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excitement seemed to be, in general, greater under when pouring out their hearts, in earnest supplication, the sermons in which the riches of divine grace and for the manifestation of divine power and glory in the the consolations of the Gospel were exhibited, tban sanctuary, especially in the congregation with which under such as were more awful, and apparently better they were themselves connected. Their minds were fitted to awaken. Mr M.Bride's manner of preaching much stirred up to press after these things in secret, was very much distinguished for seriousness, fervour, and at their fellowship meetings, and also when attendand great zeal for the salvation of sinners ; and this ing public ordinances. They seemed to be animated hy often led him to make very close appeals to the con- the spirit of him wbo said, “ For Zion's sake I will not science. But the revival itself was not of a sudden. hold my peace, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, It was gradual, and spread from one place to another. until the righteousness thereof go forth as brightness, Neither was it in all cases saving as to its effects. and the salvation thereof as a lamp that burneth." Many under it assumed a form of godliness, who were While this little flock of Christ, and their pastor at altogether destitute of its power. In other cases, how. their head, were thus engaged, and about the beginning ever, there was something more deep and precious of March, 1812, the Lord began to work in an unusual even the quickening, saving, and soul-transforming in- way among them, in a way of which they had not till this fluence of the Holy Spirit. During its progress, a time any expectation, and which, accordingly, caused considerable number were accordingly brought under some surprise. It was at this tiine that the outcrying deep convictions of their guilt and unworthiness as commenced, which was afterwards so common for a sinners, of their liability to eternal misery, and of their considerable time. It began at first in some private utter helplessness as concerned themselves. Now, meetings, but afterwards extended to the public assem, they began in earnest to say, " What shall we do to bly under Mr M‘Bride's ministry. What made the thing be saved ?"_and to count all things but loss for the the more remarkable was, that it made its first appear, excellenoy of the knowledge of Christ Jesus ; for an ance among the people of God. Yea, the most tender, interest in him. And the God of all grace, who thus humble, and spiritual-minded among them, were the visited them with the awakening influences of his first affected in this manner, and it continued for a Spirit, was pleased also to enlighten their minds as to short time among them only. But the influence which the way of salvation; and thus to lead them by faith appeared first moving on them, in this unusual way, for peace and rest to the only Saviour of sinners. And was soon extended to others; and the next subjects of being thus quickened, enlightened, and comforted, by it were those who had been before seriously disposed, the teacbing of the same Spirit, they were also united or who had been at one time or other under serious together in the bonds of love and Christian fellowship, impressions. But, soon after, it was extended to the while they travelled together Zionward.

gay and thoughtless, the immoral, and the openly wicked. The subjects of these spiritual influences, were how- Persons of almost every description and age, from nine ever, only as a little flock, when compared with the years or under, to that of sixty or upwards, were af multitude who remained yet stout-hearted and far from fected; but the number of old people was small comrighteousness. And these, becoming impatient under pared with that of the young. The crying at first, the restraints which the late reformation had laid upon and while confined to the people of God, was attended them, with regard to unholy practices, began to break with very little bodily agitation; but after others were out anew with greater violence; so that, in 1810 and affected, it was generally attended with these--such as 1811, many were bolder in sin, and more abandoned to panting, trembling, and other convulsive appearances. wickedness, than they had been at any former period. The writer of these pages did not reside in Arran The enemy of souls now came in as a food and threat till about six months after the commencement of this ened to carry all before him. It is right, however, to revival; but he inquired particularly concerning the observe, that this was in no respect true of professors, beginning of it, from such as were best able to inform or of such as there was reason to believe had been the him, and is satisfied, in his own mind, that the Spirit subjects of divine grace. These were for the most part of the Lord was at work in preparing for it—that his remarkably consistent in their walk and conversation. mighty power was revealed in the commencement of The breaking out of sin, here referred to, was among it—and that he had a gracious and merciful design in the bulk of the people, who made no particular pro- ordering the circumstances of it. Although this refession of religion, and especially among the young, vival did in some measure degenerate latterly through who had been brought under temporary restraint. the weakness and folly of men, yet the beginning of it

