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hardihood of character and his in- and still more of his fancy, accomHerible adherence to truth,' then he was panied, as he thinks, by a greater shamefully ill-treated by those and knowledge of nature, arising from an other papers, of which, it seems, he uncommon sagacity of mind.' How spoke nothing but the fact, and their a man can have only much of Burke's panegyrics recoil with all the force of wisdom,' and yet a greater knowcontrast on their own heads. The truth ledge of nature.' is not easily reconis however, that as Mr. Windham's cileable. If Mr. Windham had as freaks can no longer annoy them, niuch knowledge of men and things they are willing to make what use of as Mr. Burke, be certainly did not him they can, and to play off his me- apply it with such equability and Inory against their political oppo- strength; and in the loftier parts of nents. The whigs exalt him because eloquence, the pathetic, the dignified, he ranked among the opposition; the the poetical, he had no feature like ministerialists exalt him because he him. The other objection, that Mr. opposed every step towards reform; Windhan's style was too metaphysical, and both of them are the more in- is equally well-founded to a certain cliped to forget his errors and cherish extent, though the writer just quoted his reputation, because he treated the says it has been made without any public with a contenipt which they determinate meaning of the word, and ihemselves affect as a counteraction denies the charge to be just if it to public opinion.

means that Mr. Windham was pe“When Mr. Windham is praised dantic in argumentation, or too fond for his wit and readiness, for his elo- of referring to generiel principles. The quence, and for the fortitude with term metaphysical, however, seems to which he met a painful death, these have been used on this occasion in are so many praise-worthy facts which the sense in which Johnson applies it we all acknowledge and admire. His to Cowley aud other poets, who pre. eloquence, as Mr. Canning has well ferring subtiety to solidity, beaped ohserved, “if it was not always coin, together masses of incongruous ideas, manding, was always iosinuating.'. It and in a word, rendered every thing delighted in familiar illustration, subordinate to the display of wit. In Strick a forcible avd sparkling light tliis sense of the word Mr. Windham spon the ridiculous side of things, was certainly apt to be too metaphyand underneath a surface of levitysical, that is to say, too exuberant of possessed a considerable fund of in- his fancy and his conceits; and formation. One of the principal ob- though this encreased the effect of his jections to Mr. Windham's cloquence, ridicule by throwing it's objects into that it's familiarity had too great a every possible situation of aukwardtendency to vulgawty, is well founded, ness, it never left bis mind leisure for and more particularly so, because this a more regular and strong tow of yulgarity was not consistent with the reasoniug, on great questions. rest of his eloquence,-had not a flow was heard with attention, but it was uniformly Hudibrastic~but came ab- an attention more expectant of amuse, ruptly upon the hearers in the midst ment than of instruction. His deof better words and better manners. livery, though monotonous, displayed This fault, together with many beau- a frankness and a grace, that seemed ties, be is said to have caught from the result of natural habit, and was imitating Burke. It is certainly one calculated to attract even the eye of of the faults of that great orator, but an artist :-that it was studied, how. Dot in such a degree as betrayed ever, is apparent from the story lately by Mr. Windham, whose imitation of told in the Political Register ; and it Burke, like the imitation of Milton was a study that did bonour to his and Shakspeare by others, seems to good sense, for delivery is the stamp have consisted rather in faults than of persuasion. beauties. A weekly writer, who has * Of bis moral qualities, the estirevertheless given the best-written mation, to say the least of it, is not so and I believe the most disinterested easy, He is praised for the firmness account of Mr. Windhamn, tells us of his opinions, and his freedom from Liat' he had much of Burke's wisdom, party-spirit; but firmness is only


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right or wrong according to the nature all ambitious men who cannot be of the opinion, and party-spirit does greatly original, be contrived to be not always regard men; it's attachment greatly singular: he was always look. is sometimes to measures, and yet by ing for some principle which he called no means the less selfish or pernicious geveral, in order to oppose it to what on that account.

