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These were the second, fifth, and seventh, or Sabbath. pain of death ; and, in these circumstances, they read The Sabbath was so observed on the authority of the select portions from the writings of the prophets, which written Word, but the other two days were probably they called Haphtoroth. These also were fifty-four in appointed subsequent to the completing of the canon nuniber, and came thus regularly in the room of the of the Old Testament, although, to give them greater other. But on being again allowed to resume the reading
authority, they were usually ascribed to Ezra. On of the law, they continued both : and hence the often [ these two days also, besides the proper services of the recurring phrase, “ the law and the prophets,” these
synagogue, a session was held for the hearing of causes. being in this manner read in the synagogue every Sab On each of the three days there were three meetings, bath-day. There is one passage in particular which one in the morning during the time of the morning will illustrate the use that may be made of such inforsacrifice, another at noon, and a third during the time mation. We are told in the Gospel of Luke (iv. 15of the evening sacrifice.
22,) that our Lord, on appearing in the synagogue of The parts of worship, at each of these meetings, Nazareth, had the Book of the Prophet Esaias put into and particularly on Sabbath, were chiefly three, his hand, and that the portion for the day was (as will prayer, reading of the Scriptures, and preaching, which be found) in the sixty-first chapter of that book. Now, consisted partly of exposition and partly of exhortation. if we can depend on the order of the Haphtoroth come
1. Set forms of prayer seem to have been used ; down to us, this must have been the fifty-first; and as and nineteen of these, which are said to be ancient, the series commenced with the feast of tabernacles, have come down to our times, and are still in use. this event must have occurred about the month of OcThese for the most part consist of a few sentences tober, which could not be otherwise ascertained. We each; and some of them are not without internal evi- know, indeed, that the fifty-first Haptor begins, in the dence of their having been written subsequent to the arrangements which have reached us, at the tenth verse dispersion. They are also accompanied with responses, of the sixty-first of Isaiah. But this is understood to which appear to have been chaunted by the congrega- be an alteration. tion. Thus, in the first prayer, the angel of the syna- 3. Then there was preaching, and which consisted gogue said, addressing God, “ Blessed be thou, O Lord | partly in exposition, and partly in addresses or exhortaour God, the God of our fathers, the God of Abraham, tion. Of the former, we have a good example in what the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, the great God, is said of our Lord in the passage above referred to: powerful and tremendous, the high God, bountifully “ And he closed the book, and he gave it again to the dispensing benefits, the Creator and Possessor of the minister, and sat down. And the eyes of all them that universe, who rememberest the good deeds of our fa
were in the synagogue were fastened on him. And he thers, and in thy love sendest a Redeemer to those who began to say unto them, This day is this Scripture fulare descended from them, for thy name's sake, O King, filled in your ears. And all bare him witness, and our Lord and Helper, our Saviour and our Shield.” | wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out And then the congregation responded,
- Blessed art
of his mouth.” Luke iv. 20-22. And of the latter, thou, O Lord, who art the shield of Abraham.” And an illustration will be found in the case of Paul in the it will be recollected that the Apostle Paul refers to
synagogue of Antioch in Pisidia : “But when they something of the kind as existing in the Christian departed from Perga, they came to Antioch in Pisidia, Church : “ For if I pray in an unknown tongue, my and went into the synagogue on the Sabbath-day, and spirit prayeth, but my understanding is unfruitful.
sat down. And after the reading of the law and the What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, will
pray with the understanding also; I will sing with saying, Ye men and brethren, if ye have any word of the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also. exhortation for the people, say on. Then Paul stood Else, when thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall
up, and beckoning with his hand, said, Men of Israel, he that occupieth the room of the unlearned say Amen and ye that fear God, give audience,” &c. Acts xiii. at thy giving of thanks, seeing he understandeth not
14-16. And from the abstract of the discourse itself, what thou sayest?" I Cor. xiv. 14-16.
