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Among the pictures, or rather sketches, adorning a sojourn of four hundred years, they would imitate the the tombs, a great variety of musical instruments are arts and implements in constant use among the people represented; and, it deserves remark, that these in. of the land in which they dwelt. We know indeed struments seem to have undergone no change of form that they showed a desire to adopt the practices of during the whole period that the Pharaohs reigned ; their heathen neighbours, not only with regard to those that are delineated in the most ancient tombs things indifferent, but even in their religious rites and being in every respect as complete as those found in ceremonies, though expressly forbidden by God. It the more recent excavations. The same uniformity is very probable, moreover, that a variety of the finer characterises all their arts and customs, arising from and more valuable instruments would be among the the law of the land, which forbade any departure from precious things that they " borrowed of the Egyptians" the usages of their forefathers.
before their departure. We cannot, therefore, be far Being thus acquainted with the instruments in use mistaken in considering the instruments ordinarily in among the ancient Egyptians, we are supplied with use in Egypt to have been essentially the same as the means of ascertaining the nature of those em- those employed by the Israelites previous to the time ployed by the Jews ; for we cannot doubt that, during of David.
3 The Harp, (fig. 1 and 5,) of which the Lyre, (fig. 7,) The Nebel, which is generally translated Psaltery, is merely a smaller variety, may be considered as in though rendered Viol in Isaiah and Amos, is the only cluding all those instruments, in which diversity of tone other stringed instrument spoken of in Scripture preis produced by striking strings of unequal lengths. vious to the time of David. It seems to have been Among the Egyptians, harps were made of all sizes, identical with the Egyptian guitar, (fig. 3,) which was from a few inches to six or seven feet in length, and of perhaps even more commonly used than the barp. It a great variety of forms. Some large ones highly orna- may be considered as the type or representative of all mented, are represented as having upwards of twenty those contrivances in which diversity of tone is prochords, many of the smaller have but four or five. In duced by pressing the strings to the neck of the instrugroups of musicians, we generally find one barper at the ment, and thus making them in effect both tighter and least, and not unfrequently, it would seem, that the shorter. The guitar of the ancient Egyptians was the larger and smaller varieties of harps were used together, same as that now in use, excepting that it had only the one forming an accompaniment to the other. With three strings, none of which seems to have been of the people of Israel the harp appears to have been a pecu- metal. It was played on in exactly the same manner liar favourite. The first mention made of it in Scrip- as with us, the chords being struck with the finger. ture is in Gen. iv. 21, where its invention is ascribed Like the harp, the psaltery was generally employed in to Jubal ; but the passages in which it is referred to the religious worship of the Israelites. Josephus says are almost innumerable. As there is no instrument that "it had twelve musical notes and was played on that forms a finer accompaniment to the human voice, with the fingers." it was very extensively employed in the religious wor- Besides the psaltery, Josephus describes a Viol, ship of the Jews, and is spoken of in the book of Revela- which he says had “ ten strings, and was played upon tion as similarly employed by the Redeemed in the with a bow.” The use of the bow in bringing out the latter day, when they shall stand with the Lamb in sound distinguishes it from the guitar, which it other. Mount Zion, and sing "a new song before the throne." I wise resembled. The number of the strings must have made it very difficult to manage, unless, as in the 21, as invented by Jubal, it is again referred to in the modern piano, they were arranged in pairs, in order to book of Job, and is enumerated, in the hundred and render the note more accurate and the tone more power- fiftieth psalm, among the instruments employed in the ful. The ten stringed instrument mentioned in the praise of Jehovah. No similar contrivance seems to book of Psalms, which is generally supposed to have have been known to the Egyptians, and we have no been “ invented by David,” was probably the same as means of ascertaining what improvements were made the viol described by the Jewish historian. It is spo- on it, in order to adapt it to the service of the sancken of, at least, in such a way as to induce the idea tuary. that it closely resembled the psaltery, as any one may The Cymbals were circular pieces of metal, more or perceive by referring to Psalms xxxiii, xciii, and cxliv, less hollowed in the centre, and producing a sound by where alone mention is made of it.