may be termed the cardinal princi“Though a man may tie himself to ples: his talent lay in exception; and no personal party in a state, there is, let the proposition which he was to if I may so speak, a party in morals, combat have been ever so general, so to which he may adbere, with a shew true, and so useful, be did nothing of political indeperdence, but in fact but seize the wrong side, brought all with a greater artifice and siavishness. the light he could to bear on that Of thuis description are the wretched quarter, and seemed to be happy in politicians, who by likening all human perplexing if he could not persuale, kind to themselves, treat the most But give liim a wrong principle, and exalted feelings as so many chimäras, he would injie as heartily to maintain and are prepared to resist public virive it, as he stood aloof to oppose a right as an impostor or a nonentity. Such one. Of bis philosopbic views in a man knows well enough, that he foreign policy, there cannot be a more shall not only have the good word of sorry instance than his encouragement the contending parties in government, of our disastrous war with France,--a but that he will also have their in- war forbidden by the position, chaterest whenever it suits hin, inas- racter, and renovated mird of France, much as his doctrines are favourable by the corruption and imbecility of to every species of corruption. When the nations around her, by all his. Mr.Windham therefore is panegyrized torical experience, and by all just - both by the ministerialists and the knowledge of human nature ;-awar, oppositionists, by the corrupt in power which wis undertaken for the mainand the corrupt out of power, the tenance of civil tyranny, and by the panegyric, so far from giving a fa- natural progress of opposition has vourable colour to his memory, ren- produced a military one ;—which was ders us doubly suspicious of the qua- undertaken to obtain the balauce of lities which can be praised by such power in our own hands, and has lost men at such a time. A public cha- it to those of the enemy; which, in a racter, of acknowledged acquirements word, was undertaken to make France and with the power to be independent, liitle, and has ended in making ber should be judged by a high standard great. It was in the true spirit of nf principle; we should ask whether such policy, perplexed as it was every he possessed a spirit of thinking en- day with fresh 'difficulties and renlarged as well as subile; whether he dered stubborn and unteclin», that Mr. understood and could apply to a large Windham projected the sanguinary scale of action the great general prin- 'expedition to Quibero!, ---onect those ciples upon whicli society itself is measures which tend to degrade the - built; whether he founded politics English character in reality is well on morals and the great interests of as in reputation, and which ought to mankind and not on coruption and make their proposers blush in conthe petty interests of individuals; and demning the enemy whom they imi. in fine, whether be himself set a plii. tate. His views of national spirit and losophic example of such principles, morality betrayed as little foundation and carried unpolluted into private in reason and knowledge of mankind. the radiance of public virtue. Judged To defend prize fighting, and to dilter by such a standard, or even by one with some of the provisions of Lond much inferior, the merits of Mr. Erskine's Animal Cruelly Bill, may Windham, I am afraid, wil be found be owing to the common differences to be something worse than superficial. of opinion on those subjects, to a disHe has been praised for referring to like of suffering law to entrench 100 general principle, and has been com. much upon conscience, and to a cer. jared to Burke in this instance with tain strange and ill-defined idea of the as little justice as in eloquence and national spirit; but I know not what moral feeling. The truth is, that like excuse, or what colour of excuse,

either in manliness or common feel- short-sighted, and feelings at best so ing, can be made for the studious suspicious, could not be a desirable defender of bull-baiting, a practice acquisition to any good cause; and despicable from its safety and horrible whatever the corruptionists may think for its unmixed cruelty, a mere en- of his frierdship, he did more service joyment of torture, for which I think to the cause of reform by keeping out There could hardly bave been found of it, than if he had brought it all the another regular advocate, besides Mr. weight of his character and the sen. Windhain, unless they had sent 10 sibility of his conscience. The rethe inquisition for one of its familiars, formists therefore took little notice of When the lower orders enter into his vagaries: they merely gave him to such an amusement, we trace half understand now and then that they their enjoyment to their ignorance, knew hiin; and when he talked of and want of feeling loses half its hor- opposing Mr. Curwen's bill because! for in want of thought; but when a it was a step to what they called reman, habituated to polished society form, and represented modern paand adorned with its accomplish- triotism as a crime just above that of ments, exhibits a taste so otterly de. crimping, they regarded these attacks pravedl - a moral feeling so completely but as so many ferocious jokes, as distorted, one can only suppose that harmless as they were snarling, and he had exhausted the common enjoy- only shewing thai he could not coninents of a human being, and sought ceive such a feeling as patriotism in for pleasure in what was painiul and himself. It was ludicrous enough, diaggsing to the majority of his fel- that at the moment he was deriding low-creatures. It is urged, that Mr. all public virtue, he should be clainiWindlam, on these occasions, suc, ing it for himself in a manner as sinceded in persuading bis auditors not gular as it was obstinate. Uuluckily, to interfere with the 'recreacions' of bis eccentricitv led bim into a fault of the lover orders. He did so: he per. which he had hitherto heen too politic suaded them, to use the language of to be guilty, that of abusing the moEis papeyvrists, otherwise they would tires of sorie of his best friends. He