which extends to twenty-six verses, some idea may be 2. Another part in the service of the synagogue was formed of the general character of such addresses. the reading of the Scriptures. This consisted latterly
4. But there yet remains a department of worship of three distinct exercises. First, there was the Ke
which we can scarcely separate in our minds from the rioth Shema, or reading of the passages from Deuteronomy (vi. 6-9, and xi. 13-21,) and Numbers (xv. which will require special inquiry, when we come to
preceding,—we mean Psalmody. This is a subject 37-41.) This was part of the introductory service, and was repeated at least daily. Then there was the state the forms of worship observed in the apostolical
Churches. In the meantime, it may be enough to say, reading of 'he law. The whole Pentateuch was divided into fifty-four Parashioths, or portions, and one of with regard to the observances of the synagogue, that these was read every Sabbath-day, the whole law being the practice of singing, common in our churches, did
not then exist; and still farther, that just as little was thus read once every year. The reason of making their worship dependent on instrumental music. They fifty-four, instead of fifty-two portions, was to accommodate their intercalary weeks; and when these did had, however, a kind of recitative; which, to some ex. not occur, the two remaining sections were taken up tent, supplied the place of singing; and it is the opinion along with the others. These appear to have been all of Vieringa, that from this the practice of singing in
churches was afterwards borrowed. that were anciently read, at least on ordinary occasions. But during the persecutions of Antiochus Epiphanes, V. Government and Discipline.-— The government the public reading of the law was prohibited, under of the synagogue was conducted by the synodicum or eldership; subject to the approval, bowever, and gene- to observe, that criminal cases were dealt with apart, ral superintendence of the Sanhedrim at Jerusalem. and according to the judicial law, and that the account This synodicum, or eldership, consisted of not fewer about to be given does not apply to them; and secondly, tbar three; these being most probably the angel of the that besides the cases which had previously been dealt synagogue, and two rulers. But it is likely that other with in private, others no doubt were added. Suppose office-bearers were joined with them, as the common | ing, then, a case brought forward, from whatever number, in large towns, was twenty-three. There cause, the eldership might, and sometimes did, warn they sat in judgment on certain classes of questions, and admonish in private ; but supposing a process to on the second and fifth days of the week; these being commence, they first summoned the scandalous person the additional days of worship, besides the Sabbath : to appear before them; and in ordinary cases, and be and now, before detailing their procedure in discipline, failing to appear, the summons was repeated a second let it be borne in mind, that all Jews were, in virtue of and third time; and if he still failed to appear, he was their descent, and of circumcision, members of the brought under niddui -the lesser excommunication: synagogue; and that proselytes became so by circum- but suppose bim to appear, the elders seem to have cision and baptism. “A person is not a proselyte,” | dealt with him for about a week, with a view to bring says the Talmud, “till he be both circumcised and him to a sense of duty; and if this did not serve, they baptized.” “ And an Israelite," says Maimonides, censured him publicly, in presence of the congregation, " that takes a little heathen child, or that finds a bea- and put him under niddui for thirty days,—during then infant, and baptizeth him for a proselyte, behold, which the members were understood to use their induhe is a proselyte."
ence to bring him to repentance; and if, at the end of 1. And this being understood, let it be observed, in the thirty days, he was still impenitent, he was shamthe first place, that all the members of the same syna- matized, or laid under a curse, for thirty more; and if gogue are required to watch over each other's conduct. he still proved impenitent, be was anathematized, or It is commanded to reprove every Israelite who is wholly separated from the congregation; and in these found walking disorderly, be the circumstances what circumstances, he was not allowed to enter the synathey may.
This is alike binding as concerns the first gogue, no member of the synagogue, beyond his own or second table of the Law, for it is written, “ Thou family, was allowed to keep company with bim, except shalt in any wise rebuke thy neigbbour, and not suffer in the most general or necessary things, and he was sin upon him.” Lev. xix. 17. Then, as to the manner altogether regarded as a heathen. in which this private dealing was to be conducted, it is 4. And now, with regard to the rules of judgment, said: “ Censure ought at first to be administered in these seem to have been of two kinds. First there private, with soft speech and words of kindness, so as were certain general rules which appear to bave been not to put the individual to shame." And when it is laid down by the Sanhedrim, and acted on throughout asked—“ What is to be done, if, after rebuking him all the synagogues, such as that every publican should four, or five times, he repent not ? " the answer is : be held as an excommunicated person. “A religious
Seeing the Scripture says, “Thou shalt in any wise man who becomes a publican, is to be driven out of the rebuke thy neighbour,' it is a duty to do so, even to society of religion." And the rule noticed in the Gos. a hundred times :" and when this succeeded, the matter pel of John, (ix. 22,) appears to have been of this class, ended.
