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dates, was defeated with the loss of the Roinan republic. This war was sixty vessels, and was besieged in the finished in the year 687. city of Calcedona; but Lucullus, his The facts which have now been colleague, obliged Mithridates to raise noticed are sufficient to give an idea the siege, and, in his turn, besieged of the naval power of the Romans, Mithridates in bis own camp. Miiliri, and of the actions by which they dates, attempting to pass into Byzan- signalised themselves beyond their tium, was overtaken by a violent continent, although the different nastorm, in which he lost upwards of val battles in the civil wars of the resixty vessels, and Lucullus afterwards public, nor the armament of Julius supk thirty-two ships of war and seve- Cæsar against England, have been ral transports.
On his return, the noticed. These may form the subject honours of a triumph were decreed of another paper. to him, and amongst the monuments
R. H. of his victory were exhibited 110 vessels of war armed with prows.
Piracy nevertheless increased, and The OPINION of the WORLD TO the Corsairs infested the whole of the Mediterranean. A great interruption
Sir, prejudicial to the whole of Italy, and
AM one of those who have dared I
to question and despise that forespecially to Rome, which saw itself midable thing, to petty minds, called thereby deprived of all the necessary the world's opinion. Understand me articles of life, which the sea had been rightly. I would not rob human naaccustomed to furnish it. All the ture of that discreet and necessary convoys were taken, and there existed attention to human opinion upon
the no further safety for the citizens or basis of which is founded all the hapthe merchants. The Corsairs had even piness of individuals and all the coure the audacity to appear at the mouth tesy of society; but, I can never conof the Tiber, and they pillaged the found this manly and rational feeling jemples and the maritime cities of with that diseased and sickly emotion Italy. Dispersed on the ocean, they of a weak mind by which it becomes formed amongst themselves a kind the slave of other men's thoughts, of a republic, and which was governed and the actions of the individual are by those chiefs most famed for their accommodated, forsooth, to the standnautical skill. Cilicia was their gene- ard of their opinion. ral rendezvous, and they there formed And what is this world whose opitheir arsenals and magazines.
nion is thus droaded? Why, proPompey was chosen to purge the bably, not more extensive than the, sea of these dangerous enemies, who width and length of a street, or pere reduced Rome to starvation, and de- haps of an alley. It is the immediate solated all the coasts of Italy. The neighbourhood, a collection of green command of all the Mediterranean grocers, milkmen, bakers, and pubwas given to him, from the Straits of licans, of whom we are to stand in Cadiž to the Bosphorus, and means awe, together with their auxiliaries, were given to him of sending to sea the servant maids of the place. It is 500 vessels. In less than three months before the majesty of these that we Pompey defeated the Pirates near the are to bow in reverence, and, ere we coasts of Cilicia, and obliged them venture to act, calculate scrupulously for the most part to surrender at dis- what they will say. There is, of course, cretion, after having captured from as many worlds in London as there them more than 100 armed galleys. are streets, and every man lives in a After this fortunate expedition, he world of his own whose good or bad judged it proper, to deprive them of opinion he is to respect. "But this is the means of resuming their piracies, unqualified folly. to interdict them the sea, and to assign What is it to me, what ought it to to each a portion of land at a distance be to any man, or to any woman, what from the sea or rivers. The Pirates is said of them by a herd of vulgar and obeyed, and, in the space of a short illiterate beings whose only care and time, became zealously attached to employment it is to create and propae
UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. XIV.
gate lies. To watch the conduct of rence, if you would consult your own
WHO AM I?