confound the objerts of morals and attacked the reporters, whom he releislation, of conscience and iaw;' – presented as fellows hencath his no. as if the e objects were at all different tice: they attacked him in retup, in all that regards the requisites to and it was proved that he had noticed social csder. The law punishes those some of them to the very great advanwho desseminate vicious books among tage of his partiainentary figure, and the young and unwary, and most that he was under great obligation to justly punishes them, because they their attentions. If any thing could deprave the rising generation; and do away the idea of Mr. Windlam's what more can deprave the rising interestedness, it would have been generation, than wanton habits of this action, for it seemed a pure piece cruelty? If we trace adultery and of madness. But the truih, ha other social injuries to the former, counted upon the fears of most of the we may trace domestic cruelty, a fer- reporters, and upon sofiening down scrual love of violence, and even the rest in private. He found himn. murder to the latter. Mr. Windham self mistaken; the whole secret was succeeded in persuading those about detailed in the Political Register; the him, but it was by the help of their public at large began to know Mr. own habits, of a wish to please their Windham, and when they began to constituents in what did not interfere know, they began to despise him. with political corruption; and of that “ All this may have been very well remnant of barbarous rusticity, ihe during Mr. Windhain's life, but his dastardivamusement of hare and stay. w.omory is not to be embalmed bebunting, of which I have little sloubt cause he escaped so easily. When a that posterity wil learn to think as reformist taiks ardeutly of restoring contemptuously, as we ourselves do of the constitution, he is charged with Domitian's piercing Aies wiil a bod. bad inotives; and certainly, if bad

motives can be proved against him, “ A man, with political vicus so he ought to be distrusted and de


spised :--but if a reformist is to be Commons in April 1808, on papers charged with such motives upon mere printed by the same order in the suspicion, where his demands are ac- course of last year, and on the Seventh kuowledged to be in great measure Report of the Commissioners of Milijust, how suspicious ought we to be tary Enquiry. From these documents of the anti-reformist, who resists those it is discovered, that Mr. Windham demands, when there is other ground filled the places immediately under for doubting his motives? Mr. Wind- him with his own relations ;--that hamn, consistently with his protesta- these persons certified and passed each tions against reform, assisted on every others accounts;—that Mr. Lukin, his occasion to repress enquiry into abuses. half-brother, gave no security, and The moment any attempt was made did not always state his balances ;to look narrowly into the departments that Mr. Emperor Woodford, a faof the state, he few to shut the door, vourite of Mr. Windham, was made and cried out with an agitation ilí chief inspector of foreign corps, ex. concealed by pleasantry, 'Do not let pended upwards of 262,0001., and fifthem look in: their motives are bad; teen years afterwards absconds without they have only an eye to your house.' meeting the examination of his acThe cause of an anxiety, so undevi- counts; that Richard Gardiver,* acating, so unreasonable, and in every countant to Mr. Windhan's departway so suspicious, became matter of ment, certified Ir. Lukin's total, in just curiosity with those who studied which was included his own expendithe characters of public men; and the ture, and that Mr. Windham therevery first step taken by government to pon passed the whole account ;-that indu! ge the public in a little know the auditors however required an acIstige of official management, brought us into full contact with corruption * The following extract from a letand Mr. Windham. During the office ter of this Mr. Gardiner to Mr. James of thai gentleman as secietary at war, Poole, a gentleman in the same dethere were certain practices committed partment, exhibits, with a very satisunder his eye and with his connivance factory pithiness, the official virtue of and even patronage, which transpired Mr. Windham's favourites :-“lowfour years ago by a channel' that ever, I have no courted examination, though the sub- “ quarrel with this same system than sequent attempt of the military com- Divines with sin and the devil; for maissioners to investigate part of them “ neither of us could be employed but was resisted in a irenner as singular “ for this perversion of moral faculty. as it was shametil. Mr. Windham is “ The only use to which I am conDow no more; and there is no neces- “verted is, the examination of old sity for detail on this occasion, as the accounts; I docket and make up, in maiter could not be publicly investi- “ most official parcels, these monugated without his concurrence, which ments of perulation; I make my hitherto it has been impossible to ob- report upon them, hand them from tain). The mention of it, however, one closet to another, &c. &c." is not only necessary towards a just See, in Redhead Yorke’s Weekly Po. appreciation of his memory, but if litical Register, for Nov. 29, 1906, an ever his relations and dependents article on the subject written by Mr. should be inclined to come forward Poole, who quarrelled with this corand explain the charges against him, rupt knot, and appears to have been it must induce them to do so now, very ill used by Mr. Windham, of when his memory is likely to suffer on whoin he says, “I never witnessed their account. The Examiner has'at peculation till Mr. Windham employvarious times thrown out accusations ed me: I there saw it demonstrate it: against Mr. Windham on the subject self, I saw it proceed systematically, of his official duties, not vaguely or -I saw it flourish.-I have repeatedly without foundation, but in the most endeavoured to promote inquiry inio open, distinct. and corroborated man- it, addressing myself in vain to Mr. per. Those accusations were founded Windham for that purpose, till eight on papers relative to foreign corps, years are consumed io the fruitless printed by order of the House of endeavour,"

