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TRANSACTIONS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. AFRICAN INSTITUTION. dicted as an inevitable consequence
of the abolition of the slave trade, had NEThird Report, as usual, is pre occurred in the neighbourhood. Only T!
faced by the account of the ceedings at ihe general meeting, in one trial for witchcraft had taken place 1809, amongst which we observe again,
for a long time; whereas, formerly with renewed pleasure, the vote of such trials used to be very frequent; thanks to Sir Sydney Smith, for having and although in that one case the ac. liberated the slaves on an estate in cused had been found guilty, she had the Brazils presented to bim by the not been put to death, but, after some Prince Regent of Portugal. It is time, had been set at liberty. honcurable to our national character,
“ There is no fear," observes the that our naval commanders are (with a governor, “but that the natives in this few exceptions, which raise universal neighbour..ood will have abundant surp:ine and indignation) equally dis. employment. Witherto, they have been tinguished by bravery and humanity. chiefly busied in the manufacture of
The directors state in this Report, salt, which is in great demand. Their that three African youths, whom they rice fields have certainly been prebid tiained in the Lancastrian mode pared ibis year a fortnight or three of education, have been sent to Sjerra weeks earlier than usual, from which Leone, there to be cmploved in the
All the wars
prognosticate well. business of instruction. They
around us are suspended for the prea hope that the chiefs of the districts, sent. I do not say that they are susbordering on this colony, may be in- pended in consequence of the aboduced to send their children thither lition; but the abolition is very likely to be taught; and they offer to be at to prevent their revival. In the breedo the expense of bringing such of them ing of catile we are greatly improving; as shall appear particularly promising, their numbers increase and they thrive to England for further tuition; and of well.” And in a subsequent letter, it carrying them back again to benefit is stated, that oxen are now used in their native countries by their ac
the diaught, much to tlic advantage quirements.
of the colony.
He thus concludes one of his letters: Measures have been taken to cultivate the knowiedge of such of the the quietest and most uninteresting
“This has certainly been one of languages speker in Africa, as shall years I have known in Africa. I have best facilitate intercourse with the veiller trials for witchciast, nor natives.
wars, nor kidnappings, to speak of Very laudable pains have been also in my journal. Perhaps we have the emploved to transmit to Afiica such abolition to thank for it." secds and plants, suited to the climate, Communications of a promising naas will be likely to open a more ex- ture have also been made from Gorce tended and useful commerce between and the Gold Coast. that country and this; and premiums The expenses this year were .conhave been offered, and in a few ju- sideransie, viz. 15301. 85. 4d; and the stances given, for the importation, property of the Society at the concluunder certain conditions, of African sion of it, 08281. 135. 11d. being an products. There seems to be a good increase within the year of only 3.111. prospect of raising in Africa an ex. 148. id. cellent species of cotion, which is Tlic Appendir to the Third Report beginning to be cultivated on a laige contains much useful information with
regard to Africa; the inbabitants, the Letters from the Governor of Sierra face of the country, the natural proLeone, dated in May, isme, staie, that ductions, and the present trade. the colony was on ille most friendiy In “Extracts from Leiters from terms with the surrounding naiives, Mr. H. Meredit!!," dated Cape Coast and that its influence among thein Castle, on the Gold Coast, there is a had of late happily increased. None pleasing de-cription of the Dutch of those, massacrer, which were pre- settlement of Eimind, in that part of
Africa; but there is one passage in been condemned with a loss to the the correspondence, which we should owners of upwards of 11,800l. This have thought fitter to have been ad- seizure has “ discovered to the di. dressed to the Secretary of War than rectors facts, which tend to implicate the Secretary of the African Institution. persons of some consideration in Society, It is as follows :
in the guilt of these and similar prac. Here (Elmina) is an extensive gar- tices." den; there is also a most beneficent It is stated by the directors, that the institution kept up, namely, an Orphan capture of Senegal, which was effected School, for the benefit of children July, 1809, by Captain Columbine, oi whose parents have died in the service. the navy, and Major Maxwell, the Elmina, and the places near it, are Commandant of Goree, has considerkept in a high state of improvement; ably abridged the facilities enjoyed by and it would be a great acquisition the contraband slave traders, on tha: towards the civilization of Africa, as part of the slave coast. It has also with it_Fort Anthony, at Axim; furnished an important inlet, both for Orange Fort, at Succondee: and Fort commerce and civilization; the river Sebastian, at Chamah (a place of great Senegal being navigable for several importance) would fall."
