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Jacob Frederic Amthor: they who enjoyed the privilege, received their dinner and supper gratis; while others, who could not claim this privilege, paid, for the same meals, six groats a week.

are not for the poor but for the rich. This young divine received, from home, bacon from Bilboa, smoked tongues from the fat oxen of Jutland, oysters, lobsters, cod fish, muscles, from Kieler, red-herrings from Bergen, dried salmon from the Elbe, and the most exquisite wines, even Cape wine.

Gay and happily passed our time away at the university, for two years, during which I did not once overstep my allowance: and, so far from con- These, and many other similar comtracting debts, I found myself, at the modities were consumed in the comend of that time, in possession of a pany of the most learned men, who, small sum which I had saved out of in return, were constantly exhaling my allowance. I resolved, therefore, the nost profound science. With together with my companion, to make every morsel the worthy A. M. swala journey, during the holydays, to lowed some learning, and with every some of the neighbouring universities; glass of wine it gently flowed into and I must here describe an adventure him. Thus he became a man of the which will appear to him to be alto- newest and best taste, and received, gether as laughable as it was to me, of course, the highest place in the but which, however, had a certain new creation of Masters of Arts. degree of influence upon my after life. At least, the friendship which I here contracted with a Hamburger was the innocent cause of my making a longer stay in that town when I afterwards visited it, on account of that friend, than I should have done, and thus the ground-work of my subsequent travels was laid.

I happened to arrive at one of these universities just at the very time when there was a general promotion of Magistri Artium, with great public ceremony. Among these Masters there was one of most singular character. As it is in general young and not very opulent clergymen who receive this dignity, it is, usually, conferred upon them without much expense. This time, however, there was one among them who was the wonder of the moment. He was a rich merchant's son from Hamburg, but, too imbecile in mind to carry on the extensive trade which his father had established. Arithmetic was too intricate for him, and when he had to write a letter, he could not command any of his thoughts. As he was unfit for every thing else, therefore, his father let him study theology!

From gratitude, he could not now do less than give a noble treat, to wch not only all the new A. M.'s were invited, but also other persons noted for learning. This noble banquet was given at the inn where I had put up. The little gold lace which surrounded my waistcoat, and the information that I was a student from Jena, induced the company to invite me and my travelling companion, and we did not hesitate to accept the invitation. We found there the most agrecable society, the most exquisite food, and the best wine.

Every individual of the assembly exerted himself to the utmost in the promotion of harmony and delight. After the coffee had been taken, and a few hours had been spent in cardplaying, the table was again resumed. After the first cravings of hunger had been satisfied (also good digestion attended to) and the fumes of the wine had ascended into the head, then the intellectual powers began to display themselves in full splendor.

Nothing was now to be heard but criticism, literature, ancient and modern, eastern and western, old gems, statues, pictures, and urns; and also There are many books of instruc- obscure passages in ancient writers, tion now written to teach young which were immediately explained. people learning by the means of These topics were discussed by those amusement. This gentleman was of the first rank. They who could learned, however, by an easier me--not join in such discussions, shewed thod, but which required money,-- their learning, together with their Those playful instructions, also, which fine taste, in another manner. They are contained in elementary books, had romances, comedies, collections

"Where the hills bear horns."

of poetry, &c. in their pockets, which ing to me that any one should find they drew forth, and now read one, any obscurity in this passage. How and now another verse, with affected common is it to mention only a part admiration, as something very beau- of a thing, and to leave the rest to titul. One of them happened to have be comprehended. We invite a pera picturesque description of the high son to take a mouthful of supper, Helvetian Alps, in which one verse but mean the whole meal. I have (the rest I forget, as well as the con- lived with a person under the same nexion) concluded thus,roof, means I have lived with him in the same house. So, in the abovementioned verses, horns are meant to represent herds of cattle. I would where the hills bear horns, in this paraphrase, therefore, these words,manner: "where, on the lofty Alps herds of kine, in the hope of finding good grass and herbage, pasture. This elucidation of the passage he Supported by an example in the Englated to the German, where horn lish language, which is so nearly relikewise signifies horned cattle; for, horn-money implies money which is paid for horned cattle that go into the pasturage of another, for example, in of the king's forests.

