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Moral Characters.

countries which he had discovered, and of the colony that he had left there. Having wrapped up this in an oiled cloth, which he enclosed in a cake of wax, he put it into a cask carefully stopped up and threw it in the sea, in hopes that some fortunate accident might preserve a deposit of so much importance to the world."Robertson's Hist. of America, vol. vi. p. 149.

A curious and important reflection arises to the mind upon reading this account. We have no evidence, I believe, that the cask, thus carefully prepared, was ever picked up, or ever afterwards heard of: the remedy, therefore, was inadequate, and Lad the vessel of Columbus been lost, it is probable that America had been, to this day, undiscovered, as no one would afterwards have thought of a western world when Columbus had failed in the attempt. He too would have been branded as a visionary adventurer, and his name remained as a watch-word for ridicule, or as a beacon to warn others from similar undertakings.


MORAL CHARACTERS. [Concluded from Vol. x111. p. 118.].


AT the age of twenty-one, Cresus, siderable estate, resolved to fix his coming into possession of a conhappiness in giving himself up to though permitted in a certain degree, pleasures of every kind, which, alcontinual listlessness impelled him to become criminal in the abuse. A search for amusement, and in the choice of it he was guided by his senses and imagination. Being always inconstant, and wavering in his decisions, he began a thousand things which he immediately relinquished, each appearing less worthy of his attention than the former. He then passed to another object, which in its turn lost all its charms; and thus, in order to please his fickle and wavering fancy, he leads a restless and uneasy life, and, for the mere gratification of his senses, exposes himself to ridicule.

He purchased a considerable estate bounded in the acquisition. The in the country, and his joy was unchace now became his ruling passion.

Every thing was important in his eyes which bore the most distant relation to it. The breed of his horses and his dogs was now the particular object of his attention. On those days in which the weather permitted him not to enjoy the sports of the field, the stable was his constant lounge. From the stable he repaired to the dog-kennel, and from the dogkennel back again to the stable. If a friend chanced to visit him on one of those days, he was obliged to undergo

What beneficial, or what injurious influence, might have been thus produced upon society, it is not easy to say. Whether we should have been equally enlightened, happy, and civilised, is uncertain; that we should have had less money is obvious; but money is not the necessary source of felicity nor of wealth. However, I am not of opinion, with Dr. Johnson, that it had been better for the world if Prince Henry of Portugal had not been born. The impulse which he gave to the spirit of discovery was Jaudable in itself, and has been productive of important consequences to the mortification of passing his time posterity. Whatever enlarges the boundaries of knowledge, raises us in the scale of thinking beings; and whatever so elevates us brings us nearer to that perfection here below for which we are evidently designed, Our information respecting man has been greatly extended by the dis coveries of the fifteenth and sixteenth


I am, Sir,

Your constant reader,

Newcastle, July 4, 1810.

in one of the above places, hearing a a dissertation on the fleetness of Bucephalus, or the sagacity of Jowler. The cloth was no sooner removed after dinner than his visitors were constrained to listen to an exaggerated report of hair-breadth escapes, of the gates which he had leapt, the brushes which he had gained, the extraordinary bottom of his hunter, which naturally led him into a long winded history of his pedigree, and he generally finished his harangue by a X. Y. profusion of abusive epithets on all those who were averse from hunting.

One day, after having read the list of the horses which were to be sold at Tattersall's, he deigned to cast his eyes over the remaining part of the newspaper, and he observed an advertisement of a hunting-box to be sold. From that moment his own house was irksome to him. A hunting-box had, in his eyes, innumerable charms he purchased it, but in a short time he found that a huntingbox is nothing more than a house, and that the one which he had quitted was, in every respect, more convenient and better situated for the chace than his newly acquired purchase. He returned to his former house; but he discovered, in a short time, that his house was destitute of a few conveniences, which he had found at his hunting-box. He there, fore began to build; and before a year had elapsed, he was surprised that any one could exchange the fatiguing and dangerous employment of the chace for the nobler enjoyment of the study of architecture.

year, lavishing his property on parasites and pretended friends, until, at last, he became disgusted with it, and resolved to lead a more sober and retired life.

