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some Passages and Sections which now seem to be misplaced, may be hereby put into an Order, that may add a Clearness and Connection, which they may be suspected to want in their present Situation : And if we collect and examine the several little Notes, Remarks and Observations, which, tho' now found in several Places of the Pentateuch (), were undoubtedly not written by Moses, but added by some later Hand, a judicious Examiner will fee of these, 1. That they are not so many as they are hastily thought to be. 2. That they are all of them inconsiderable; none of them so necessary in the Places they are found in; but that, if they were omitted, the Text would be full, clear, and connected without them : In this manner we may make the utmost Allowance to the several Objections offered against the Books of Mofes, and have a clear Conviction, that there is no Weight in any of them. That the Pentateuch contains the Books of Mofes, has been constantly believed and testified by the Jews in all Ages: Spinoza himself confesses, that Aben Ezra only, a very modern Writer, pretended to have Doubts of it, and that his Intimations are but dark and obscure: Josephus tells us, as a Truth never questioned, that five of their facred Books were the Books of Moses (P), and our Saviour explains to us in what Senle they were Moses's Books, they were he tells us, Moses's Writings : Had ye believed Moses, said he, ye would have believed me, for he wrote of me; but if ye believe not bis Writings, how fall ye. believe my Words (9) ? . If it were possible to shew, that the Books we now read for Moses's, were not the Books alluded to by our Saviour, something might be offered up
(0) Vid. Cierici Disertat, de Scriptore Pentateuch. (0) Jo. feph..contra Apion. lib. i. c. 8... () John v. 46, 47.
propole tempt this,
what hen Mejer Refutation,
on this Subject : But whoever will attempt this, will find himself not able to propose any thing, that can want a Refutation.
When Mofes had made an End of writing what he was to leave the Israelites, He commanded the Levites, saying, Take this Book of the Law, and put it in the side of the Ark (r) of the Covenant of the Lord your God, that it may be there for a Witness against thee (s): It is here queried, what the Book was which Moses here gave the Levites ; whether all his written Works in one Code or Volume, or whether it was the Words of this Law (t); fome one single Book, which he had just then finished, a Part only of his Writings. Spinoza is for this latter Opinion, this best suiting his Purpose, to insinuate that the Levites had charge only of a sinall Part of what Moses wrote, and consequently, that all, except what was committed to their Keeping, was soon loft (u): But I should think, 1. that the Words, Dibrei battorab bazzaoth, do not perhaps signify the Words of this Law (w) limited to a single Book or Part of Moses's Writings: The Particle nxi zaoth is, I think, sometimes used as plural (x), and the Expression above is probably of this Import; when Moses had made an end of writing the Words of the Law, even all thefir Words or Things]: The Fact might be thus : Moses wrote his Books thus far, to this Place; and then gave the Levites the Charge of them. 2. The Words used by Moses to the Levites are general: He delivered to them, not The Book of this Law; not any particular Part of his Writings, but this Book of the Law in ge
(r) See Prideaux Connect. B. 3. Part. 1. Account of t!e Ark. (s) Deut. xxxi. 26. (1) See ver. 24. (u) In Tract. Thcolog. polit, ubi sup. (w) Deut. xxxi. 24. (a) See Judges xiii. 23.
