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names of places the word is equally various in its signification. It may mean a hill, or a hole, or water, and as a place may be seated on a hill by the side of water, or vice versa, and if by water, in nine cases out of ten, must be low also, in the same proportion it is almost impossible to state the origin of a name with Hell in its composition The confusion is made still worse by the word being often corrupted into hill, as in Hylton (anciently Heltun) by the Wear; Hellegate afterwards Hylgate, now Water-row, in Morpeth, leading from the Wansbeck; Hilton, near Staindrop, formerly Helton (on a hill); Hilton Beacon, in Westmoreland, formerly Helton Bacon (under a hill), &c. Again, helle is still used as a verb, "to pour out in a rapid manner," hence probably Helvellyn, a cascade on the Glaaman, in Norway, and Helvellyn, in Cumberland, down which a cataract rushes. Lastly, it means solitary, lonely, as in Hellebeck."
The real truth is this; hell is derived from the old Friesisch helle, or, as it is also written, hille, the two forms prevailing in different parts of Friesland, so that it cannot well be said to be corrupted into hill. But helle is only another mode of the German word, höhle, a hole, nor did hell ever mean any thing else, except metaphorically. In no case did it signify either hill, or water; although to helle may possibly mean, as he asserts, "to pour out in a rapid manner," in which sense it would probably be derived from the old German verb, hellen, i.e. hallen, to sound, which, by an easy metaphorical transition might come to signify rushing, since water could hardly sound without such a concomitant action.
In the present instance there cannot, we think, be any doubt that hell has precisely the same meaning as that assigned to it in the hell-broth of Shakespeare, and what name could have been better applied to these waters boiling up from the very bowels of the earth?
We have now gone through the first division of this work. The second is headed, "Regal, Noble, and Military," and exhibits the same minute accuracy of research, and the same power of lending grace and animation to the dryest details. It is divided into six chapters. The first of these includes annals from the earliest æra of English history to the death of Richard III.; the second is occupied by the Tudors; the third by the Stuarts; the fourth embraces the period from the accession of George IV. to the present time; the fifth relates to the title of Darlington; and the sixth is simply designated Characteristics.
The third division is the Ecclesiastical, of which we have as yet only three chapters, namely the Papal and the Protestant, and "Charities belonging to this parish." The last of these, however, is scarcely begun before it is interrupted by the conclusion of the part itself.
Brief and hasty as the preceding sketch has been, it may yet enable the reader to form some idea of this interesting work, which, to its other merits, adds that of being written in a style of unusual simplicity and elegance.
"A Merry Christmas," by the Author of "Only," "A Trap to Catch a Sunbeam," "Old Jolliffe," &c. London, W. N. Wright, 60, Pall Mall. A FEW months since we had the gratification of recommending the beautiful Tale of "Only ;" and it is now with equal pleasure, that we call attention to the little work before us. The story is prettily conceived and well told, the characters, especially the old misanthrope Peter Pringle, naturally drawn, and the moral, admirably inculcated, and yet
the space occupied is but a tiny volume of less than fifty pages. fair Author of " 'Only" never fails to awaken our kindliest sentiments, to throw a charm and freshness round the scenes she describes, and to enlist our best feelings in the cause of benevolence and truth. We will give no insight into the plot of "a Merry Christmas" but leave the wee tome to win its own way to the cordial and well merited favour of the public. To add to the attraction, Mr. John Tenniel, whose recent fresco of St. Cecilia in the House of Lords is so much admired, has ornamented the cover with a very tasteful design.
The County Seats of England, delineated in a series of Views, executed from Original Drawings; the historical and topographical descriptions by EDWARD TWYCROSS, Esq., M.A. London, Chas. J. Skeet.
ONE of the most peculiar features in the frame-work of English society is the Country Gentleman, a class to which no other land presents the exact counterpart, though of course every nation has its landholders distinct from the mere courtier or citizen. With equal truth it may be said that albeit Castles abound upon the Rhine, Chateaux in France, and Estates in Russia, compared to which all Shropshire would be a speck in the map of the world, still they, none of them, are precisely synonimous with the Halls and Seats of England. The beauty of the latter is of a kind peculiar to themselves, derived in part from the so much abused climate, in part from a happy combination of hill, wood, and water, and partly from the highly cultivated state of the adjoining country. A work, therefore, which has for its object to exhibit the views of such delightful spots, the green gems as it were in the crown of Ocean's Island Queen, cannot fail to be interesting to all who take a pleasure in rural scenery. The first part of Mr. Twycross's splendid work commences with Hertfordshire, and contains a record, elegantly written and carefully drawn up in regard to facts, of the territorial possessions of the respective proprietors, whose seats are depicted. As the undertaking proceeds—and a second part is announced for early appearance-there will be given a comprehensive map, in which the situation of each park, mansion, and seat will be minutely noted, accompanied by an Index describing the names of the several proprietors. From the evidence of this first part, we are led to augur a work as valuable for the extent and variety of the information conveyed in it, as for the beauty of the illustrations, which may be had either plain or coloured. "The County Seats of England," will we feel confident, gain extensive and well merited support, and eventually form the most splendid History ever produced of the stately Homes of the aristocracy.
The Lives of the Speakers of the House of Commons. By JAMES A. MANNING, Esq., of the Inner Temple. 8vo. London, Churton. There is a singular mixture in this volume of history, anecdote, and gossip, that is inexpressibly delightful. It is precisely the book one would most desire upon a long and tedious railway journey, with the certainty of obtaining much useful information while only seeking to beguile the time. Nor shall we do Lord Campbell any wrong, but rather pay him a compliment, in placing this able work by the side of his Lives of the Chancellors.