These circumstances, however, affected the tender- was truly the doing of the Lord, and marvellous in hearted, and stirred up the pious zeal of Mr M‘Bride, our eyes. Some, who were among the first affected, and led him to be even more earnest in his warnings told the writer, that they had not the most remote and remonstrances from the pulpit and otherwise, idea of crying out, before they were constrained to do against abounding iniquity. The little flock of tender- So much was this the case, that they said they hearted Christians, scattered throughout his parish, could not have refrained, even if they had been threatwere, at the same time, moved with a sense of the ened with instant death. They added, that their outprevalence of sin, and the desolations of Zion. They cryings and bodily agitations arose entirely from the felt an increased concern for the conversion and salva- state of their minds, when powerfully impressed and tion of sinners, and a deeper interest in the prosperity affected with a sense of divine truth. But it is proper and enlargement of the kingdom of Christ. They be- to observe, that the writer is here speaking only of gan to be more frequent and earnest in their supplica- such as were lively exercised Christians previous to tions at a throne of grace for a time of revival--of this revival. On examining others, who knew nothing refreshing from the presence of the Lord. Several of Christian experience before the beginning of this little parties of them by mutual consent, set apart some work, he found that the first impressions of many of days for private fasting and prayer, sending up their them were accompanied with deep convictions of sin, united supplications to the Ilearer of prayer, for the with a painful sense of their helplessness and misery as down-pouring of the Spirit in his awakening and con- sinners, and also with earnest desires after an interest verting influences on sinners around them. They in Christ; which it is to be hoped many of them atkept several such days for nearly a twelvemonth be- tained. But it must be acknowledged, that the acfore the commencement of what is generally called, counts given by all were not alike satisfactory. Many “ The Revival of Religion in Arran.” In these devo- were deeply affected externally, who could give little tional exercises, some of them enjoyed uncommon near- account of the matter. Their affections were mored, ness to God, and great freedom at a throne of grace, but convictions of sin did not take any deep hold on

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their hearts and consciences, and so their awakenings way. And these ecstasies of spiritual joy, among the soon passed away; at least, it was so with some people of God, were generally accompanied with great But if there be joy in heaven over even one sinner humility and tenderness of spirit. Instead of being that repenteth, we have reason to think that there puffed up, they were, on the contrary, bowed down to must have been much joy, in that world of light and the very dust, under a sense of their privileges. When love, over many that were brought to true repentance, the glory of the King of Zion was manifested to their in this place, during the progress of that work. souls, in the light of the Spirit, they were ready to ex.

About the beginning of 1812, the awakening became claim, with Job, “Wherefore I abhor myself, and tegeneral, and continued to make progress about three pent in dust and ashes.” I have heard others, under months. After this, it seemed to be at a stand, till awakenings of conscience, cry out, “ O what shall we the beginning of the following December, when it again do? what shall we do? Wash us from sin; let us revived, and continued to spread considerably for about niot deceive ourselves, for we cannot deceive thee." three months more; during which period it extended It was pleasing thus to see many of them really afraid over a great part of the parish of Kilmorie, which is of self-deception, and earnest in their inquiries after nearly thirty miles long, and it extended also to some parts the only sure foundation, the only hope set before them of the parish of Kilbride. The writer cannot pretend in the Gospel. to give the exact number of the subjects of this awa. In the spring of 1813, this awakening, however, bekening ; but the number, from first to last, was very con- gan to decline, and ceased very soon after ; but those siderable. It must have amounted to two or three who were truly Christians, continued to enjoy, both in hundred persons, old and young taken together. He secret duties and at public ordinances, renewed and may state them at two hundred and fifty; which is manifest tokens of the divine presence and favour. rather below than above the real number. But he This was especially the case on sacramental occasions ; does not mean to insinuate that the whole of these at which they were favoured with the assistance of some proved true believers. This will appear from the of the most pious ministers of the day. Most of these statements already made.

having now departed this life, I am enabled to name For some months after the commencement of the the greater part of them, without making any reference awakening, the subjects of it manifested an uncommon to the living. The late Rev. Messrs Bayne of Greenock, thirst after the means of grace. Both old and young and Robertson of Kingussie, formerly of the Chapel at flocked in multitudes to hear the word of God. His Rothsay, assisted here constantly for many years. The house, and the place employed for private meetings, late Rev. Dr Love of Anderston assisted here occasionwere frequently so crowded, that the people, as it were, ally, about the time of the revival ; and the late Rev. trod one on another. To travel ten or fifteen miles to Mr M.Kenzie of Gorbals, formerly of the Gælic Chapel

