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dates, was defeated with the loss of the Roman republic. This war was sixty vessels, and was besieged in the finished in the year 687. city of Calcedona; but Lucullus, his The facts which have now been colleague, obliged Mithridates to raise noticed are sufficient to give an idea the siege, and, in his turn, besieged of the naval power of the Romans, Mithridates in his own camp. Mithri- and of the actions by which they dates, attempting to pass into Byzan- signalised themselves beyond their tium, was overtaken by a violent continent, although the different nastorm, in which he lost upwards of val battles in the civil wars of the resixty vessels, and Lucullus afterwards public, nor the armament of Julius sunk thirty-two ships of war and seve- Cæsar against England, have been ral transports. On his return, the noticed. These may form the subject honours of a triumph were decreed of another paper. to him, and amongst the monuments of his victory were exhibited 110 vessels of war armed with prows.

Piracy nevertheless increased, and the Corsairs infested the whole of the Mediterranean. A great interruption to commerce ensued, which was very prejudicial to the whole of Italy, and especially to Rome, which saw itself thereby deprived of all the necessary articles of life, which the sea had been accustomed to furnish it. All the convoys were taken, and there existed no further safety for the citizens or the merchants. The Corsairs had even the audacity to appear at the mouth of the Tiber, and they pillaged the temples and the maritime cities of Italy. Dispersed on the ocean, they formed amongst themselves a kind of a republic, and which was governed by those chiefs most famed for their nautical skill. Cilicia was their general rendezvous, and they there formed their arsenals and magazines.

R. H.




AM one of those who have dared

to question and despise that formidable thing, to petty minds, called the world's opinion. Understand me · rightly. I would not rob human nature of that discreet and necessary attention to human opinion upon the basis of which is founded all the happiness of individuals and all the courtesy of society; but, I can never confound this manly and rational feeling with that diseased and sickly emotion of a weak mind by which it becomes the slave of other men's thoughts, and the actions of the individual are accommodated, forsooth, to the standard of their opinion.

And what is this world whose opinion is thus dreaded? Why, proPompey was chosen to purge the bably, not more extensive than the sea of these dangerous enemies, who width and length of a street, or perreduced Rome to starvation, and de- haps of an alley. It is the immediate solated all the coasts of Italy. The neighbourhood, a collection of green command of all the Mediterranean grocers, milkmen, bakers, and pubwas given to him, from the Straits of Ticans, of whom we are to stand in Cadiz to the Bosphorus, and means were given to him of sending to sea 500 vessels. In less than three months Pompey defeated the Pirates near the coasts of Cilicia, and obliged them for the most part to surrender at discretion, after having captured from them more than 100 armed galleys. After this fortunate expedition, he judged it proper, to deprive them of the means of resuming their piracies, to interdict them the sea, and to assign What is it to me, what ought it to to each a portion of land at a distance be to any man, or to any woman,what from the sea or rivers. The Pirates is said of them by a herd of vulgar and obeyed, and, in the space of a short illiterate beings whose only care and time, became zealously attached to employment it is to create and propa UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. XIV.

awe, together with their auxiliaries, the servant maids of the place. It is before the majesty of these that we are to bow in reverence, and, ere we venture to act, calculate scrupulously what they will say. There is, of course, as many worlds in London as there are streets, and every man lives in a world of his own whose good or bad opinion he is to respect. But this is unqualified folly.

I remain, Sir, your's, &c.