being struck together. The Egyptians made them of The Pipe, among the Jews, was commonly used in a small size ; but Josephus says that those used by the the dance. Among the Egyptians it was similarly em- Jews were broad and large instruments made of brass." ployed, and was sometimes made double, one branch In Psalm cl. it is said, “ Praise him upon the loud being intended for the tenor and the other for the bass ; cymbals, praise him upon the high sounding cymbals," generally, however, like our own, it was single. The this expression leads us to suppose, that there must flute, which is merely a larger variety, is mentioned in have been several varieties used. As there is no means the book of Daniel, and was longer than those now by which any one pair of cymbals can be made to proin use.
duce more than one note, it is probable that diversity The Trumpet, Horn, and Cornet, form a class by of tone was effected by the employment of a number of themselves ; the tone depending on their size and form, instruments differing in size, which however incon. as well as on the nature of the material employed in venient in a limited band, could easily be accomplished their formation. They are frequently pictured in when the performers were numbered by thousands, as Egyptian monuments, and in the temple service of the was the case at the celebration of the passover and Jews seem to have been employed in great number and similar festivals. variety.
The tabret, or timbrel, resembled the modern tamThe Organ, of which the Pandian pipe is the sim- bourine. Both among the Jews and the Egyptians plest variety, may be described as a collection of tubes, | (fig. 4,) it seems to bave been most commonly played varying in length and width of bore, and consequently on by females, and was generally employed on festive emitting a diversity of notes when blown into by the occasions. Besides the tabret, we find, in the Egyptian musician. If the organ be the instrument denoted by tombs, representations of several varieties of the drum, the Hebrew word Hoogab, it is mentioned in Gen. iv. (fig. 6.) an instrument similar in its principle and use.
7 In concluding our brief notice of the musical instru- of modern mechanism has, no doubt, greatly increased ments of the Israelites, it may not be unnecessary to the range and power of each separate instrument ; the remark that, in the drawings on the tombs, the singers affixing of keys, for instance, to the organ, enables a are generally represented as marking time by clapping single performer to produce a variety of notes, and a their bands, (fig. 2.) This fact serves to illustrate the volume of sound, as great as ten could have done with. many allusions made to this practice in Scripture, and out that assistance; but any deficiency in their instrushows the force and propriety of various passages, ments was made up, among the Jews, by the number which might at first seem incongruous and strange. of performers. They could not, perhaps, attain to that
Whatever difference there may have been in con- rapidity and brilliancy of execution which enable mostruction and form, the instruments of the Israelites dern musicians to supersede and dispense with rocal were the same in principle as those now employed. music at their concerts, but as accompaniments to the There is not, in fact, any one musical implement at human voice, their instruments were all that could be present in use that has not its type or representative desired. among those that we have enumerated. The ingenuity If any one be inclined to think lightly of the musia cal service of the temple, let him for a moment consider | policy; and then let us endeavour to apprehend the nature of the implements used, let him recollect the greatness of the difficulty to be surmounted their number and variety, let him, above all, keep in by such a man, before he could be induced to mind that they were designed not to produce, but only change his avowed creed, or alter his course of to regulate, the harmony, and he will then find reason conduct. Do we not clearly see,—does not the to alter bis opinion. The magnificence of the other experience of human life sufficiently prove, that parts of the temple ritual required that the psalmody the most formidable obstacle to so complete a should be on a very extended scale; and that it was transformation, would not arise from the improso, we may learn from the taunting proposal, made per bias of the intellect alone, but from the mighty to the captives in Babylon, to sing to their masters barrier of resistance which would be raised by the
one of the songs of Zion.” In 1 Chron. xv., we pride and vanity inherent in the human heart? have an account of the method adopted by David for And if, in addition to the surrender of all his preits improvement. To each family he assigned their judices, the man in question were required to bepeculiar instrument and part. Heman, Asaph, and
come an open and efficient advocate of sentiments Ethan were appointed to sound with cymbals of brass; and views not only calculated in themselves to Zechariah and his companions, with psalteries on Ala- bring upon their supporters the contempt of all moth ; Mattathiah and his associates, with harps on those whose praise and favour he has hitherto Shemminith ; while Chenaniah, chief of the Levites, been seeking, but condemned already, perhaps, by was for song. In the twenty.third chapter, we are the force of his own eloquence or learning, and told that four thousand of the Levites were statedly resisted by the wisdom and energy of his skilful enployed in praising the Lord, with the instruments managemert, or his vigorous exertion,—who that that “ David made to praise there with.” This seems knows any thing of our common nature, would not to have been their daily and ordinary procedure, What, be disposed to say, that the moral difficulty, in then, must have been the effect produced when the such a case, must be all but utterly invincible? It whole congregation of Israel assembled together to would not be the fear of personal danger or inkeep the feasts of the Lord, when the courts of the
convenience that would deter a man like this from temple re-echoed the voices of five hundred thousand yielding to the force of truth ; it would not be the worshippers, and the sound of the trumpets, cymbals, obligation to surrender any external object, that and barps, powerful and numerous as they were, formed would principally influence his mind; but the fear but a feeble ac-onpaniment to the united voice of the of contempt and shame,—that fatal and obstinate people of the Lord !