To write the Lives of the Speakers is in a certain degree to write a history of the House of Commons. In passing from one Speaker to another we see how the house gradually increased the sphere of its duties, till from having been the organ of taxation and of the king's will, it became what it now is, the grand bulwark of the popular liberties, a power which fully balances all the privileges of the Lords, and all the prerogatives of the Crown. The time is long since past when a speaker in addressing the monarch would say as we find even the bold Sir Thomas Crewe saying to the first James, "Da, domine, quod jube, et jubes, quod vis," a humble speech indeed to come from one who had openly declared in parliament that our privileges are our inheritance, not matters of grace nor toleration."
They who are acquainted with the sources, from which information of this kind can alone be drawn, will easily see how much time and labour Mr. Manning must have expended upon the subject, though with great good taste and judgment he keeps his learning out of sight as much as possible; chronicles of all sorts, records, registers, diaries, family muniments, monumental brasses, and the various other materials usually found in the workshop of the antiquary, or historian must have been called into requisition; without them such a mass of facts could never have been brought together.
It may seem almost useless, when the dinner has been excellent, to descant upon the form and elegance of the platters in which it was served up, yet there are some readers whom it may perhaps gratify to learn that this volume is handsomely printed, and is an octavo of the largest size; a true bibliographer indeed would think of nothing else, but like the late Dr. Dibdin would forget the inside of the book while dilating in ecstacy upon uncrop leaves and flowing margins.
The Pianista. London: 67, Paternoster Row.
THE Pianista is a musical publication of considerable merit, and very comprehensive nature; in it will be found, besides collections of waltzes, quadrilles, &c., the pianoforte arrangement of entire operas, from the overture to the finale; these may be thus had, in an easy and elegant form, for less than the price of a single song, as songs are usually sold by our leading publishers. The parts are two shillings each, and we need only quote the contents of one to show the general nature and value of the work. No. 83, contains the songs (English and Italian words) sung by Jenny Lind, with her embellishments, in Donizetti's opera of La Figlia del Reggimento, including the popular canzonet, &c. In some cases the Pianista gives the operas arranged as solos for the pianoforte; out of a tolerably extensive list, we may name, Le Prophète, Puritani, Midsummer Night's Dream, by Mendelsohn; Don Giovanni, Semiramide, Robert le Diable, La Gazza Ladra, Il Barbiere de Seviglia, Le Nozze de Figaro, Norma, Crown Diamonds, &c. &c. For the young, a work of this kind is invaluable, as making them acquainted with the style of the various great masters, at the least possible expense of time and labour. These few remarks have been suggested by a cursory inspection of the operas of Le Prophète, The Huguenots, and Roberto. Next month we purpose giving a fuller and more analytical notice.
ST. JAMES'S MAGAZINE,
HERALDIC AND HISTORICAL REGISTER.
THE Editor begs respectfully to announce, that he reluctantly relinquishes the continuance of the ST. JAMES'S MAGAZINE, beyond the present number, which concludes the second volume. His reason for doing so is simply this. His other avocations,-more strictly confined to Heraldry and Genealogy,-have increased of late so much, in labour and extent, that he cannot, with due regard to their proper performance, devote further time to the editorship of a monthly periodical.
In making this announcement, however, he would observe, that that portion of the Magazine termed the HERALDIC REGISTER will not be abandoned, but will be carried on according to a plan, the arrangement of which is under consideration. Encouraged by the great favour this Heraldic Register has already experienced, Mr. Burke hopes to render it in time a very complete record of Arms and Heraldry.
In conclusion, he has to express his warmest thanks to those kind subscribers and able contributors who have so kindly aided him in this among his other endeavours, to further that honourable love of family history and ancestral reputation, which goes so far to keep this country ever mindful of its long-existing greatness and dignity-ever anxious to preserve the stability of its fame.
It may be also further mentioned that the series of "Trials connected with the Upper Classes of Society," which has formed so popular a feature of this Magazine, will be shortly republished by Mr. Benning, of Fleet-street, in a separate volume, which will contain not only the Trials that have appeared in this periodical, but also a great many more, so as to complete the subject and bring it down to the present time.
ST. JAMES'S MAG. NO. XII.
RAMBLINGS IN MANY COUNTIES.
The eighth was August, being rich arrayed
Forth by the lily hand, the which was crown'd
She left th' unrighteous world and was to Heaven extolled.
We have now come to the vintage, and with that to the close of our year, though not of the year, for the St. James's Magazine commenced withthe month of August.
Amongst the three hundred and sixty-five days of which old ANNUS is composed, the first of August is certainly not the least distinguished, nor the least worthy of distinction. To say nothing else, has it not the signal honour of being Lammas-day? was it not also the gula of the Egyptians, the commencement of the year, the day on which the mighty sun retraced his steps, and as such celebrated with bonfires and festival rejoicings? do not all good Christians hold it dedicated to St. Peter ad Vincula? the Feast of St. Peter's Chains-and, more than all this, is it not the precise day on which Juliet-Shakspeare's Juliet-was born? "On Lammas-day at night shall she be fourteen; that shall she, marry ; I remember it well." With such claims to notice Lammas-day may hold up her head proudly amongst her brethren. Much however, depends upon the when and where we meet her, most ladies having a very different aspect according as they are seen in the glare of a London ballroom, or upon the yellow sands, all redolent with health,
"And their free tresses dancing in the wind;
With no more diamonds than their eyes are made of,
Nor pearls more precious than inhabit them,"
in short, simplex munditiis, as the Roman poet more concisely expresses it. And even so it is with my Lady August. She looks, it must be confessed, rather hot and blowsy in the close streets of the Metropolis; nor is the matter much improved in the squares and parks. Let me then recommend all who wish to admire August as she should be admired, to visit her with me in the pleasant regions of the Derbyshire Peak,
* See a very curious and interesting article upon this subject in Soane's "New Curiosities of Literature."