BARON Holberg. Written by municating all the scandal of the
Himself. Ertracted from the Laneighbourhood. What follows?
tin Edition of Leipsick, in 1743. When they have unloaded their own
By W. HAMILTON Reid,
CHE next comedy bears the title
of Lucretia, or the Fickleminded, for some mistresses to make com- and principally censures that silly inpanions of their servants), and the constancy which is but too frequently old women enliven a few cellars and to be met with among the ladies. The back garrets with their budget of chief character in this drama is an news: they all (mistress and maid, inconstant and fickleminded female, husband and wife, old man and old whose manners have been described woman) hear, examnine, and com- with so much animation in Mon
distort events from their taigne's Essays, that a better picture true purpose : add a few heightening cannot be wished for. It met with touches, and then, hasten to spread rather a cold reception at Copenthe poisonous vapour through their bagen, because some persons thought circles. This Is THE WORLD's several parts were too pointed. Others, .
however, more cool in their judgThere is no purity of conduct which ment, esteemed this piece equal to can secure a man from the calumnious any of the rest of my productions, reports of such heralds of infamy. which I thought bonour sufficient. To tell simple and unadorned truth A skilful musician entertains but a would be insipid and tasteless: their very slight opinion of the majority of palates have acquired the relish of his hearers; the judgment of the few rankness and must be gratified: their is what he abides by the most. The feelings are debauched, their morals opinion of the many I have little reloose (tor where the moral fabric is gard for: the approbation of those firm, such paltry arts are held in ab- only who are capable of judging, for horrence), and their hearts corrupt. me'is sufficient. Here it may be neVirtue they detest. You never hear cessary to observe, that among the them tell a tale of good deeds: no: dramas collected and translated into they leave them to the consciences of Gerinan by M. Gottsched, there are those who do them, and to approving eighteen by Baron Holberg. These Heaven. To hope to propitiate such appeared in 1743. In 1745, three enemies, is to look for miracles. The more comedies, from the same pen, only way is to despise them. Erect were translated, nainely, The Eleventh a tribunal in your own bosom: be of June, The Palsgruve, and Ulysses conscious of rectitude: respurt the of Ithaca. opinion of the Good and the Wise : The third comedy, acted at Copenbut for that of the world (as it is ge- hagen, was Jean de France, or the nerally called), hold it in utter abhor- Frenchified Dane. In this the folly
of our youth was exposed, as ridicu- a simpleton, to Copenhagen, to collous numbers of them travel into fo- lect the interest of his loans. The seign parts, and when they have run simpleton, however, in endeavouring through all their means, they return to over-reach one of his father's half naked, or loaded with vice and debtors, is himself deceived by one of folly, and such a perversion of taste, the servants, who pretends to be a that they see every thing in their own beggar, and who acts his part so well, country in an inferior point of view to as not only to free his master of his what they did before.' And I flatter debts, but also to send the son of the myself, that of this comedy it may be usurer home again almost naked. said,
The seventh comedy is The LyingOmne tulit punctum, qui miscuit utile in, in wbich all the customs and mandulci."
ners of this interesting period are
described ; and the circumstances atThe next comedy was Jeppe of the tending enquiries, visits, &c. &c. often Mountains, or the Danish Menalcas. more painful than child-birth itself, This plot I borrowed from Biderman's are connected with a plot which Tropia : for this, of course, I claim pleased, from the number of females no merit. The first representation met introduced in it. Like others, this with considerable opposition, because, piece gave umbrage at first, but at in fact, the players quarrelled among length was looked upon as one of the themselves.' In the next representa- best. tion, however, they succeeded to ad
was a drama of one act, miration ; and the more so, as one of entitled The Empiric, or the Arabian the company played the Boor of Zea. Powder. In this piece those persons land to ihe life, imitating the speech are justly held up to ridicule who are and manners of those peasants to a weak enough to imagine that gold is degree beyond all comparison, for- to be made by the transmutation of cible and accurate.