reluctance to meet the scorn or the cold indifference of the world, which has been the ruin of so
many immortal spirits,—that sense of degradation A DISCOURSE.
which all are naturally inclined to feel when disBy The Rev. HENRY MONCREIFF, A.B.,
regarded and neglected by the men in whose so
ciety they fain would live; these are powerful Minister of East Kilbride.
causes, fitted to render the transition referred to " I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ; for it is a sacrifice too great to be extorted by any ordinary
the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth ; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.”
But, nevertheless, this sacrifice was made by -Ron, i. 16.
Paul. He was a man of intellect and learning; We shall be able to appreciate the extent of mean- he was a man of high influence and wonderful ing conveyed by the statement, that Paul was not activity; he was carefully brought up at the feet ashamed of the Gospel of Christ, if we suppose of Gamaliel; he had profited, or advanced, in the that an individual of our own day, with natural study of the Jews' religion above his equals; and talents and acquirements equal to those of the was more exceedingly zealous of the traditions of apostle, were called upon to make a sudden and his fathers. All his interests, as well as his inentire transition from the practical maintenance fluence and reputation, were connected with the of a set of long-cherished and popular opinions, to cause of the Pharisees; and, as the advocate of the active propagation and support of principles that cause, he shared in the general hatred towhich he has hitherto hated and opposed, and wards the Christian name, and took a leading part which the greater portion of the wise and learned, in the measures adopted with a view to its supboth in his own country and among other civilised pression. nations, agree to ridicule and despise. Let us But this powerful and intrepid champion of imagine a man of large and comprehensive genius, Judaism speedily became the servant of Christ. who, by the diligent exertion of his own intellec- He preached that very Gospel which he had bintual faculties, has already obtained, or is likely to self laboured to expose to ridicule and scorn; he acquire, a command over the minds of his admir- preached that very doctrine of the cross, which ing country men. Let us conceive that his
popu- was to the Jews a stumbling-block and to the larity and reputation are indebted for no small | Greeks foolishness ;—and, notwithstanding this portion of their strength to the indefatigable zeal, entire abandonment of his former honours, and as well as irresistible talent, of his efforts in sup- this deliherate submission to obloquy and degraport of some favourite and imposing, though fal-dation, he solemnly declares, in the text, that he lacious, system of speculative belief, or practical I was not ashamed.