During the course of dissipation which he underwent to gratify his friends, his health had suffered materially, and to restore it, he resolved to apply himself to the culture of his garden. in this occupation he found a peculiar delight. His tulips were the finest in the country, and the most noted florists repaired to his garden to admire his carnations and auriculas. He ordered the most expensive roots from Holland; the hothouses in the vicinity of the metropolis were ransacked for the most curious plants; the Pitaybaza of Peru blossomed beneath his fostering 'care; the pomegranate and the vine tempted the gazer with their delicious fruits. Horticulture now appeared in his eyes the noblest of sciences, and during a whole summer he felt the greatest delight in the pursuit of it. The winter, at last, set in, and destroyed a number of his finest plants. His taste for horticulture vanished, and literature now became his favourite theme. He established a most splendid and extensive library. He purchased books in all languages, at the same time that he was ignorant of every one but his own. For the first month his favourite study was geography. Chemistry then attracted his attention, and he pursued that science for some time with unwearied application. In one of his experi ments he had nearly set his house on fire, and he was surprised how any one could adhere to a science with such dangerous consequences.

His mind was now turned to the erection of different edifices, of which he was the sole architect, and which stood the monuments of his folly. In his buildings neither utility nor convenience were consulted: he dilapidated his house merely for the purpose of re-erecting it. One day he determined to erect a spacious saloon; another, it was a colonade.First, he determined on the modern stile; then it was the Gothic; at last, he determined to have a stile of his own. He collected every book on architecture, and read-what he did not understand: yet he learned the names of the authors, and his friends wondered at his knowledge. To display this knowledge, it was necessary From chemistry he passed to histo have his friends around him, and tory, from history to poetry, and thus he aspired to the honour of keeping from one science to another, skiman open table. His friends praised ming but the surface of each, and his taste which he exhibited in his never penetrating into their depths. buildings, and his friends therefore At last, reading became irksome to found a ready welcome to his table. him: he abandoned his books in the -His attention was now directed to same precipitate manner as all his have that table profusely filled. The other pursuits. The country appearchoicest viands were collected. The ed to him tame and insipid, and he recreation of his friends was his study, determined to mingle in the noise and he was amply repaid by their and follies of the city. He repaired professions of fiendship and esteem, to court, and he soon distinguished by their flattery and applause. He himself by the elegance of his equicontinued this course of life for a pages and the splendour of his routs.

He vied with the most inflated puppy lent, friendly, and sincere. He makes of Bond-street, in his adherence to use of the meanest artifices to comall the punctilios of fashion. He plete the seduction of a female. almade his coachman his equal, and though at the same time he cannot studied the slang language of thieves, behold the unfortunate without feelhousebreakers, and mail-coachmen. ing compassion and hastening to their -He was a regular attendant on the relief. His benevolence makes him opera, though he had as great a taste beloved by persons whose society for a bravura, or the distortions of the confers an honour on him, and who Italian mountebanks, as he formerly are acquainted with the vice to which possessed for architecture. He now he is attached. He has a strong averlaughed at himself when he thought of sion from places of prostitution; but his useless taste for books and a well- to keep a mistress, and to cast one off, selected library: he wondered how a merely for the purpose of taking. being, endowed with reason, could another, appears to him of very little so misuse a portion of his life as to consequence. On giving his cast off employ it in reading. It was, at mistress a few hundred pounds, he length, hinted to him, by a very inti- considers himself released from every mate friend and a good sort of a fel- obligation towards her. The world low, that his fashionable parapherna- says, Dorante has an excellent heart; lia were not complete; and on asking but this circumstance does not prehis kind friend to name the article vent him, whose situation in life and that was wanting, he was answered apparent strictness of morals give him that it was a mistress. He therefore access to the first houses, from being immediately set about procuring this a dangerous enemy to a family, notmost important branch of his esta- withstanding he be a man of honour blishment and by the aid of his and probity. He is always ready to aforesaid very intimate friend, he had perform a friendly act, and will never very soon the delight to drive some accept of a reward, for he finds his demirep from Bond-street into Ox- gratification in the performance. If ford-street, thence into the Park, and one of his acquaintance is spoken evil then into Bond-street again. He saw of, he is ever ready to defend him, himself gazed at by the empty cox- and he shews a noble hatred of the combs of the pavé, and naturally con- nefarious custom of detracting from cluded that he was an object of envy. the merit of an absent person. He At last, he found that his chere amie might have been nominated the heir was driving him fast into a prison; to a rich relation, if he would have and, after having dissipated his for- paid a proportioned respect to him. tune, misused his time, and abused No, says Dorante, he has persons his reason, he returned once more more closely related to him than myinto the country, where he soon fell self, and who stand more in need of a martyr to the dissipation in which riches; then let them have them.he had indulged. He is indulgent towards his inferiors, and his servants call him the best of masters. He hates gaming and drunkenness. What therefore must be our opinion of Dorante? According to the language of the world, he has but one vice and many virtues; but, according to the language of truth, he has properly no virtue, but a natural goodness and favourable disposition to virtue. He has too much sense to adopt every vice, and too little to understand that a single vice to which we habituate ourselves is sufficient to infect the whole heart. His conscience is too delicate to commit a sin without feeling remorse, and therefore he wishes to compensate