, hear sermon, was considered as a very small matter; Duke Street, Glasgow, assisted also occasionally, but and after sermon was over, it was no uncommon thing chiefly before the commencement of this work. These, for many of them to meet together in private houses, along with the late Mr M.Bride himself, were conor in barns, and to spend several hours in religious sidered, and I believe justly, among the most pious exercises. Some of them spent even whole nights in ministers of their day: but they have ceased from their this way. They also longed for the return of the Sab- labours and their works do follow them. The more bath. They rejoiced when it was said unto them, “Let regular or occasional labours of these men, were often us go into the house of the Lord.” They eagerly blessed as seasons of refreshing from the presence of sought after renewed opportunities of receiving spiri- the Lord. It is doubtless true, that, as the awakening tual instruction. Their desire was so great as not to declined, some of those who appeared at one time be easily satisfied. In our religious assemblies, at this much affected, and much engaged in religious pursuits

, time, some might be seen filled with divine love, others began to grow cold and remiss in spiritual duties, to with fear; some rejoicing in hope of the glory of God, fall into divers temptations, and to slide back into conand others trembling lest they should come short of it; formity with the world. Like the stony ground hearers, some crying out in accents of praise, and others indi. the religious impressions of many were slight and cating by their cries, their dread of everlasting wrath. transitory—their convictions were not of a spiritual or At this time, our meetings were frequent, and well abiding nature; and, having no root in their hearts

, attended ; and almost every sermon seemed to be effec- they soon withered away, without bringing forward any tive in awakening, quickening, or refreshing. Satan fruit to perfection. But although many did thus turn, and his agents, indeed, made strong efforts to counter- as the dog to his vomit, and soon got rid of their reliact the designs and operations of the Spirit of God, gious impressions, a considerable number of the subjects by throwing all manner of stuinbling-blocks in the way of this work continue, to the present day, bringing of his people; but, not withstanding all the opposition forth fruit meet for repentance, and manifesting their of earth and hell, the word of the Lord grew and mul- faith by their works. It is due bowever to acknowtiplied. Some who were lively Christians before, en- ledge, that, even in respect of the best of us, the zeal

, joyed at this time much of the refreshing influences fervour, and liveliness, manifest during the time of our of the Spirit, and were often filled, in an extraordinary revival, have suffered some decay; and that, instead of measure, with peace and joy in believing. As illus- these, coldness, deadness, and formality in religion, are trative of this, I may mention, that, in the spring of now too prevalent among us. We have therefore, much 1813, I was catechising one day at a particular farm, need to be earnest in our supplications for another sea. in the district of and when speaking of the son of refreshing from the presence of the Lord-to character of Christ as the Redeemer of God's elect, pray, with the devout Psalmist_" Turn us, O God of and attempting to describe the preciousness of bis blood, our salvation, and cause thine anger towards us to and the riches of his grace, an excellent Christian, who cease. — Wilt thou not revive us again, that thy people is now in the world of spirits, cried out, in an elevated may rejoice in thee? Show us thy mercy, O Lord, and tone of voice, “O the infinite virtue of the blood of grant us thy salvation." Christ—the preciousness of his blood l What am I, what am I, that he should ever spend one thought con

Printed and Published by JOHN JOHNSTONE, 3, Hunter Square, cerning me! O my nothingness, my nothingness, my Edinburgh; and sold by J. R. MACNAIR & Co., 19, Glassford Street, nothingness !" And, soon after, she exclaimed, “I

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all the Towns and Parishes of Scotland; and in the principal Towe also, on various occasions, affected much in the same

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CONTENTS. 1.- The Surrender and Death of Charles the First. By the | 5.-A Discourse. By the Rev. John Bruce, A.M., .....

.... Page 713 Rev. Thomas M'Crie, Page 705 6.-Sacred Poetry. “The Rock of Ages." By Toplady, ..