gate lies. To watch the conduct of rence, if you would consult your own others, to report it (not as it is, but happiness. They who report and according to the fancy of the moment), they who listen to a tale of scandal, to repeat what is told them with all are both equally infamous; and shall necessary increase and exaggeration we propitiate the organs of infamy? of circumstance, to stab reputation, No: rather give them food: Give to slander morals, to asperse inten- them opportunities of talking, and of tions, to calumniate actions;-these, course defaming, you, for to be well these are the prime offices of persons with them would be the signal of who constitute what is called the your own degradation. world's opinion. Look into a petty chandler's shop, or the bar of a public house, or any similar place, and you will behold a congregation of dram- July 16th, 1810. drinking old women, of dishonest maid-servants, and of paltry tradespeople, who are receiving and communicating all the scandal of the neighbourhood. What follows?— When they have unloaded their own cargoes and taken in a fresh one, away they go home: the tradesman tells wife, servant tells mistress (for it is the modern fashion for some mistresses to make companions of their servants), and the old women enliven a few cellars and back garrets with their budget of news: they all (mistress and maid, husband and wife, old man and old woman) hear, examine, and comment: distort events from their true purpose: add a few heightening touches, and then, hasten to spread the poisonous vapour through their circles. THIS IS THE WORLD'S


There is no purity of conduct which can secure a man from the calumnious reports of such heralds of infamy, To tell simple and unadorned truth would be insipid and tasteless: their palates have acquired the relish of rankness and must be gratified: their feelings are debauched, their morals loose (for where the moral fabric is firm, such paltry arts are held in abhorrence), and their hearts corrupt. Virtue they detest. You never hear them tell a tale of good deeds: no: they leave them to the consciences of those who do them, and to approving Heaven. To hope to propitiate such enemies, is to look for miracles. The only way is to despise them. Erect a tribunal in your own bosom: be conscious of rectitude: respect the opinion of the GooD and the WISE: but for that of the world (as it is generally called), hold it in utter abhor

Himself. Extracted from the La-
tin Edition of Leipsick, in 1743.
[Continued from Vol. x111. p. 468.]

HE next comedy bears the
of Lucretia, or the fickleminded,
and principally censures that silly in-
constancy which is but too frequently
to be met with among the ladies. The
chief character in this drama is an
inconstant and fickleminded female,
whose manners have been described
with so much animation in Mon-
taigne's Essays, that a better picture
cannot be wished for. It met with
rather a cold reception at Copen-
hagen, because some persons thought
several parts were too pointed. Others,
however, more cool in their judg-
ment, esteemed this piece equal to
any of the rest of my productions,
which I thought honour sufficient.

A skilful musician entertains but a very slight opinion of the majority of his hearers; the judgment of the few is what he abides by the most. The opinion of the many I have little regard for: the approbation of those only who are capable of judging, for me is sufficient. Here it may be necessary to observe, that among the dramas collected and translated into German by M. Gottsched, there are eighteen by Baron Holberg. These appeared in 1743. In 1745, three more comedies, from the same pen, were translated, namely, The Eleventh of June, The Palsgrave, and Ulysses of Ithaca.

The third comedy, acted at Copenhagen, was Jean de France, or the Frenchified Dane. In this the folly

of our youth was exposed, as ridicu- a simpleton, to Copenhagen, to collous numbers of them travel into fo- lect the interest of his loans. The reign parts, and when they have run simpleton, however, in endeavouring through all their means, they return to over-reach one of his father's half naked, or loaded with vice and debtors, is himself deceived by one of folly, and such a perversion of taste, the servants, who pretends to be a that they see every thing in their own beggar, and who acts his part so well, country in an inferior point of view to as not only to free his master of his what they did before. And I flatter debts, but also to send the son of the myself, that of this comedy it may be usurer home again almost naked. said,

“Omne tulit punctum, qui miscuit utile


The seventh comedy is The Lyingin, in which all the customs and manners of this interesting period are described; and the circumstances atThe next comedy was Jeppe of the tending enquiries, visits, &c. &c. often Mountains, or the Danish Menalcas. more painful than child-birth itself, This plot I borrowed from Biderman's are connected with a plot which Utopia: for this, of course, I claim pleased, from the number of females no merit. The first representation met introduced in it. Like others, this with considerable opposition, because, piece gave umbrage at first, but at in fact, the players quarrelled among length was looked upon as one of the themselves. In the next representa- best. tion, however, they succeeded to admiration; and the more so, as one of the company played the Boor of Zealand to the life, imitating the speech and manners of those peasants to a degree beyond all comparison, forcible and accurate.