hundred miles, and some of its The Fourth Report is principally branches approaching within a short occupied with a description of the distance of the Niger. Slave Trade as it exists at present, and It appearing, by experiment, the with an account of the steps the di- the mulberry tree will grow and eres sectors have taken to prevent or check flourishi in Africa, a number of silk. it.' It is lamentable to find, that in worms eggs have been sent to Sierra the year ending March 28, 1910, the Leone, Goree, and Senegal, (whither nefarious traffic was carried on to a the mulberry plant had been sent be. great extent. The different commu- fore) with directions respecting the nications received by the directors rearing and managing of them. A fufrom Africa, concur in stating, that ther supply of useful seeds has ako in the month of October last, the been transmitted to Africa, and like coast was crowded with slave-ships. wise the model of a mill for cleanies The persons most deeply engaged in rice from its busk. Seeds and plants the trade, appear to have been citi. have been obtained from India for the zens of the United States of America, same destination. who shelter themselves froin the penal The directors have drawn the at: consequences of their criminal con- tention of their correspoudents in duct, the traffic having been pro. Africa to a discovery, said to have nounced illegal by the American as been lately made in the West Indies well as British legislature) by means of the practicability of producinger of a nominal sale, both of ship and cellent ropes from the fibres of the cargo, at some Spanish or Swedish plantane tree. port-the Ilavannah, for example, or In the Third Report there has an the island of Bartholomew. But it account of a species of Hemp, maruhas been discovered, that in defiance factured from the leaves of a particular of all the penalties imposed by Acts kind of palm, which abounds in Siera of Parliament, vessels, under foreign Leone and its neighbourhood. thed; flags, have been fitted out in the ports rectors now adid, il at having precured of Liverpool and London, for the a quantity of the article froin Africa, purpose of carrying slaves from the they lately subjected a small quality coast of Africa to the Spanish and of cord, manufactured from this sub. Portuguese settlements in America, stance, to experiments calcu'ated to and that several adventures of this de- ascertain its strength, as conpur. d scription have actually been come with the same length and weight of pleted. One ship, the Commercio common hempen cord. Tie reuk de Rio, was seized, at the instigation has been very satisfactory. The of the directors, in the river, which African cord appeared sirunger by appeared by its papers to be destined about one-timuren. to take 700 or sou slaves fiom Africa The Si ciety have very judiciously to Cubi. The ship and cargo have obtained from governmcuta moutarde
tion of the duties on imports from “ Isaacs has promised to make every Africa, which were so heavy as to dis- exertion to fulfil the object of his miscourage the trade, and in some in- sion, and to use his utmost ability stances to prohibit it.
to gain correct information of the fate No direct attempt bras yet been of the celebrated traveller." made to explore the continent of Some further circumstances have Africa, principally, say the directors; been made known by the public prints because no proper means have offered since the Report was published, which themselves to their notice. It has, lead to the hope that Mr. Park may however, been communicated to them, yet return and instruct us by the dethat it is the intention of the African tail of his discoveries. Association to 'send, at an early opportunity, one or more persons from this
It appears that there were nine, in. country, charged with the important stead of six, of the emancipated neobject of farther discovery. The di- groes; and that after their liberation, rectors have signified their readiness eight of them entered into his Ma. to concur in any eligible measure of jesty's service, and the ninth, being this description.
inore infirm, was taken by a friend of The following communication has Mr. Roscoe's on board one of his been made to the Society by Lieut. own vessels. It is but justice to state, Col. Maxwell the Commandant of that Mr. Roscoe was most ably assisted Senegal, respecting the celebrated by Mr. Stanistreet and Mr. Avison, traveller, Mungo Park, in a letter dated two very respectable solicitors, of Lithe 20th of January last:
verpool, who gratuitously pleaded the “I avail myself of an opportunity,
cause of humanity. We add, with by way of Guernsev, to communicate pleasure, that the corporation of Lito you the intelligence of the arrival, verpool have adopted a municipal in this colony, of the black man named regulation, by wbich it will be hereIsaacs, who was the guide that con
after impossible that slaves should be ducted Mr. Mungo Park to Sansard retained through any collusion. ing, and whose schoolmaster, who re.