other metals. An adventurer of this The fifth comedy was Gerard the description is brought forward, who Westphalian, or the Prattling Barber. endeavours to deceive a person of This displeased the audience to such condition, and who is so far deceived a degree, that many left the house on by the impostor as to believe that, at the first night without seeing it out, length, he is actually in possession of and some stole away without any ce- the philosopher's stone. "To his own remony! This was what I by no irreparable loss, he finds out in the means expected, as I thought the sequel that he is imposed upon, and piece, upon the whole, the least ob- laments his easy credulity with tears. jectionable of any; but when I learnt -The censure does not rest merely that it was thought tedious, because upon pretended alchemists, but 'exsome of the barber's speeches were tends to other subjects, which render several times repeated,'I printed it, this comedy very pleasant and attractand added a preface, in which I de- ing. It is made to appear, that'as fended the parts objected to, and ad- soon as ever it was known to the peoduced reasons to shew, that what had ple at large that this gentleman, by been censured was the very essence the other's assistance, could make of the satire that distinguished the gold, the whole town was struck with piece. This apology so far changed astonishment; and even those who the minds of the audience, that those just before had treated him with conwho were its greatest enemies at first tempt, now crowded to his house to afterwards became its warmest friends. congratulate him. His unexpected
The sixth comedy was the Eleventh success, however, renders him proud of June, the anniversary of that day and conceited, and he not only rein Copenhagen, when 'money is lent ceives them with hauteur, but upat interest, and when that interest also braids them with their former conis paid. Being played on the same duct: but as he is still busy in the day, the humours of which it was de- great work, it is so contrived, that the signed to describe, it was numerously deception is all at once discovered, attended. The plot runs thus. Á and the whole house is filled with great capitalist sends his son, who is laughing, hooting, and howling.
The ninth comedy is called Christ- ther quite in years. The misealculamas Eve. This was generally well tions of time, and the misnomer of received. The object was to describe places are frequent, and, in fact, nothe vices and follies peculiar to this thing of this kind is omitted which is season of the vear. There is nothing common in bad plays. All these deremarkable in the plot; bui the lan- ficiencies are, at length, discovered by guage is so adapted, that scarcely a harlequin, and that in such a manner, sentence was heard in its first repre- that it not only pleased the common sentation without exciting loud peals people, who are generally averse to of laughter. Indeed, the piece was, critical and moral dissertation, but in a manner, interrupted by the plea- likewise those of superior taste, and sure it created. The periormers whose rank in life gave them better could scarcely contain themselves; opportunities of judging. and it was thought, ai one period,
The thirteenth comedy bears the that they would not be able to get name of The Journey to the Well, and through more than half of the piece.
related to those persons who enterThe tenth comedy is called The taimed a very high estimation of the Festival of Bacchus, or the Masque- virtues of a well, not far from Coperirade. It is much to be doubted whe. hagen, and who, at a certain season ther the common people, who see or the year, viz. a: Michaelmas, were nothing but what strikes the eye, or in the habit of visiting this well in the better informed, who wish to have their ears pleased at the same
The fourteenth piece was a tragitime; I say it is a question which de comedy, entided Melampus. The scription were the best pleased with hero of this piece is a little dog, so this performance. The dialogue is much the faiourite of two sisters, wholly satirical; and this comedy was that a long and desperate quarrel beactually performed three nights suc- tween them is the result
. Peace, cessively, a piece of good fortune however, is restored, at last, by the which never attended any Danish intervention of their two broihers, comedy before. The eleventh drama was Jacob of tention out of the
who convey the object of their con
way. repreTyloe, or the Bounting Soldier This sentation pleased the spectators behad the good fortune to please the yond measure ; for, as the disturbance audience as inuch as the former, and contention, which had arisen though the plot was not new, having from so trivial a subject, ended thus before been handled by Plautus. As happily, the audience found themI thought the soliloquies in this selves by these means equally as much piece much too long, though the wit disposed to laugh as to weep. This of them might please a mere reader, piece had a double object. In the I reduced thein considerably.