The fifth comedy was Gerard the Westphalian, or the Prattling Barber. This displeased the audience to such a degree, that many left the house on the first night without seeing it out, and some stole away without any ceremony! This was what I by no means expected, as I thought the piece, upon the whole, the least objectionable of any but when I learnt that it was thought tedious, because some of the barber's speeches were several times repeated, I printed it, and added a preface, in which I defended the parts objected to, and adduced reasons to shew, that what had been censured was the very essence of the satire that distinguished the piece. This apology so far changed the minds of the audience, that those who were its greatest enemies at first afterwards became its warmest friends. The sixth comedy was the Eleventh of June, the anniversary of that day in Copenhagen, when money is lent at interest, and when that interest also is paid. Being played on the same day, the humours of which it was designed to describe, it was numerously attended. The plot runs thus. A great capitalist sends his son, who is

The eighth was a drama of one act, entitled The Empiric, or the Arabian Powder. In this piece those persons are justly held up to ridicule who are weak enough to imagine that gold is to be made by the transmutation of other metals. An adventurer of this description is brought forward, who endeavours to deceive a person of condition, and who is so far deceived by the impostor as to believe that, at length, he is actually in possession of the philosopher's stone. To his own irreparable loss, he finds out in the sequel that he is imposed upon, and laments his easy credulity with tears. -The censure does not rest merely upon pretended alchemists, but 'extends to other subjects, which render this comedy very pleasant and attracting. It is made to appear, that as soon as ever it was known to the people at large that this gentleman, by the other's assistance, could make gold, the whole town was struck with astonishment; and even those who just before had treated him with contempt, now crowded to his house to congratulate him. His unexpected success, however, renders him proud and conceited, and he not only receives them with hauteur, but upbraids them with their former conduct: but as he is still busy in the great work, it is so contrived, that the deception is all at once discovered, and the whole house is filled with laughing, hooting, and howling.

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The ninth comedy is called Christ- ther quite in years. The miscalculamas Eve. This was generally well tions of time, and the misnomer of received. The object was to describe places are frequent, and, in fact, nothe vices and follies peculiar to this thing of this kind is omitted which is season of the year. remarkable in the plot; but the lan- ficiencies are, at length, discovered by There is nothing common in bad plays. All these deguage is so adapted, that scarcely a harlequin, and that in such a manner, sentence was heard in its first repre- that it not only pleased the common sentation without exciting loud peals people, who are generally averse to of laughter. Indeed, the piece was, critical and moral dissertation, but in a manner, interrupted by the plea- likewise those of superior taste, and sure it created. could scarcely contain themselves; opportunities of judging. The performers whose rank in life gave them better and it was thought, at one period, that they would not be able to get through more than half of the piece. The tenth comedy is called The Festival of Bacchus, or the Masquerade. It is much to be doubted whether the common people, who see nothing but what strikes the eye, or the better informed, who wish to have their ears pleased at the same time; I say it is a question which description were the best pleased with this performance. The dialogue is wholly satirical; and this comedy was actually performed three nights successively, a piece of good fortune which never attended any Danish comedy before.

The eleventh drama was Jacob of Tyboe, or the Bouncing Soldier This had the good fortune to please the audience as much as the former, though the plot was not new, having before been handled by Plautus. As I thought the soliloquies in this piece much too long, though the wit of them might please a mere reader, I reduced thein considerably.

The twelfth drama, Ulysses of Ithaca, was received with very great applause. This piece contained a very severe censure upon those comedies which had been acted for fifty years in succession without any regard to the unities of time and place. Such things as these had formerly been performed by strollers. Therefore, to render this satire the more apparent, the time of this piece was extended to forty years. and generals, brought forward, only The princes distinguished themselves by their bombastical speeches... Every king also that appeared upon the stage was ushered in by a flourish of trumpets. The characters belonging to this piece, in one act, appear young, and in ano

name of The Journey to the Well, and The thirteenth comedy bears the tained a very high estimation of the related to those persons who entervirtues of a well, not far from Copenhagen, and who, at a certain season of the year, viz. at Michaelmas, were in the habit of visiting this well in great numbers.