.... 717 2.-Sacred Poetry. “ Heaven." By Swaine,


7.-Christian Treasury. Extracts from Rev. Alexander Stewart, 3.- Analogical Reasoning of a South Sea Islander,

Howels, and Mary Jane Graham,

ib. 4.-Biographical Sketch. Joseph Butler, late Lord Bishop of 8.-On the Oreb of the Sacred Writings, Commonly Rendered Durham. By the Editor, ....


the Raven. By the late Rev. David Scott, M.D., 718



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The period which we now approach was, with- | England, obviously with the design of inducing out exception, the most critical and trying in the them to take part with him against the English whole history of the Scottish Church. When we Parliament. This unexpected step placed the consider the circumstances in which our ancestors Scots in a situation of extreme embarrassment. were then placed by the course of events, we will | Their army had been levied and sent into England make great allowances for them, and will not expressly to aid the Parliament in its struggle hastily condemn them for adopting measures which with the royal forces ; they were supported by the we cannot fully approve. Distracted between the money of the Parliament, and considered themconscientious duty which they owed to the great selves solemnly bound, by the brotherly covenant, Head of the Church, and the allegiance which to advance its cause. At the same time, they had they owed to their sovereign,-earnestly soli- begun to suspect that some of the Parliamentary citous to see Charles reinstated on the throne, and leaders entertained designs against the king's peryet unwilling to offend the English Parliament, to son; and to refuse him the “ shelter and defence which they looked as a protection against his des- for which he professed to have thrown himself potic encroachments, — dreading sectarianism on into their hands, seemed as inconsistent with their the one hand, and prelacy on the other,—never engagements in the Covenant, which bound them had the rulers of the Church found more difficulty to "preserve and defend the king's majesty's perin steering the vessel intrusted to their charge. son and authority, in the preservation and defence Though events did not answer their expectations) of the true religion and liberties of the kingdom,” and we must not judge of their actions by the as it was repugnant to every feeling of honour events,) it is impossible for any well-consti- and generosity. He was received by the Scots tuted mind not to admire the sterling principle with every mark of respect ; and had he complied and straight-forward consistency with which they with the only terms on which they could, with prosecuted their course during this stormy epoch, safety or consistency, engage to support him, there manifesting the most devoted loyalty to their un- can be little doubt that he would have escaped all happy and infatuated prince, and at the same time his subsequent calamities. These terms were,— a steady adherence to the cause of liberty, and to that he should dismiss bis Popishly affected countheir sacred engagements; a course which affords cillors, and subscribe the Solemn League. The a striking contrast to that pursued by the other Scottish commissioners were fully aware of the two parties in the national struggle. One of the advantage which would redound to their cause most striking attestations to the general rectitude by the accession of such a convert ; but, from the of their conduct appears in the fact, that, by the state of feeling in the country, they were equally friends of both of these parties, they have been convinced of the impracticability of success on any equally blamed, both of old and of late, for other terms. They entreated him, on their knees, opposite excesses; the republican faction sneering and with tears in their eyes, to comply with con

their excess of loyalty, while the royal party ditions which were absolutely essential to the peace denounce them as the most base and disloyal of and safety of both nations, as well as to his own

interests; assuring him, that, in the event of his The king, after his defeat by Cromwell, had compliance, not only would the whole Scottish betaken himself, in the spring of 1646, to the people, to a man, prove faithful to him, but that Scottish army, at that time lying in the north of the great body of the English would join with No. 45. November 9, 1839.-)}d.]



