1802. – Of the trade and navigation of all

the ports of Russia in the Baltic.



Of St. Petersburg, and Cronstadt, its port. — Its trade in 1800. — Produce brought

down the Neva, and by land to that capital. — Aggregate exportation from Peters-

burg. — Tables of the exports to Great Britain and Ireland. - To France, and to--

America. - To what places in 1804. — Account of exports and imports, with the

names of the mercantile houses, and amount of their transactions. The same with

different nations. - State of the customs. --Gold and silver imported. — Merchandize

of different sorts imported. - Ships arrived and sailed, from the foundation of that

city:— Exports in British and American ships, in 1804. - Table of the exchange,

proforma invoices. — Value of exports and imports from 1741 to the present




Of Riga.- Produce in which it principally trades: hemp and flax, wood and grain. -

Ships arrived, from 1703 to 1805. -- Specie imported. -- Aggregate exports. — Ex-

ports to Britain and Ireland; to France. - Imports and exports, specifying to what

nations the latter. - Total exports in 1804. – linports in the same year .



Of the different Russian ports in the Baltic : Fredericksham, Wyburg, Narva, Revel,

Hapsal, Arensburg, Pernau, Windau, and Liebau, with details of their exports,

. imports, and general trade. — Of the frontier trade, and that between the Baltic and

the Black Sea..



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page Of the Black Sea, and Sea of Azoph. --Their ports. -- Their trade. --Short history and

present state. --Ships employed in the coasting trade on those seas. – Of Odessa, its foundation, localities, rapid rise, and present state. --Table of the imports and exports by way of those seas. - Trade of those seas with Turkey. — Turkey trade with England by means of the Black Sea.

167 CHAP. IX. Of the Loan Banks. - Assignation and Aid Banks. - Discount Office. — Table of money ·lent on Russian produce. — College of Commerce. — The Brack. .

188 CHAP. X. Of the whole maritime commerce of Russia. - Table of ships of all nations trading to

that empire. — The same, specifying the particular ports. -- Vessels in the coasting trade of Russia. — General tables of the trade of that empire. — Table of the amount of exports and imports of the empire of Russia, from 1741 to 1805. -- Observations on the trade betwixt Britain and Russia.-- Table, shewing the amount of the trade between those two nations, from 1700 to 1801. -- The trade and navigation of Great Britain with Russia during 1800, 1801, and 1802. -- New duties on importation into Russia, fixed in 1805. .

200 BOOK II.

CHAP. I. Of Prussia in general. --- Its seas, haffs, and rivers, canals, produce, and manufactures, ..

212 CHAP. II. Of Memel.--Its trade and navigation in general.--Table of imports and exports, spe

cifying the articles, from 1797 to 1805; with calculations of the cost of the latter free on board, at certain prices and rates of exchange

020 CHAP. III. Of Konigsburg. — Its trade and navigation in general. — Tables of its imports and ex

ports, from 1795 to 1803 inclusive, and of the imports and exports separately, for 1804. - Its exports to France, Spain, and Portugal, from 1795 to 1805. --Its trade to Russia and the Black Sea. - Of Braunsburg and its trade

228 CHAP. IV. Of Elbing.-Its trade and navigation in general. - Tables of its imports and exports, froin 1793 to 1805. -- Its granaries, &c.

238 CHAP. V. Of Dantzic.-Its trade and navigation in general. — The interior trade to Austria and

Russia. - Wood and Grain, staple articles. -- Its granaries and warehouses described. - Grain exported in 1618, and from 1770 to 1803. - Table of the quantity of grain brought from the interior and exported betwixt the years 1796 and 1805, from this city: -- Fluctuation of Prices.-- Staves.-- Oak plank and timber trade. --- Ship building. - Ships arrived and sailed, from 1752 to 1805. - Tables of importation and exportation, from the year of its coming into the possession of Prussia, until 1805; and to France, Spain, and Portugal, from 1795 till 1805.

242 CHAP. VI. Of Stettin.--A general account of the trade and navigation by the river Oder.-Ca

nals joining the Oder and the Vistula, and the Oder and the Elbe. ---Of the transit trade to Austria: --Ship-building. - General table of exports and imports, from



1798 to 1804, distinguishing Great Britain, Ireland, and Ilolland, from all other places

266 CHAP. VII. Prussian. Pomerania. — The trade and navigation of Stolpe, Rugenwalde, Colberg,

Treptow, Cammin, Uckermunde, Anclam, Demmin, Swinenunde; their imports and exports, collectively

276 CHAP. VIII. Society for trade and navigation. -- Assurance company. - The Bank. — The deposit

office bureau. — The discount office and lombard. -- Banking business at Berlin. Bill and money exchange course there. - Trade betwixt Great Britain and Prussia, and amount of the inports and exports betwixt the two countries, including Poland, from 1700 to 1804. - State of the trade and navigation of Great Britain with Prussia, in the years 1800, 1801, and 1802 .



CILIP. I. Of Mecklenburg in general. - Its boundaries. - Its produce.-- Its former state. -- Its

great agricultural improvement. -- Its present state. -- And great exportation of grain,

285 CHAP. II. Of Rostoc. — Its local situation. — Ships belonging to it. — The trade they are chiefly

employed in. — The exportation in 1783 and 1784.- Present annual exportation of grain. - Moneys, weights, and measures, - Wismar; its localities, shipping, and exportation of grain

238 CHAP. III. Of Lubec. - Its convenient situation as an entrepôt betwixt the Baltic and the southern

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parts of Europe. - Its localities. -- Shipping belonging to the port; -- that which arrived and sailed for a series of years. - Canal from thence to the Elbe, and the merchandize conveyed upon it. - The road. between Hamburg and Lubec. – The manner in which imports and exports are sold.--- Moneys, weights, and measures , 291


CHAP. I. Of Sweden in general. -- Its boundaries and seas.

- Its boundaries and seas. — Its mines of iron, copper, gold, silver, and lead. - Its production in tar, pitch, and timber. - Manufactures, fishery, lakes, and canals.

. 297 CHAP. II. Of the distinction betwixt the old and the new staple towns of Sweden ; each specified. -Of Stockholm. Its localities. - Its manufactures. - Its exchange.-- Exports in 1803 and 1804. - Proforma invoices. — The moneys, weights, and measures.-Gothenburg. - Its trade. — Exports. Fishery. - Greenland company. --Station for British packets. — Gefle. — Its trade and exports. -- The same of Abo. — Swedish Pomerania, - Stralsund, newly-made free port. - Packets betwixt thence and Ystadt. — Grypswald. – Wolgast. — Barth. — Isle of Rugen. — Aggregate shipping of Sweden


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