At these words the reader was enraptured: and he exclaimed, in order to shew it, "Oh, what a picture! what a thought! what a magnificent expression!"


One of the company was not prudent enough to conceal his ignorance, and he eagerly asked, what that meant,-where the hills bear horns ? They were astonished: however, the enraptured reader himself was not able to solve the question. The question went from one to another: it reached certain gentlemen who represented themselves as being critically skilled in six or eight foreign Another said, "It is most evident languages, and claimed the power of being able to give explanations or in- bear refers to some plant or vegetable to my apprehension that the word terpretations in each of these lan- which grows upon the hills of Helin other words, that corn grows upon vetia: the field bears corn, signifies, the field. The horns which we find upon the Swiss mountains will therefore mean trefoil, (hornerklee): the sense, accordingly, is," where the hills bear clover."


A venerable elder said, "the words are very clear. The poet represents a lofty country of rocky hills, on which there is no earth, but where, instead of trees and grass, there grows a sort of horus." To this it was replied, that no one had ever yet discovered such hills. He answered, "such hills might be, however, and perhaps the poet himself had seen such. On the rocks of the Red Sea there grew a similar substance, which resembled the horns of a stag, namely, the coral tree: so, something of the same kind might grow upon the lofty hills of Swis-erland." As he saw that this explanation did not give much atistaction, he turned round to his neighbour, full of vexation, and uttered a bitter reprehension of the incredulity of the present world. "Formerly," he exclaimed," young men believed things when old men told them to them; but now, they all know better, although the old ones had studied and thought longer than they had."

The young Masters of Arts next spoke. The first said, "It is astonish

A third contradicted this explanation, and maintained that the meaning was petrified ammon's horn; and thus many more offered their conjectural readings. The last suggested edly an interpolation by some ignothat the whole passage was undoubtrant person; and if he had to superintend a new edition of the poem, he would leave it out altogether,

[To be continued.]

Egious Character, sketched from
Real Life.

HE absent-minded man is per

of society, not only the most use ess, haps, above all other members but the most disagreeable. For whatever may be the subject of discussion, let who will compsoe the assembly,

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though the orator's words re-echoed and ask him what he is thinking of, through a profound hall of silence; and he will answer you with comthough his language might draw tears posure," Nothing." Nothing does from the stout heart of a villain: On he think upon; nothing can be know him, alas! it all avails nothing. and Oh! may he always keep that nothing to himself, and thereby he will never injure his neighbour.

His behaviour, in mixed company, must appear in a truly singular light to the eye of a stranger: he in general sits as one unconcerned, and amuses himself by thrumming his fingers against the sides of his chair, or humming the last hymn that woke him from a sound sleep at his chapel. In the company of young people he is both rigid and absurd, and jealous to the extreme. They must neither whisper nor laugh, because he immediately suspects that he is the subject of their innocent festivity.They must not converse on any subject whatever, religion only excepted; for so chaste are his ears (let their language be ever so pure and virtuous) that I have seen him (for the smallest unsuspected offence imaginable) rise and silently withdraw, as a darksome cloud that leaves a summer sky, even when the very peace of his family and friends depended thereon: in short, he is not content to let others participate in that pleasure which he himself cannot enjoy.


Alas! I have seen this character amidst the wreck of misfortune, beneath a load of sorrow enough to make the strongest heart weak, and drive the feeling mind to utter distraction. I have marked his wretched consort (lovely in tears) weeping at his bedside in the utmost agony of despair, dreading each revolving hour that brought the approaching morn. I have traced on his brow the features of indifference: I have seen him lay down his head on the pillow of repose, and, ere two nioments had elapsed, drop off in a profound sleep.

And if this be not the summit of human happiness, ye sage philosophers, if this question will bear definition; tell me, in the name of one who is greater than you are, what it may be?

In answer to the interrogations of those who perhaps may think this reasoning of mine unnaturally extravagant, all that I can say is, if I have exaggerated, Nature has, in this instance, exaggerated also.