them in replacing him honourably and securely on | drew my mind to the dislike of Episcopal governthe throne of his ancestors. To all these solicita- ment, wherein I was bred in my younger years in tions Charles, who was buoyed up with false the university.” Instead, however, of a familiar bopes by his prelates, turned a deaf ear. His conference, the points in dispute were discussed only answer was, that he was bound, by his coro- a series of papers which passed privately benation oath, to defend the Prelacy and the cere- tween his majesty and Mr Henderson. The monies of the English Church ; and that, ere he result may be easily imagined. His majesty's wronged his conscience by violating that oath, he answers, manufactured by his divines, carefully would forseit his crown and his life. It may ap- evaded the argument; Henderson quoted Scrippear a harsh condition, to insist on Charles taking ture and Charles quoted the Fathers, and the time an oath which would have bound him to extirpate was consumed in a heroic but hopeless attempt on Prelacy, while he professed to believe it to be a the part of Henderson, by this most unsatisfactory form of divine institution; but when we consider of all modes of discussion, to convince the king that this form had been already alsjured and over- on points where neither his pride nor his policy turned in the three kingdoms, it does not seem would permit him to listen to reason. These too much, that the sovereign should have been papers are eight in number, five by his majesty, required to take the national oath. The interests of and three by Henderson. “ After perusing them," a whole nation were not to be sacrificed to the per- says one who was well versed in the controversy, sonal scruples of the monarch; especially when these “it is difficult to read without a smile, the panerelated merely to a form of ecclesiastical govern- gyrics which the Episcopalian writers have bement, which could not be shown to have any foun- stowed on the incomparable wisdom of his madation in Scripture, and the divine right of which jesty, and the triumph which he obtained over had only of late been asserted, for political pur- Mr Henderson in the controversy.' poses. His majesty's professions of regard to his Grieved and disheartened by the infatuation of coronation oath, after the specimens which he had the king, whom he perceived to be obstinately given of his duplicity, and after so often violating bent on refusing all the means of extricating him. that oath, without remorse, in regard to the civil self from his difficulties, this devoted servant of liberties of his subjects, met with little credit. They Christ, who was labouring at the same time under did not impose even upon Baillie, who says, “ As a severe distemper which he was persuaded would to his conscience, none would believe him, though prove mortal, returned by sea to Edinburgh, on he were to swear it, that he had any conscience on the 11th of August 1646. Thongh sick and the subject." The real grounds of his refusal to exhausted, he enjoyed great peace of mind, and comply with the terms of the Scottish commis- conversed much to the comfort of his brethren sioners were, as has been amply shown by others, who visited him. On one occasion, during dinner, purely of a political kind. I shall merely add, for he was so unusually cheerful, that his friend Sir the sake of anticipating another objection, that James Stuart, could not refrain from congratulatalthough " covenanting," as it has been practised ing him on the change. “Well,” said Henderson

, by some churches, is a religious duty, requiring “ I will tell you the reason.

I am near the end certain religious qualifications in those who engage of my race, basting home, and there was never ? in it, the Solemn League, as well as the National schoolboy more desirous to have the play, than I Covenant of Scotland, were properly civil bonds, am to have leave of this world. In a few days, national and public deeds, binding, indeed, to the I will sicken and die. In my sickness I will be external support of a certain profession of religion, much out of ease to speak of any thing ; but I but not necessarily implying spiritual qualifica- desire that you may be with me as much as you tions in those who entered into them. Vowing can ; and you shall see, that all shall end well." 19, in its own nature, not a religious but a moral Soon after this, as he foretold, he departed in duty, competent to nations as well as individuals ; peace. His body was interred in the Greyfriars

' and if we except the matter of these covenants, church-yard; and a monument was erected orer (the real source of all the outcry against their im- his remains with a suitable inscription. After position,) they may be vindicated on the same the Restoration, this monument was desaced by principle as the oathis which Britain still considers orders from the government; but it was afterherself entitled to exact from those who hold the wards repaired, and still remains in a very perfect highest official stations in the country.

state. Not satisfied with wreaking their vengeance That no means might be left untried which on his tomb-stone, his enemies attempted to blast promised to relieve the royal mind from its his immortal reputation. Laying hold of the scruples, Alexander Henderson was, by his ma- circumstance of his having died soon after bis jesty's special request, appointed to confer with conferences with the king at Newcastle, they eirhim at Newcastle, on the points of difference culated the report that he had become a contert between prelacy and presbytery. Henderson de- to their royal cause, and that his death had been clined a public disputation with his majesty's hastened by remorse for the part he had acted divines, on the ground that he had seldom found against his sovereign. They had even the effrontany good to result from such controversies. “ Allery to publish a forged document, purporting to that I intended,” said he, “ was a free yet modest be his death-bed declaration, in which they put expression of my motives and inducements, which Life of Henderson, by Dr M'Crie, Christian Mag. vol. 10, P, 36.