DORANTE. or the Man who has but

one Vice and many Virtues.

Men are seldom so depraved as to yield themselves up to many vices at the same time, or so hardened in evil as not to make amends by some virtues for the favourite vice to which they habituate themselves. Dorante belonged to this latter class. He is inclined to voluptuousness, although with certain considerations, and he candidly confesses that he is under the subjection of that passion; but, at the same time, he is just, benevo

the evil by the good, and to make amends for his incontinence by the practice of the duties of society. Persons of this character are not rare, and it is one which is attended with a great detriment to society. We are too much addicted to the imitation of a vice, which is accompanied with the display of so much virtue, and a young man, though possessed of the most moral sentiments, may be imposed upon by it. It is also to be regretted that characters of that stamp enjoy in the world a certain degree of respect. Their predominant vice is merely made the subject of a few pleasantries; and thus what is criminal in itself is, by a false treatment of the world, rendered scarcely deserving of censure. With the very best dispositions it is possible to commit an error, and the most virtuous of men are subject to frailties; but to persevere in them, and not to acknowledge them, because we cannot resolve to correct them, betrays a depravity of heart; and that which before was called by the softened name of a frailty, becomes a crime.


R. H.


No. II.

WOMAN not inferior to MAN.


H generosity

OWEVER, as the pleasure,

make out. And yet so universally received is this notion among them, that it every where prevails, from the prince to the peasant. Nay, I myself was 'accidentally witness to the diverting scene of a journeyman tailor beating his wife about the ears with a neck of mutton, to make her know, as he said, her sovereign_lord and master. And yet this, perhaps, is as strong an argument as the best of their sex is able to produce, though conveyed in a greasy light.

But be this as it may, whether nature designed them for our masters or not, if their injunctions were the sober dictates of sound reason, we should find the yoke of obedience an agreeable weight; since obeying them we should but submit our will to reason, and act like those intelligent beings we know ourselves to be. And that, generally speaking, the women are more inclined so to do than the men, where every circumstance is parallel, is too well known to admit of a doubt. But then it would be putting ourselves upon the level with brutes, to descend to a compliance with the generality of their commands; since that alone would suffice to degrade us, and render us as despicable as the upright unfeathered animals who lay them upon us.