The property of the Institution, on sides there, furnished Mr. Park with the Ist of January, amounted to 8494. a guide to take bim to Kassina. This 138. 30.; having been recently auga person appears convinced, that Mr. mented by a princely donation of five Mungo Park is not dead ; (which God hundred guineas, from some unknown grant!) He says, it it was the case, 'individual of the Society of Friends, lie ceriainly should have heard of it; called Quakers. not having heard of him, he supposed that lie had returned to England.
In the Appendix to this Report, there “ 'To ascertain the certainty of the is a very able and interesting accouns fate of our intrepid countryman, !
of that district of the Gold Coast, called have engaged Isaacs to go in search of the Agoona ('ountry, in whichil innebala him, and have furnished him with a
is situated, communicated by Mr. Men present for Mansong, the king of redith, before mentioned. Babarra, and also with means to de concludes :-- "There is no tropical früy his travelling expenses ; and have culture which might not be raised in promised him a thousand dollars if he
this country in great abundance; unds Mr. Park. He has instructions while its population stands in need of to proceed without delay to Sego: to our manufactures and is accustomed present to Mansong the present he to their use. And when it is consi: las for him; and to beg of him to aid dered what the hand of industry has him in his researches. If he cannot done in the West Indies--in the pesa procure any certain intelligence of
tilentiai swamps of Guiana, för inhim at Sego, he is to continue his stance--what may not be fairly exjourney to Sansanding, to find out the pected from the rich hills and extenguide who conducted Mr. Park to sive plains of ihis country, blessed as If there be cannot gain
it is with a luxuriant soil, and a coinsatisfactory information, he is toen paratively healthy climate?” deavour lý proceed to Tombuctoo and Kassina.
URLYERSAL MAG. VOL. XIV.
Board or AGRICULTURE. while in bloom, into a vat, or mash. On the advantages to be derived from there is produced an infusion, not
tub, and pouring boiling water on it, Ileath in the Feeding of Stock. --Communicated by James llall, Esq.
only rich and pleasant, but capable
of being made the basis of various vaN the course of my experiments on luable liquids. Those therefore who and a variety of other articles gene- to burn a sufficient quantity of the old, rally reckoned of little use, I have in order to have as much young as found that it heath be cut while young they think proper. The smoother and and in bloom, and the fiver parts in more even the surface of the place fused in a tea-pot, it produces a liquiit, they burn the better: if any of the not only grateful to the taste and well stunps of the old heath remain after flavoured, but extremely wbolesome, burning, they should, some way or and in many points of view, preferable other, be removed. The ashes of the to the tea that comes from China.-- old heath become an excellent maBeing anxious to kBow how tar fine nure, and generally cause a fine young heath might be useful to cattle, I crop to spring up:
When two or bribed a poor man to confine his cow. three years old, this should be cut When first tied up the cow refused to down with the scythe, and as much as cat any of the heath, except the very possible dried in the shade. Ii quan. tinest part: nor did she seem to relish iities of this be put into a vat, or mash a rich infusion of it that was set tub, with boiling water, a very copsi. before her. When she became a little derable quantity of strong or small hungry, however, she first drank the beer may be procured, as well as spiinfusion, and then began to eat the rits by distillation, which, on being heath. She lived nearly two weeks put into casks, may be carried home on this food solely, and I have no and laid up for use. What of the fine doubt but that she could have lived young heath is not used in this war, much longer had it been necessary. may either be secured on the spot or She gave less milk it is true, while carried home, to be given to cattle she lived solely on heath, but then when fodder becomes cither scarce t: what the mill lost in quantity was dear. With a sufficient stock of this amply made up in the quality of what article, the lean cattle on a farm may she gave. I made a similar experi- not only be supported in the event of ment with a couple of sheep and an a severe winter or spring, but also old horse, and found the effect nearly those in good condition presented the same; only the sheep drank but from becoming otherwise. Heath in. little of the infusion.
