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which he ridicules with great wit, the popular mythology and the philosophical sects, particularly his dialogues of the gods and of the dead. They have given him the character of one, if not the wittiest, of ancient writers.

Mela (Pomponius). A Spaniard by birth. He lived in the first century, and wrote a geographical work entitled De Situ Orbis, in three books, which has been furnished with notes by several distinguished men. The best editions are those of Holland, with the notes of Vossius and Gnonovius.

Michaelis, (John David), a very celebrated German theologian, especially remarkable for his immense acquaintance with the oriental languages. He died in 1791, at a great age.

Pausanias, a Greek topographical writer, who flourished during the reign of Adrian and Antoninus Pius. If he be the grammarian who is mentioned under this name, he was a native of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, and studied under the celebrated Herodes Atticus. He taught at Athens and afterwards at Rome, where he died. His account of Greece, a kind of journal of his travels, in which he describes everything remarkable, temples, theatres, tombs, statues, pictures, etc., is a valuable work for the antiquarian. The work, however, is full of fables, which are connected with the works he describes: but the most implicit confidence, it is generally admitted, may be put in Pausanias where he speaks as an eye-witness. The French translation of Clavier, contains the Greek text and notes in seven volumes; 1814, 1821.

Polyhistor, (Alexander), a Greek historian and philologist, who lived in the time of Sylla and Marius, and is said by Suidas to have been born at Mitelum, but by Stephanus, to be of Cotyæum, in the present Natolia. He was surnamed Cornelius, because having been made prisoner, he was purchased by Cornelius Lentulus, who becoming aware of his merits, became his disciple. He was by him manumitted, married at Rome, and perished in the fire of Laurentium, eighty-six years before Christ.

Porphyry, (Malchus). A Platonic philosopher, who lived about the end of the third century of our era. Jerom makes him to be a Jew, but others tell us that he was of Tyre, that his first name was Malchus, which in the Syrian language signifies a king, and that the sophist Longinus, his master in rhetoric, called him Porphyrius, in allusion to the purple which kings bear. He wrote a work of the lives of philosophers, of abstinence from flesh, and an explication of the categories of Aristotle. He composed also fifteen books against the Christian religion, which however Augustine and some others tell us that he once professed. He was answered by Methodius. bishop of Tyre, and Eusebius afterwards had his books burnt, in 388.

Stephanus Byzantinus was an expert grammarian, who lived in the fifth and sixth centuries. He composed a dictionary, wherein he inserted the nouns adjective, derived from the nouns substantive of places, which served to denote the inhabitants of those places. This was attended with many observations borrowed from mythology and history, which discovered the origin of cities and colonies and their changes, whereby the author equally showed his exactness and learning. We have only a very incorrect abridgment of that work, which the grammarian Hermolaus thought fit to make, and which is dedicated to the emperor Justinianus; but in spite of the ignorance of the abbreviator and transcribers, it has proved very useful to the learned, who thought that no ancient book did better deserve to be corrected and explained in a critical way. It appeared in Latin, 1678, at Amsterdam, and ten years later a new edition at Leyden. Suidas. A Greek grammarian, who lived according to some in the eleventh century, according to others in the tenth. He wrote an Encyclopædia, particularly relating to geographical and historical subjects, which though not altogether accurate, is yet important, as it contains many things not to be found elsewhere. A good edition of this work appeared in 1705, by Kuster, Cambridge.

Tatian. An Herisiarch of the second century, a Syrian by birth, and a disciple of Justin Martyr. He was looked upon at first as very orthodox, and employed his talents for Christianity; for Origen quotes a book of his in defence of the Christians against the heathens, which is now extant; yet there are some doctrines in this treatise, which have been deemed false. Tatian returned to the east after the death of Justin, and became the chief of the Encratites, condemned marriage, and advocated many absurdities. He composed a harmony of the four evangelists entitled Diatessaron, wherein he left out the proof of Christ's humanity.

Theophrastus. A philosopher, son of Melancthus. He first was a disciple of Lucippus, then of Plato, and at last of Aristotle, who changed his name Tyrtanus to Theophrastus, on account of his divine eloquence. He succeeded this philosopher, and composed several treatises mentioned by Diogenes Laertius. His characters of virtues and vices are translated very excellently by M. de la Bruyere. Cicero says that at his death, he expostulated with nature for making stags and ravens long lived, who needed it not at all; and the life of man so short, who could improve a longer life in rendering themselves more perfect in all sorts of literature and arts.

Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria, about 385, was so much considered for his learning, that he was in 389 ordered to decide the difference between Evagrius and Flavian, both ordained bishops of Antioch. He wrote against the Origenists and Anthropomorphites, and about the day of celebrating Easter.



"Who dares think one thing, and another tell,
My heart detests him as the gates of hell."

It is now about twenty years since I conceived the idea of composing an historical work. But in the midst of many other avocations, it was not until after the lapse of more than ten years, I found leisure to engage myself directly on the task of writing a work of this description. I then began to collect materials for a history of modern times, visiting, during some years, several foreign countries, and making myself acquainted, not only with many of the most eminent men of the age, but also mingling with the masses of the people. It is the historian's duty to gather knowledge from every source. The wish, however, to make my readers familiar with the history of the human race, from its infancy to the present time, has given birth to this more extensive work. The form in which this has been accomplished may be objectionable to many readers; still I shall be satisfied if no other fault is found with it. I frankly confess, however, that I anticipate many heavier charges will be made, to some of which I may be compelled to plead guilty.

The bold censures I have passed upon the prejudices and superstitions of mankind; the severity with which I have treated the disgraceful artifices, and ridiculous pretensions of princes, priests, and aristocrats ; together with my vindication of the people's rights, and of the free sway of their reasoning faculties; cannot but raise many enemies against this work and its author. These reflections, with the importance and sublimity of the work itself, has, at times, made me doubt the propriety of offering my thoughts to the public; but, convinced that my readers will find that I have had the promulgation of truth for my chief object, and that no pusillanimous fear of human enmity and criticism has


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