neral(y); the Particle this was here used, bar, cause Moses had the Book then in his Hand, which he delivered to them : Seper ba Torab (2), or feper Torah (a), was the Name of the whole Code or Volume of the Sacred Writings, never once given by Moses to any single Part of his Works, but imposed here as a general Title of the Book, that contained the Whole of them ; The Law was that Part of the Code for an Introduction to, Illustration, History, or Confirmation of which, all the other Parts were written, and therefore the whole might well be called the Book of the Lacy, the Law being the principal and most important Part of the Code called by this Title. As Moses gave the sacred Volume which he left to the Ifraelites this general Title ; so we find it used in all After-ages for the Title of this Book, even when not only the Works of Moses, but also the Psalıns and the Prophets were contained in it. Folhua wrote his Book in the Book of the Law (6) and yet in Josiah's Time the Volume found in the Temple, which undoubtedly contained all that yohua had written in it, as well as Mojes, was called by its general Name, The Book of the Law, only : In our Saviour's Time the Books of Scripture were of three forts, as Jofepbus afterwards reckoned them (c); namely, the Books of Moses, the Prophets, and the Psalms (d): And our Saviour, who thus diftinguishes them, when he intended to speak of the Particulars that made up the sacred Code, yet in the general not only calls all the Books of Mofes, The Law (e) ; but cites the Book of Psalms as Part of the Law (f), as the Jews alfa
Gi711 7710g 720 rd (z) 2 Kings xxij. 8. (a) Joshua xxiv. 26. 2 Chron. xxxiv, 14 ) Joshua xxiv, 26. (c) Joseph, contra Afion. lib. 1. c. 8. (d) Luke Xxiv. 44. (e) Ibid. (f) John XV. 25.
did in his Age (f), and St. Paul afterwards cited 5 : Ifaiab in like manner (8): Mofes, at delivering his 1 Writings, called the whole Tome, The Book of the Ic Lew, and this continued to be the general Title
of the whole Volume of the facred Books in all Ages, whatever particular Books were annexed to or contained in it. As to the Book of the Wars of the Lord, we have no Reason to think any such Book was written by Moses : It is indeed cited in a Book of Moses (k); but so is the Book of Jasher in that of Fosbua (1), and yet the Book of Jafher was a Composure more modern and of far less Authority than the Book of Hofbua : The Reader may fee what is offer, ed concerning the Citation of the Book of Jasher in Joshua (m), and will find it reasanable perhaps to account for the Citation in Numbers of the Book of the Wars of the Lord in like manner: In what is above offered the Reader will see the greatest Liberty taken by me in the Suppositions I have made concerning the original Divisions or Titles of the Books of Mofes, and the Disacations or Transposicions that may be conceived now to be in some Chapters or Paragraphs of them: I was willing to allow, for the sake of Argument, the utmost that could with any Shew of Reason be pretended ; being fure, that after all, nothing could be concluded to prove Mofes not to have written what we ascribe to him; but I must not leave this Topic without observing, that I cannot say, that Moses did actually divide his Writings into Books in the manner above supposed, or that the Chapters, which we may imagine not to be now found in their proper Places, were Originally otherwise disposed by Mofes than we now
John xii. 34. (g) 1 Cor. xiv. 21. (k) Numbers xxi. 14. i Joshua x, 13. (m) Soe B. xii. p. 502.
find them : Of all the Books written by Mofes, the Book of Genesis only could be composed by him in the Opportunity of a great Leisure (n) : He must have lived in the Hurry of a Variety of Engagements in the Management of a most restless People, all the time he was writing his Accounts of them, and consequently, what is contained in what we now call the Books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, might be at first minuted down, and put together, as Works generally are, which are composed and finished in such Circumstances : The historical Parts were registered as the Occurrences arose that were the matter of them.
The Laws given were recorded when, and as · it pleased God to direct Moses to write them;
sometimes immediately at their being given, at other times not until Occasions arole, that demanded a Recollection of them: Some things were repeated, added to, or explained, as Cir. cumstances required, and Mofes had no time to go over and methodize anew what he had wrote in this manner, but put the whole together and gave it to the Levites, still adding a few Matters that were to be recorded after his ordering the Levites the Charge of his Books; namely, what we find from the 24th Verse of the xxxist Chapter of Deuteronomy to the End of the Xxxiiid Chapter, as Joshua afterwards added to what was left by Moses, the Occurrences of the Times that succeeded. In chis manner, perhaps, we may fully account for all that can seem in any wise to intimate to us, that we have not now the Books of Mofes in the Order and Form in which he left them; and this Account of his Books seems to me most likely
(9} See Vol. II. B: 9.