tended for this puu pose should, hn*. Thus satistied that cattle may be ever, be carefully stacked up, other. supported for a time by young heath, wise it becomes less valuable. if cut while in the bloom, 1 proceeded to ascertain how far this plant is capable of retaining its valuable qua
On the Advantages of culli:oting the lities when dried and laid up. With
Maple Tree. By the same. a view to this, I cut some in the end The maple, which thrives well in of summer, when leath is generally hedge-rows, and alınost all soils and at its best, and dried it in the shade. exposures, may be propagated either Having kept this nearly two years, I by seeds or slips. Notwithstanding found it produced an infusion cqually its rapid growth, the maple is geneolrong and well.Havoured as at first. rally near twenty years before it is at Another parcel after being kept three its best. However, often before it is years, supported a cow more than a half that age very cousiderable quanweek, and produced an infusion not tities of juice are extracted froa it. interior to the former. The quality This, after it is drawn from the tree too of this cow's milk was uncom- and strained, should be boiled, which nionly improved both in taste and is the shortest and, perhaps, the best flavour,
way of making sugar. On chopping, and putting quanti- The juice of the maple generally lies of time young lcath, cut down flows about four or five weeks: an ole
dinary tree produces about twenty rishment both for man and beast. pounds annually. Now as an hun- Were there a want of hands in the dred trees, particularly if planted in country, there would be some excuse *hat is termed the quicunr method, for neglecting improvements of this may be reared per acre, the sugar pro- kind; but this is not the case, as there duced, though sold at 6d. per pound, are many in various parts that know will fetch pearly 50l. in cash to the not what to do, por where to seek for proprietor, and in many places the employment. But it is not too late, produce would be considerably more, and it is to be hoped that something The maple also affords a most agree- will be done for them. There is achi able molasses and an excellent vine- a thing as being lost in the fervola." of gar; while the sap, that is suitable to fanciful discoveries, and of being car. these purposes, is obtained after that, ried away by an imagination guided which has produced the sugar, has only by vanity; and tliere is such a ceased to fow; so that the manufac- thing I know, as experimental trifiing: ture of these different products of the yet I think I may venture to say that maple tree, by succeeding, do not in. if, along with the instructions of the terfere with each other. Part of the Board of Agriculture and the Highmolasses might become the basis of an land Society, the cultivation of the excellent beer, or, by distillation, be maple, and the various uses of fine converted into spirits; while the rest, young heath, were attended 10, many with the refuse of the sugar, might be of the tracks of heath and glens in applied to the feeding of sheep, cattle, Scotland would soon lay aside their pigs, and the like, as well as to a va- dreary aspect, and become, as it were, riety of other valuable purposes. If like the valley of Sharon, mixed with strong infusions of fine young heath, and given to them, not one of a thousand of the cattle in On the Use of Soap-Makers Waste Scotland would die in a severe winter.
Ashes, as a Manure; being an abstract The maple tree is not the least hurt
of r Report drawn up by order of the hy tapping. A yearly discharge of sap
Board, and published by its dircction. from the tree, instead of hurting it, is
Introduction. found to improve its growth, and make The Board of Agriculture being it yield the more. In America, when convinced, from the most accurate inthey are beginning a farm, or when formation, and the experience of they have not a sufficient stock of hay many of its members, that this valufor the winter, cattle often live on the able manure, is brought into mule leaves and twigs of the mapie. Owing general use, would be an object of to the rugged nature of the ground, very considerable importance to the the want of roads, and of water car- national agriculture, are desirous of riage, in many parts of the interior giving all ihe publicity possible to a and highlands of Scotland, wood is circumstance so well deserving the atoften of no value at all. In the coun- tention of farmers, gardeners, hope ty of Banff, I have seen trees sold at a planters, nurserymen, and others em. shilling eachi, that in the vicinity of ployed in the cultivation of the soil, water carriage, of a good road, or even more especially those in the neighof a small villaye, would have brought bourhood of the metropolis, and on ten times that sum; and I have known the borders of tle navigations theretrees that in the vicinity of any tole. with connected; and with that view rably large town or village would have tesolved to circulsie the followhave been worth four or five pounds ing observations, collected from the each, that scarcely brought as many best information which it has hitlera shillings. The difficulty of removing been in its power to obtain. It is obwood makes it not worth the telling, rious, from the chemical nature of Thousands of acres of wood in ditter- soapers' waste, that it will be appli. ent parts of Scotland might be burnt cable wherever calcareous matter is of otherwise destroyed, and maple wanted in lands, and that it will serve planted in its stead. Being yearly the purposes of timing. or tapped, the maple would pro
Sort of As. dece a considerable degree of nou, The great distinction to be found in