" The Jews had agreed already, that if any man did con2. But when such private dealings failed, another fess that he was Christ, he should be put out of the syna. step became necessary. “ If thy neighbour has injured gogue." And then, there were classes of offences, on thee, reprove bim, it being between hiin and thee alone; account of which discipline was to be proceeded with, and if he hear thee, thou hast already gained all; but and which might terminate in excommunication, is due if he hear thee not, speak to bim in the presence of one submission did not prevent. or two men, that they may bear what is said; and if, 5. But, before concluding this head, we must advert after all, he will not hear, hold him as worthless.” The to a few of those principles which it brings so promicase contemplated in this extract was that of personal nently before us. One of these is the end sought by offence; but it seems to have been applicable to of- discipline, namely, the amendment of the offender. tences in general. It is also proper to observe the And we notice this the rather that it occupies so imunderstood effect of such private censure. Now, the portant a place in the writings of the New Testament, condition of a man thus chidden or reproved is this, and as applicable to the Christian Church.“ How He bides himself, and keeps bimself at home as one oft,” said Peter, “shall my brother sin against me and ashamed, that he may not sce his face who shamed him; I forgive him ? till seven times ? Jesus saith unto nor does he stand before him with his head uncovered. him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times, but, until He abates also of his laughter, and of his words, and seventy times seven.” Matt. xviii. 21, 22. This is a of his business, and makes himself sad before those that most important principle. It proceeds upon a deep see him; but tbere is no need for him to withdraw knowledge of human nature, and is in full accordance himselt from men, but be may eat and drink with them, with the spirit of the Gospel. For, only convince a and salute them. Nor need he to please him that re- man that it is his good you are seeking, and no vindicproved him; nor needs he absolution ; but when he tive or merely judicial purpose of your own, and you hath taken the reproof upon him, and the tiine is ex- will there with find access to his heart. And only keep pired, he is free.”
this object steadily in view, and discipline can never 3. The next step in this ascending series carries us degenerate, either into empty form, or into a hated ininto the synodicum or eldership: and before entering strument of mere shame and penance. on any description of the process here, it is necessary Another of these is discovered in the process itself.
It is exceedingly wise, that offences, especially of in- period at which the Inquisition was founded. We find, advertence, and where the general character remains indeed, as early as the reign of the Emperor Theodogood, should be at first dealt with in private and un- sius, laws published against heretics, and officers, called oficially. There is something in the mere warning of Inquisitors, commissioned to assist in their execution. a friend of one who is known to be a friend—and who These, however, were laymen, appointed by the Roadinonishes under the cover of confidential secrecy, man prefects, and their duty was to inform against which will find its way to hearts that would otherwise those who seceded from the true faith. They, thereresist every interference. Then it is clearly the duty fore, differed widely from the cowled miscreants of a of such a friend to do so. It is certainly not the duty later age, who inherited from them nothing but the of all who call themselver friends, and who will be ever name. So far, indeed, were the clergy of these early days officially offering their advice. For the very presence from desiring the death of heretics, that St. Martin of of such a tendency ought to warn such of their incom- Treves strongly remonstrated with the Emperor Maxipetence. But still there are friends, who know and mus against putting the heretic Priscillian to death, have a right to know, that they enjoy the confidence a deed which, he declared, “all the bishops of France of such as stand in need of being admonished. And and Italy regarded with the utmost abhorrence.” And above all, we have the command of Christ, and almost we find the famous St. Augustine protesting to the in the very language of the synagogue. Moreover, if proconsul of Africa, “that rather than see the punisha thy brother shall trespass against thee, “Go and tell ment of death inflicted upon the heretical Donatists, bim his fault between thee and him alone; if he shall both he and all his clergy would willingly perish by hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother.” Matt, xviii. 15. their hands.” But as has been remarked," it is easier to
There is another principle which all will admit to be draw than to sheathe the sword of persecution :" and powerful, and which is also scriptural, we mean the the ecclesiastics of a following age were zealous in employment of public opinion, not the opinion of the stimulating reluctant magistrates to execute these laws, world, but of the Church. “And if any man obey not and in procuring the application of them to persons our word by this epistle,” says Paul, note that man, who beld opinions which their predecessors looked and bave no company with him, that he may be ashamed. upon as harmless or laudable. In the eleventh century, Yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as a capital punishment, even in its most dreadful form, brother." 2 Tbess. iii. 14, 15. There are two things that of burning alive, was extended to all who obstiessential to the effective employment of this principle, nately adhered to opinions differing from the received and both of these were secured in the ancient synagogue. faith. In the first place, obstinate offenders were made known Various causes contributed to increase the severity to the congregation, and the congregation itself was of the proceedings against heretics. Excommunication, made a party to the discipline. And, secondly, the which at first was regarded as no more than exclusion members of the congregation followed out the discip- from the privileges of the Church, gradually came to line of the synagogue, by abstaining from the society of be considered a brand of public infamy which ought to the scandalous person.