The absent-minded man is gene-
rally an eternal enemy to books, for
this good reason, he does not under-
stand them; and, should you wish to
be bereft of his company, you cannot Homerton, July 11, 1810.
do a better thing than sit down to
read, for he will tell you it is wicked,
that, if you must read, read (says he)
the Bible. Well, reader, thou shalt
do so; thou shalt sit down to the table
and peruse the word of God, and ere
thou hast read for the short space of
a quarter of an hour, it will act as a
cradle that rocks the infant babe to

On the NAVIGATION of the

To hold conversation with a man possessed of an absent mind were vain; you might as well correspond with a shadow, and answer the echoes of thy ow a voice: for instance, should you, in the course of your digression, on a sudden stop short, occasioned by the inattention of your auditor, he will start as it were from a dream, and ask you, with seeming surprise, what you was speaking of: again, on the other hand, take him unawares, absorbed in thought as he may appear,

[Concluded from Vol. x111 p. 199.] NOME time had now elapsed,when

the Romans were engaged in a war against Philip king of Macedon, who, seconded by Hannibal then an exile from his country, had collected an enormous fleet for the purpose of wresting from the Romans their maritime superiority: but, being vanquished, in the year 550, by the Consul Quintius Flaminius, he sued for peace; one of the conditions of which was, that he should deliver to the Romans all his covered gallies, and should preserve only a few brigantines. He was, however, allowed to keep one prodigious galley, for the sole reason that its magnitude rendered it uscless. It was, nevertheless, after

wards made use of for the purpose of tories of Cilicia. The son of Antiochus, Antiochus Eupator, having, in the sequal, infringed the treaty, the Romans burnt all his vessels.

conducting to Rome Paulus Emilius, the conqueror of Perseus, the son of the same Philip. It was actually in this war against Philip that the Romans began to interfere in the affairs of Greece, and, by the great advantages which they derived from it, to lay the foundation to that extensive power to which they afterwards attained.

Antiochus, king of Syria, commonly called the great, having rendered hiniself formidable by sea, excited the jealousy of the Romans; and he, ou his part, had long turned his eyes on the encreasing naval power of the Romans, which it was his ardent desire to check, ere he himself fell a victim to it. Urged by this reason, and excited by Hannibal, who, whithersoever he went, breathed his hatred against Rome, and joined to the solicitation of Thoas, king of the Etohans, Antiochus declared war against Rome; but which utterly failed on account of his irresolution and incapacity. He was entirely defeated by the Consul Acilius Glabrio; and in the same year, that is, 563, Livius assumed the command of the Roman fleet, to which Antiochus opposed one hundred vessels, under the command of Polyxenidas, who was defeated by the Romans on the coasts of Ionica, Polyxenidas, however, gained his revenge; for he surprised, near the island of Samos, the fleet of the Rhodians, joined to a part of that of the Romans, and captured twenty vessels, which he conducted to Ephesus. Emilius Regillus having, however, succeeded to the command, he, with a fleet of eighty sail, conquered, near to Myonnesus, the fleet of Antiochus composed of one hundred covered gallies, and commanded by Hannibal and Poly xenidas. The Romans captured thirteen yessels, and burnt and sunk the remainder. Antiochus having been afterwards defeated on land by Domitius, or rather by the two Scipios, peace was accorded to him only upon the conditions that he should abandon all that part of Asia situate between the sea and Mount Taurus, to retire within his kingdom, and to deliver to the Romans all his vessels of war, retaining only ten brigantines, and which on no pretence were to sail beyond the two promon,

Hannibal, having retired to Prusias, king of Bythynia, who was at that time engaged in a war against Enmenes, king of Pergam, an ally of the Romans, made use of a singular stratagem in the battle which the fleet of Prusias, commanded by Hannibal himself, fought with that of Eumenes :Having filled a number of earthen vessels with fire-works, he ordered them to be thrown into the enemy's feet in the heat of the combat, which so discomfited and dismayed the sailors of the fleet of Eumenes, that, although superior in force, it fled in the greatest disorder.

Perseus, king of Macedon, son of . Philip, having formed a secret alliance with the Carthaginians, made great preparations for the war which he resolved to wage against the Romans, and his first aim was to destroy their naval superiority. For this purpose he equipped a great number of vessels; and, as the fleet of the Romans was at that time in a very bad situation to oppose him, they devised every method of placing it on the most formidable footing, and to increase the number of their sailors, which, unfortunately at this juncture, was very small.