THE BELIEVER NOT ASHAMED OF THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST:
Whence did this indifference to the opinion of that every individual of the human race is a sin. the world derive its origin? What was the power- ner in the sight of God,--that “the carpal mind ful influence that could induce a successful and is enmity against God,”—that it is not, and canambitious man voluntarily to forego all the ad- not, be subject to his holy and unchangeable law. vantages which he possessed, and to break the The natural result of this miserable condition is tie which bound him to his friends and brethren? also distinctly revealed,- The wages of sin is And, when he had taken the decisive step, from death.” Sin, viewed as a master over his serwhat source did he obtain that serenity of mind vants, uniformly awards the wages of eternal which enabled him to feel and say that he was death ; and they who live and die in the service not ashamed ? Could these effects have been of such a master, cannot fail to receive the fatal produced by vanity or pride? Surely it was not recompense which he invariably bestows. That necessary, for the gratification of his vanity or God who cannot lie, is pledged to vindicate the pride, that the man who, in wisdom and learning, cause of truth and righteousness, and therefore, was probably superior to the most illustrious of without the Gospel of salvation, the everlasting the Jewish doctors, and who was the active leader destruction of the sinner is inevitably fixed. Is of a formidable party, should become the cham- it possible, then, it inay well be asked, that any pion of a despised and persecuted sect. Could a man can despise or neglect the only source of regard to his own temporal interests have guided comfort, and the only meuns of real Lappiness, the apostle? On the contrary, hy his conduct be that is placed within his reach? Can any man deliberately reduced himself from a state of com- be ashamed of his adherence to a cause wbich fort and consequence to a condition of poverty every dictate of reason or common sense, and and distress. Was it, then, owing to madness, every feeling of his heart, should constrain him or extravagant enthusiasm, that he embraced his to identify with his dearest interests? The posnew profession, and was not ashamed of it? Is sessor of the highest earthly station would not be it to this cause that we are to ascribe that de- ashamed, if exposed to the horrors of shipwreck votedness of spirit which prompted him to say, on an unknown coast, to avail himself of the asin his epistle to the Galatians, “God forbid that sistance of the humblest individual for the preI shouli glory, save in the cross of our Lord servation of his life, or even the recovery of his Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto property; and when the afflicted tempest-tossed me, and I unto the world ?” And, in his epistle to soul of a sinful man is trembling at the prospect the Philippians, "I count all things but loss, for of impending spiritual danger,—when “deep callthe excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, eth unto deep," and all the waves and billows of my Lord; for whom I have suffered the loss of the Loril's wrath seem to be going over us, and all things, and do count them but dung that I threatening to destroy us, shall we, my friends, he may win Christ ?” Such a supposition is utterly ashamed to “ cry out of the depths unto God," inconsistent with the striking evidences of sound and to lay hold of a “sure and stedfast anchor" judgment and vigorous thought displayed thrvugh- The mightiest monarch is not ashamed, when ont every portion of his interesting writings. afflicted hy bodily disease, to apply to his medical We are therefore constrained to conclude, that no advisers for the exercise of their skill, and the temporal consideration, and no instrument of employment of appropriate remedies. Nor is the human contrivance, could have led the apostle to experienced practitioner ashamed to proclaim the entertain the sentiment avowed in the first clause efficacy and value of those means of cure or alleof the text; and this is what he substantially tells viation which he has been able to contrive for us in the remaining clauses, when he says of the the sufferings incidental to the bodily frame; Gospel, that “it is the power of God unto salva- and, shall a single individual of our ruined race, tion to every one that believeth, to the Jew first, whose nature, both spiritual and material, has been and also to the Greek.”
corrupted and destroyed by the mortal disease of I propose, in what remains of this discourse, to sin, be ashamed to employ the balın of Gilead for direct your attention to the great and leading ideas the restoration of bis spiritual liealth, and with a suggested in the latter portion of the text, as af- view to the resurrection of his body from the dearl fording ample ground for the confidence of any in more than pristine comeliness and vigour? Shail man who declares that he is not “ashamed of the the servants of the almighty Physician be ashamed Gospel of Christ,” and that it is his fixed resolu- to proclaim, with all sincerity and freedom, the tion to glory in the cross of Christ, as the source completeness and the potency of that costly meof all his present comfort, and the support of every dicine which the Gospel of Christ exhibits and anticipation of future joy.