first place it was intended as a burThe twelfth drama, Ulysses of lesque upon tragedy in general, and Ithaca, was received with very great of course to render it ridiculous. For applause. This piece contained a this purpose the speeches were made very severe censure upon those come- as verbose and pompous as possible ; dies which had been acted for fifty and, at the same time, some very years in succession without any re- courtly things were said to the ladies, gard to the unities of time and place. which, as the poet expresses it, Such things as these bad formerly been performed by strollers. There- Morte viri cupiunt animam serrare fore, to render this satire the more
catellæ." apparent, the time of this piece was The fifteenth piece was called The extended to forty years. The princes Brother's Controversy, partly upon an and generals, brought forward, only example to be found in Chainberlain's distinguished themselves by their State of England, respecting two brobombastical speeches... Every king thers,one of whom was a Catholic, and also that appeared upon the stage was the other a protestant, each of whom ushered in by a flourish of trumpets. endeavoured to persuade the other to
The characters belonging to this piece, his mode of thinking, till, at length, in one act, appear young, and in ano. the protestant became a catholic, and
the catholic a protestant. My two bro- their merit. They have, however, thers, on the contrary, I represented, inaintained their ground, and have the one as extremely superstitious, certainly had their due share of esteem and the other as a complete sceptic. among great and small. The intervention of a friend, who en- You express your surprise in your deavours to reconcile them, termi- last letter at the closing of the Danish nates in making the sceptic the most theatre in Denmark. I, on the conimplicit believer, and he wbo was a trary, am the most surprised that it believer before, not to believe any should have maintained its ground so thing! This drama shews that men long. I know thai the most enlightneler chuse the medium, but that the ened nations have made greai exerzeal of others sometimes carries them tions in preserving their theatres in, so far in convincing people of their the best condition possible, and imerrors, as to niake thew renounce the proving them to the utmost. The whole. I must neveriheless ackuow- Danes, if they do not mean to come ledge that this drama is better calcu- behind the rest, must yet imitate lated for the closet than the stage. thein in this particular. The advan
These fifteen comedies being print- tages of a theatre are-self-evident. ed, they passed through three editions There virtue and vice are displayed in the course of two years.
Five in striking colours. But the common others of mine, in the interval, tbat people reaped little or no benefit from were not printed, were, however, scenic representations, whilst they favourites on the stage. The first of were contined to country strollers. these was called Tunning Harry. While encouragement was given to This is the name of a man-servant in our ou'n theatre, so long were those all my comedies. The other was strangers who used to visit our shores called Henry and Petronilla : a third, kept aloof; strangers, who not only The Palsgrave : a fourth, The Busy conveyed our money out of our Idler: the fifth, The Faithless Step- pockets, but, besides our loss of time, Father.
corrupted us by their bad manners. Some people bave expressed their I think, had our Danish stage been astonishment that I could write continued, it would have had ihe best tweniy plays in so short a time, and etlect in refining our language. In most of them embracing vices and this respect I know not whether you follies scarcely touched upon by other pity me or the public most. I, for
Some are ready to apply to my part, am now free from all the me what Horace said,
fatigue, envy, and rivalship, with
which I was continually beset. That Nam fuit hoc vitiosus in hora saepe du- which in France, or in England, pro
duces profit to a writer to the amount Ut magnum versus dictabat, stans pede of two or three thousand rix dollars uno."
when his plays succeed, only brought Whatever people may say of my pain to me. I, therefore, have a just comedies, I will only answer by ob- right to your congratulation. serving, that they were played alter
[To be continued.] Dately with sone of the best of Moliere's, and received with equal ap-,
COLUMBUS' Casa. probation; though I must acknowJedge, that in the perforniance of
Sir, Moliere's plays strict justice was done.
E are told, by the historians of in
the discovery of America, that world where the people have so little Columbus, when overtaken by a viotaste for the writings of their own lent storm on his return to Europe countrymen as mine. The ladies in after his first voyage, and fearful lest, particular have the common failing of in case of shipwreck, the record of his being unwilling to see or hear any mighty achievement should perish, thing unless it wears a French dress. took the precaution of writing a short Consequently, my pieces had a num. account of the voyage he had made, ber of secret, as well as open enemies, of the course which he had taken, who sought in vain to rob them of of the situation and riches of the