Perseus having been defeated on land by the Consul Paulus Emilius, near Pydua in Macedon, he fled to the island of Samothracia. Octavius immediately followed him with his fleet, and having taken him prisoner, he delivered him to Paulus Emilius, who loaded him with chains and conducted him in triumph to Rome. All the vessels of Perseus, the greater part of which were of the large t size, were captured and conducted to Rome. This triumph was one of the most superb which had been ever witnessed, and is celebrated by all the historians.

The triumph of Paulus Emilius was followed by the naval triumph of Octavius, and that of Anitius, who had conquered and taken prisoner Gentius king of Elyria, an ally of Perseus. The success of this war was so rapid, that it was finished in thirty days. Anitius, having made a descent in Illyria, after having gained some ad

vantage over the Illyrian fleet, obliged famous city, which contained 700,000 Gentius to surrender at discretion, inhabitants, and mistress of 300 cities with his wife, his children, his brother, in Africa. and all the nobility of his court. They were conquered, and carried prisoners to Rome, before it was scarcely known that the war was commenced. The Romans, who paid little attention to commerce, were at a loss in what manner to employ the number of vessels which they had captured; they therefore distributed 220 brigantines of the fleet of Gentius amongst the inhabitants of Corfu, of Apollonia, aud Dyrrachium.

In the same year, the city of Corinth, most powerful by its situation, and which had attracted almost the whole commerce of Asia and Europe, having maltreated the deputies of the Roman senate, shared the same fate as Carthage. It was pillaged, burnt, and entirely destroyed by Mummius, and was afterwards rebuilt by Julius Cæsar, who converted it into a Roman colony.

The Romans, however, could not boast of the same success against the pirates of the Balearean Islands, who, concealed by the rocks, laid in wait for, attacked, and pillaged every vessel which came within sight. The Cretans rendered themselves still more formidable to the Romans, in the war against Mithridates, to whom the. Cretans were allied. Antonius

The Carthaginians, however, meditated on re-establishing their marine, and collected a great quantity of materials for that purpose. The senate of Rome became alarmed, and, in the year 605, the commencement of the third Punic war, declared war against the Carthaginians. A most powerful armament was immediately sent forth, and the fleet, under the command of the son of the Orator and the father the Consul Marcius, was composed of above 200 vessels of different dimensions. The Carthaginians, reduced to extremity, submitted, without reserve to the Romans, who began immediately to burn all the Carthaginian vessels, and then selected a number of hostages from the most opulent of the inhabitants of Carthage. They then made known to them that it was the resolution of the senate to destroy their city, and to transport all the inhabitants to a considerable distance up the country. The Carthaginians exasperated and driven to despair, then formed the resolution of defending themselves, and to perish rather than behold the destruction of their city. Scipio besieged them by land and sea, and destroyed their port. But they immediately formed another, from which 120 armed vessels were soon despatched, and which were built in the short space of sixty days. With this new fleet they attacked that of the Romans, and burnt a part of it; which success, however, did not prevent Carthage from being taken, ransacked, and burnt by Scipio , after a war of five years, and in the 700th year of the foundation of Rome. The Romans considered the vessels which they had taken of such trifling value, that they burnt the whole fleet of the Carthaginians. Thus fell that

of the Triumvir, was often defeated by the Cretans, on account of which he died of grief and shame. Q. Metellus, however, conquered them, and made himself master of their whole island. In the mean time, Mithridates, supported by the Pirates, continued to wage a bloody war against the Romans. He had rendered himself the arbitrator of all the east, and he was regarded as its deliverer from the Roman scourge. His fleets covered the Mediterranean, and the coasts of Italy trembled at his name. Sylla and Lucullus were sent to fight him. He threw himself into Pitano, a city of the Troad, in which he was be sieged, on the land-side, by Fimbria. He had no other means of safety than his fleets, and he therefore gave his orders for all of them to repair to Pitano. Fimbria sent intelligence of this circumstance to Lucullus, who, being unwilling to owe any of his success to Fimbria, contented himself with attacking and conquering twe fleets of Mithridates.

Archelaus, afterwards the commandant-general of the fleets of Mithridates, won by the solicitations and bribes of Lucullus and Murena, surrendered a part of his fleet, betrayed his master, and entered into the service of his enemy. However the Consul Cotta, being too hasty in attacking Mithris

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