conveys ? 1. It is suggested by the text, as a reason why It is true, that a large proportion of the garest, å man should not be ashamed of the Gospel of the most active, and the most successful, among Christ, that that Gospel is the means of salva- men, do disregard the salvation of their soul, and tion. The end which it proposes is the salvation the means by which alone it can ever be attained; of men; and it exhibits the only way, and pro- it is true, that the temptation of their example is vides the only means, by which that end can be calculated to produce a strong impression on the attained. The Scriptures explicitly declare, and flexible disposition of many an unstable professor experience abundantly contirms the declaration, of the truth, we become afraid or ashamed to avow a serious concern on the subject of our eter- earth. This was its obvious tendency and necesnal safety, or to profess our decided attachment sary effect ; and this was the main circumstance to the Gospel, in the midst of that careless mul- that alarmed the jealous minds of the priests and titude who live indifferent to the one and regard-rulers, and excited their utmost efforts against less of the other, because, to do so might tend to the progress of the Christian faith, as well as impeach the strength of our understandings among against the peace and the stability of the Chrisour equals, or to lower our pretensions in the in- tian Church. A peculiar temptation was thus tercourse of human life; but, when we are thus presented to the mind of every convert from assailed by the snares of Satan, we ought to labour Judaisın; and, considering the circumstances of to realize the solemn impression, that if there be his early history, it was especially calculated to indeed a world to come, (of which we have all the render the Apostle Paul ashamed of the position evidence that can be reasonably expected,) the ul- which he now felt himself constrained to occupy. timate salvation of the soul is by far the greatest For, to the prejudiced minds of his countrymen, and most splendid object that can excite the feel- the object of his exertions appeared to be the ings, or influence the conduct, of a human being, overthrow of that national faith which their an—that those who disregard it, however great their cestors had embraced and transmitted by the direct numbers or their earthly reputation, ought to be authority of the God of Israel. An antidote, considered as deceived and ruined creatures, who however, to this temptation was provided by the thoughtlessly sacrifice their highest interests to nature of the Gospel itself. The very circumthe trifling enjoyments of the present moment, stance that seemed to the bigoted Jew to be a and prefer the delusions of their own distempered ground for shame became, in the view of the minds to the substantial lessons which the wisdom well-instructed Christian, a cause of peculiar gloof God proposes to teach them. What will it rying. The Christian doctrine ought not to have profit us, my friends, to preserve the respect of appeared an innovation to those who had studied men who have no fear of God, and despise the the contents of ancient Scripture. The Gospel Gospel of salvation, if we shall ultimately die was before preached unto Abraham ; and the new without one ray of hope to cheer our darkened dispensation was essential to the complete fulfilspirits ? and what are all the insults and annoy-ment of all that was intended and promised by ances with which we may now be visited, if placed the old. The Jewish nation, indeed, enjoyed in the opposite scale to that which contains the many advantages; but the chief of them all conworm that never dieth, and the fire that never sisted in the fact, that unto them were committed shall be quenched ? " What shall a man give in the oracles of God: that to them was given the exchange for his soul ?" Do we believe in the inestimable privilege of a substantial acquaintance solemn realities of death, and judgment, and eter- with the only way of salvation, at a period prenity, and shall we be ashamed to follow out our ceiling, by many centuries, the time when it was conviction to its practical conclusions? Do we freely communicated to the rest of mankind ; and believe that the end of the Gospel is salvation, as a mark, as well as a continuation of this strikand shall we be ashamed to avow our heartfelting pre-eminence, the apostles were instructed by reception of the message which it brings, because their blessed Lord, in his parting address prethose who never stop to think of salvation have viously to his ascension, that “repentance and the boldness to despise the only path that leads remission of sins should be preached among all to it?
nations, beginning at Jerusalem." There are, indeed, some doctrines which the We are not, my friends, at the present day, exGospel declares, and some precepts which the posed to the danger of being alienated from the Gospel enjoins, that are peculiarly opposed to the truth of Christ by any prejudice in favour of the spirit of the world, and to the natural bias of the Mosaic institutions. But the faith of some human heart, and of which, therefore, the Chris- amongst us may have been occasionally staggered tian is frequently tempted to be ashamed; but the by the suggestions of those who would insinuate single consideration, that these precepts and doc- that there exists an inconsistency between the trines form an essential part of the only system high claims of the older economy and the divine of means by which his eternal happiness can be authority of that later revelation, by which it has secured and his eternal misery can be averted, now been superseded and abolished.
Lest we ought to impel him, with a force too strong to be should thus be tempted to be ashamed of our resisted, to imitate the spirit and conduct of Paul, creed, it may be well that we keep in constant reand to count all things but loss, for the excellency membrance the important truth, that the Gospel of the knowledge of Christ Jesus his Lord. was a means of salvation to the Jew first. That
II. It is suggested by the text, as a reason holy faith which we have all professed to receive why a man should not be ashamed of the Gospel was not the result of a novel and previously un. of Christ, that that Gospel was a means of sal- heard-of scheme, capriciously substituted in the vation to the Jew first. The doctrine of the room of an ancient and venerable system. On Gospel, as preached by the apostles of Christ, the contrary, it is a source of great satisfaction was fitted and intended to abolish and remove all and comfort to the people of God that, throughthe peculiarities which distinguished and separated out all the arrangements of their he:venly Father, the Jewish people from the other nations of the from the fall of Adam to the present day, they