into bis mouth sentiments which he would have retained his designs of subverting the Reformation sooner died than avowed. This disgraceful and in England, afforded no rational prospect of success; unprincipled trick, which resembles those so often and the Scottish Church, with a noble firmness, resorted to by Papists, was exposed at the time by which is condemned by many who are loud in their the General Assembly, who, immediately upon its praises of the firmness of Charles, would not accept appearance, appointed a committee to examine the of a boon, which in the circumstances was nothing pamphlet, and afterwards published a declaration better than a bribe, and which would have involved of its falsehood and forgery; in which, “out of them in a compromise of their sacred engagements the tender respect which they bear to his name, with England. On the other hand, to deliver they declare that, after due search and trial, they him up unconditionally, to be disposed of accorddo find that their worthy brother, Mr Alexandering to the pleasure of the English Parliament, as Henderson, did, from the time of his coming from the English demanded, was an alternative to which London to Newcastle, till the last moment of his they would not listen ; and months were spent in departure out of this life, manifest the constancy negotiations, in the course of which the pertinacity of his judgment touching the work of reformation with which the Scots insisted on their right to be in these kingdoms,-as divers reverend brethren consulted in the disposal of the King's person, who visited him bave declared to this Assembly, threatened to issue in an open rupture with the particularly two brethren, who constantly attended Parliament. The speeches delivered by the Scots him from the time be came home till his breath commissioners, who went to London to treat expired.” This was certainly sufficient; and yet this delicate question, on being sent to press, were this base slander, which has been refuted by our seized, and suppressed by order of Parliament; best bistorians, * and which certainly tends more and the printer was imprisoned. They were pubto discredit the cause of Prelacy than any thing lished, however, in Scotland ; and breathing as that Henderson ever said against it, continues to they did the most devoted loyalty, they created be retailed by writers on that side down to the a sensation in behalf of the unfortunate monarch, present day!

which his subsequent fate roused into universal The next scene which occurs in this dramatic indignation. The point for which the Scots comportion of our history, is the surrender of the missioners contended was, that the King should, King's person into the hands of the English. It in accordance with his own earnest and repeatedly must be gratifying to every lover of his country expressed desire, be permitted to return to some to know, that late investigations have freed the of his palaces in the neighbourhood of London, memory of our Scottish ancestors from the stig-“ with honour, safety, and freedom." “ We do ma which was so long attached to their conduct hold,” said Lord Loudon, “that the disposing of in this transaction. It is hardly worth while to the King's person doth not properly belong to any notice the ridiculous story of the Scots having one of the kingdoms, but jointly to both. And sold the king, which was got up at the time, in after Scotland hath suffered the heat of the day consequence of some arrears having been paid to and winter's cold, have forsaken their own peace the Scots army for their assistance. Instead of for love of their brethren, have set their own house being received as a bribe, this money was reluc- on fire to quench theirs ; after we have gone along tantly paid by the Parliament as a debt for past with you in all the hardship of this war, and services; and the bargain was adjusted in August (without vanity be it spoken) have been so useful 1646, five months before the question as to the in the cause; and that the King hath cast himself disposal of the King's person was settled, with into the hands of the Scottish army, and that, by which, in fact, it had no connection. The money the blessing of God, we are come to the harbour was payable simply on the condition of their de- of a peace ;-we cannot expect that the Honourlivering up the fortresses on the borders, and able House will think it agreeable with conscience marching into Scotland—with no stipulation, on or honour, that the person of the King should be either side, as to the King's person. But the disposed of by them as they think fit, or by any transaction, though thus stripped of its mercenary one of the kingdoms alone. The King doth, with character, may seem still to reflect on the gene- all earnestness, desire to be joined with you. Nor rosity of our countrymen. Even in this point of can there be a more real testimony of our respeet view, it is capable of a complete vindication; and, and affection to England, than that we desire he had our space permitted, it could be demonstrated may be with you, and be advised by you ; neither that the Scottish leaders acted, on this trying oc- can you have any greater honour, than that bis casion, in the most upright and honourable manner. Majesty is willing to return to you. And if so To carry the king with them to Scotland, while kind an offer should be refused, and the King he refused all terms of accommodation with his driven to despair, it is to be feared these kingdoms Parliament, would have been to renew the civil war will be involved in greater difficulties than ever. in their own country, under circumstances more For, thongh Scotland be most willing and desirous unfavourable than ever. His consenting to the that the King should return to bis Parliament with establishment of Presbytery in Scotland, while he honour, safety, and freedom; yet if any such course

shall be taken, or any demand made for rendering * Laing's llistory of Scotland, vol. ii., p. 327.

of his person, which cannot stand with his honour Witelocke, 220: Answer of the Commons to the Scoto Com. and safety, or which cannot consist with our duty, missioners' Papers, 19.

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