comedy, entitled Melampus. The
The fourteenth piece was a tragi-
hero of this piece is a little dog, so
much the favourite of two sisters,
that a long and desperate quarrel be-
tween them is the result.
however, is restored, at last, by the
intervention of their two brothers,
tention out of the way. This repre-
who convey the object of their con-
sentation pleased the spectators be-
yond measure; for, as the disturbance
and contention, which had arisen
from so trivial a subject, ended thus
happily, the audience found them-
selves by these means equally as much
disposed to laugh as to
piece had a double object. In the
weep. This
lesque upon tragedy in general, and
first place it was intended as a bur-
of course to render it ridiculous. For
this purpose the speeches were made
as verbose and pompous as possible;
and, at the same time, some very
courtly things were said to the ladies,
which, as the poet expresses it,

"Morte viri cupiunt animam servare

The fifteenth piece was called The
example to be found in Chamberlain's
Brother's Controversy, partly upon an
State of England, respecting two bro-
thers,one of whom was a Catholic, and
the other a protestant, each of whom
endeavoured to persuade the other to
his mode of thinking, till, at length,
the protestant became a catholic, and

their merit. They have, however, maintained their ground, and have certainly had their due share of esteem among great and small.

the catholic a protestant. My two brothers, on the contrary, I represented, the one as extremely superstitious, and the other as a complete sceptic. The intervention of a friend, who en- You express your surprise in your deavours to reconcile them, termi- last letter at the closing of the Danish nates in making the sceptic the most theatre in Denmark. I, on the conimplicit believer, and he who was a trary, am the most surprised that it believer before, not to believe any should have maintained its ground so thing! This drama shews that men long. I know that the most enlightnever chuse the medium, but that the ened nations have made great exerzeal of others sometimes carries them tions in preserving their theatres in so far in convincing people of their the best condition possible, and imerrors, as to make thein renounce the proving them to the utmost. The whole. I must nevertheless acknow- Danes, if they do not mean to come ledge that this drama is better calcu- behind the rest, must yet imitate lated for the closet than the stage. them in this particular. The advanThese fifteen comedies being print- tages of a theatre are-self-evident. ed, they passed through three editions There virtue and vice are displayed in the course of two years. Five in striking colours. But the common others of mine, in the interval, that people reaped little or no benefit from were not printed, were, however, scenic representations, whilst they favourites on the stage. The first of were confined to country strollers. these was called Cunning Harry. While encouragement was given to This is the name of a man-servant in our own theatre, so long were those all my comedies. The other was strangers who used to visit our shores called Henry and Petronilla: a third, The Palsgrave: a fourth, The Busy Idler: the fifth, The Faithless Step


Some people have expressed their astonishment that I could write twenty plays in so short a time, and most of them embracing vices and follies scarcely touched upon by other writers. Some are ready to apply to me what Horace said,

Nam fuit hoc vitiosus in hora saepe du


Ut magnum versus dictabat, stans pede


Whatever people may say of my comedies, I will only answer by observing, that they were played alternately with some of the best of Moliere's, and received with equal ap-, probation; though I must acknowledge, that in the performance of Moliere's Perhaps plays is it justice wy in the strict was done. world where the people have so little taste for the writings of their own countrymen as mine. The ladies in particular have the common failing of being unwilling to see or hear any thing unless it wears a French dress. Consequently, my pieces had a num ber of secret, as well as open enemies, who sought in vain to rob them of

kept aloof; strangers, who not only conveyed our money out of our pockets, but, besides our loss of time, corrupted us by their bad manners. I think, had our Danish stage been continued, it would have had the best effect in refining our language. In this respect I know not whether you pity me or the public most. 1, for my part, am now free from all the fatigue, envy, and rivalship, with which I was continually beset. That which in France, or in England, produces profit to a writer to the amount of two or three thousand rix dollars when his plays succeed, only brought pain to me. I, therefore, have a just right to your congratulation.

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