Masters then, or not masters, they have but one of these two means to chuse in exerting their pretended authority either let them, as usual,. suit their commands to their passions,

none but women, as irrational as themselves, will obey them, a preeminence which no woman of sense will envy them or let reason speak in their orders, and all women of sense will listen to it; though the men should tickle themselves with the notion, that our obedience is paid to them.

makes us take in that office, is sufficient to make us discharge ourselves of it with the utmost tenderness, without any view of reward; I do not here mean to complain of our receiving none. I would only beg leave to say, that our being so much more capable than the male kind to execute that office well, no ways proves us unqualified to execute any Were the men to make choice of other. Indeed, the men themselves the latter, we would indulge them seem tacitly agreed to acknowledge the innocent liberty of fancying as much but then, according to their wonted disinterestedness, they are still for confining all our other talents to the pleasant limits of obeying, serving, and pleasing our masters. That they are our masters, they take for granted; but by what title they are so, not one of them is able to UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. XIV,

themselves masters, while we, pleased with seeing all the authority placed in reason, where it should be, must know that each sex would have the privilege of conveying it's influences to the other in their turns: and if man had steadiness enough to conform all his injunctions to woman to C


Republication of Scarce Tracts.-No. II.

the dictates of reason; the same steadiness would induce him to yield to those dictates when woman was the means of conveying them. No matter by what mouth reason speaks: if men were strictly attached to it; whether we or themselves were the vehicles of it's influence, we should on both sides be equally determined by it. But the case is at present quite otherwise. The men, who cannot deny us to be rational creatures, would have us justify their irrational opinion and treatment of us, by our descending to a mean compliance with their irrational expectations. But I hope, while women have any spirit left, they will exert it all, in shewing how worthy they are of better usage, by not submitting tamely to such misplaced arrogance.


title over the whole creation. But
that is a more generous kind of brute
than those we are speaking of, though
not quite so fierce and ungovernable;
and therefore scorns
strength, where it finds too great
to exert it's
disproportion in even an adversary.

it part of our business to please the I allow indeed, we ought to make poor things, if the attempt were likely to succeed. It would be quite barbarous to let a child cry, if a rattle would keep it quiet. But the misfortune is, that it is a study for life to find out a means of pleasing these greater, more subborn brats. I have heard, it is a vulgar proverb, that the devil is good-humoured when he is pleased, and if this proverb, like others, be founded on experience, it To stoop to some regard for the sometimes. I wish as good an arguis a proof, the devil can be pleased strutting things is not enough; to ment could be brought to prove that humour them more than we could the men can ever be so. children, with any tolerable decency, the fantastical composition of their But such is is too little; they must be served nature, that the more pains is taken forsooth. Pretty creatures indeed! in endeavouring to please them, the How worthy do they appear of this less, generally speaking, is the labour boasted pre-eminence: To exact a like to prove successful; or if ever it servitude they want the courage them- does, the reward selves to submit to, from those whom expence. never pays the their vanity stigmatizes with the cha- were created by Heaven for some And surely the women racter of weaker vessels: and to us better end than to labour in vain their to be their drudges, whom they are whole life long. forced to court and decoy into their power by the most pitiful cringes! cannot be said to spend our lives in I foresee it may be urged, that we Upon what title do they build their vain, while we are answering the end claim to our services, greater than we of our creation and as we were can shew to theirs? Have they half created for no other end than for the so plausible a plea over us, as over men's use, our only business is to be those hapless savages, whose unsus- subject to, and please them: Neither pecting innocence has robbed them shall we be answerable for neglecting of the power of guarding against un- every thing else, because God has not natural violence and injustice? Are given us a capacity for more. not the generality of our sex, when this must appear, from what I have weak enough to yield ourselves, in already said and shall hereafter more pity to their fawning, affected despair, fully shew, begging the question; a prey to their dissimulation, made and supposing what should, but canthe dupes of our credulous good- not be proved. mature and innocence? Where is there a woman, who having generously descending, and gracious enough to There are some however more contrusted her liberty with a husband, confess, that many women have wit does not immediately find the spaniel and conduct; but yet they are of metamorphosed into a tiger, or has opinion, that even such of us as are not reason to envy the lesser misery most remarkable for either or both, of a bond-slave to a merciless tyrant? still betray something which speaks If brutal strength, in which we ac- the imbecility of our sex. knowledge their pre-eminence, is a threadbare notions, which long since Stale, sufficient plea, for their trampling sunk with their own weight; and the apon us: the lion has a much better extreme weakness of which seemed


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