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count from Mr. Lukin of 519,900l., phew, Robert Lukin, hitherto not which he declined, upon the ground mentioned, was left by him in the that he was directed by the Secretary situation of principal clerk of the at War to settle bis accounts at the War Office ;—that the old auditors War Office with him ;--that the au- still persisted in demanding an account ditors renewed their demand, when from Mr. Lukio, who still excused Dr. Lukin sent for instructions to himself by saying that it had been B1r. Windham, who enclosed a letter passed at the War Office;--that the to the Lords of the Treasury requiring board, consisting of these old auditors, their determination on the matter ;- was abolished by the whigs, whom that the Lords of the Treasury deter- Mr. Windham joined ;-and finally, mined on the necessity of having Mr. that Mr. Windham has died before Lukin's accounts audited by the com- the new board has taken'any steps to missioners ;-that Mr. Windham, in- investigate these most suspicious matstead of having them so audited, ters, though sixteen years have elapsed waited for six months and then order since this foreign department, of his ed the accounts into his own office;- creation and most particular patrons that Mr. Windham procured his Ma. age, first originated. jesty's warrant to cover Mr. Lukin's " While facts like these are before accounts, and countersigned them the public, the admirers of Mr. Windwith his own name;-that the au- ham should bring proofs and not asditors again required Mr. Lukin to sertions, when they talk of his spotaccount with them, and were again less integrity. He may have used a refused on the grounds that part of high tone in public, and preserved his accounts, so warranted, were al- his independence from those above ready passed at the War Office by Mr. him, but to put his relations in offices Windham's directions, and that he was under himself, and thus to give them directed by Mr. Windham to make an appeal to his feelings from whatup and to deliver into his office the re- ever faults they chose to commit, was mainder ;-that the auditors informed at best dangerous, and if he suffered the Lords Commissioners of the Trea- those feelings to influence him, as it Hery that the paymaster-General's cer- appears lie did, it was highly culpable, tiaates did not detail the several and reduced him to one of the very heads of service under which the worst states of dependence he could issues to Mr. Lukin were made, and have deprecated. Let his friends, that the certificates differed materially both for their sake and his own, refute from those contained in the special the charges standing against him, certificate of charge on Mr. Lukin, then they may add the praise of public and from his own account attested upon worth to that of wit and companion. oath; ~ that Mr. Windham, being ship; but of all praises, that of mcra! about to retire from office, procured virtue should be the least vague, bewarrants to cover all remaining sums, cause it is the most abused. We are to the amount of 1,524,6301.75.240.; told that Mr. Windham married an --that Mr. Windbam wrote an official amiable woman with a mind congenia! letter to Mr. Lukio, stating that he to his own, and doubtless there is had passed all his accounts on a cer- merit in so marrying; but let them, tihcate of their correctness by Mr. shew us that he valued this wife as he Gerdiner, whese own charge consti- ought by paying her every attention, tuted part thereof, amounting to and returning virtue for virtue. We 180,1541. 7s. 4d., but was certified by are told that he died in the Christian another person connected with Mr. faith, and this death, by one of his Windham's family, and ordered by admirers, is reckoned the best proof him to examine thein ;-that Mr. he ever gave of his merits; but let Lukin on vacating his employment them shew us, that he also lived in was succeeded by Mr. Disney, a rela. the practice of Christian charity, that tion of Mrs. Windham ;-that Mr. he was ingenuous, disinterested, and Gardiner,

on vacating his employ- humane and just. Flatterers deal in ment, was succeeded by Mr. Wind- words: true panegyrists in things. han's nephew, Janies Lúkin, hitherto “One of Mr. Windham's eulogists

mentioned ;-that another nc- walls him an accomplished cavalier,


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