shut out its unhappy victims from all participation in And there is yet one other noticeable principle, name- the rights of citizenship. The miserable beings who ly, the separating of impenitent offenders from the society were struck with this spiritual thunder were thought of professors. The object here, is not repentance. That to be no longer entitled to the compassion of their race, is supposed to be hopeless. The object now contem- but to be cast out from society as objects at once of plated, is the prevention of infecting others. And this Divine execration and human abhorrence. The premay as well take place in cases of habitual vice, as in judices of mankind came thus to be arrayed upon the those of heterodox opinions. And to this also the same
side of persecution, and the kindly sympathies of our apostle refers, when he says, “ Your glorying is not nature, which ever prompt us to succour the oppressed, good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the were checked as rebellious thoughts against the majesty whole lump.” And again, “ If any man that is called of heaven's justice. He who was known to pity a a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, heretic became exposed to suspicion ; he who assisted or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner ; with one participated in his crime, and was compelled to such an one no not to eat." I Cor. v. 6, 11.
share his doom. Nor were the Popes averse to avail
themselves of these prejudices. All they wanted was THE INQUISITION.
the power to interfere with effect. With this also a
series of favourable events gradually invested them. It is our intention to give a short account of the intro. | The Crusades, in addition to their effect in weakening duction and suppression of the Reformed Religion in the great sovereigns of Europe, many of whom were Spain. But in order that our readers may clearly decidedly hostile to the Pope's pretensions to universal understand the reason of the rapid decay of opinions in dominion, perverted in the minds of men, the essential Spain, which, in adjoining countries, had made such principles of justice, humanity, and religion, by foster. progress as completely to revolutionize the religious ing the false idea, that to fight for the Church was the feelings of their inhabitants, and emancipate their minds surest passport to heaven. Of this delusive belief, the from a thraldom which, for centuries, had beld the Papacy made ample use in extending and consolidating European world in bondage, we find it necessary to its already overgrown power. To men whose principles give a brief sketch of the rise and progress of that ter- were thus depraved, there wanted but the slightest rible apparatus to whose instrumentality Rome owes symptom of hostility to any of the received dogmas of the the preservation of her power in the Peninsula. Church, to rouse into fury the strongest passions of their
Historians are by no means agreed about the exact | nature. The clergy needed but to raise the cry, " the Church is in danger,” and the standards of a thousand | pal object for which the Pope established the Inquisiwarlike leaders were unfurled to defend her from injury, tion, the inquisitors were directed not to stop there. or inflict vengeance upon her foes. Nor was this zeal Many Christians might entertain heretical opinions allowed long to cool. The Pope finding that the Barons which prudence induced them to conceal. The famiof Provence but feebly secorded, or altogether opposed, liars of the holy office were, therefore, strictly charged his violent attempts to suppress the Albigenses in their to watch for the slightest symptoms of a wavering faith dominions, proclaimed a Crusade against both superiors in any member of the Church, and instantly to drag and vassals, and added to the dreaded thunders of the the doubter to their bar. Many crimes which came Vatican, the yet more dreadful cruelties of Simon de under the jurisdiction of the civil magistrate were con. Montfort, who for twenty years, desolated, by an ex-sidered by bis Holiness as proofs of an unsound creed, terminating warfare, the fairest provinces of France. and if the unhappy criminal should escape all the pains From amid such scenes of slaughter and bloodshed arose and penalties of the civil law, with life, the inquisitors the Inquisition-fit birth-place for an institution which were directed to proceed against him, in order to ascerhas been fostered by the blood of three hundred thou- tain whether he had transgressed from inherent deprasand human victims !
vity, or from an idea that transgression was not sinful. It was not, however, until Pope Gregory IX., in In either case he was found guilty by his ghostly 1233, had taken from the bishops the power of dis- judges, who might send him to expiate his sins by fire covering and bringing to punishment the beretics of on earth, that he might thereby escape, as they piously their respective dioceses, and intrusted that duty to said, the more dreadful torments of hell. the friars of St. Dominic, that the Inquisition was There were many species of crime which exposed erected into a distinct tribunal. They erected their individuals to suspicion of heresy ;-sorcery, invocation first court in the city of Toulouse, from which it was of demons, remaining more than a year under the senintroduced into the neighbouring countries of Europe. tence of excommunication, doubting the authority of In the course of the thirteenth century inquisitorial tri- the Pope, as vicar of Jesus Christ, and head of the bunals were introduced into Aragon and Navarre, and an Church, concealing, or any way favouring a heretic and attempt was made to erect one of their courts in Castile ; his adherents, resisting the authority of the holy office, but either from the lack of heretics, or from the oppo- refusing to make war upon heretics at its biddir sition of the Castilians to such a sanguinary mode of giving ecclesiastical sepulture to a heretic, and all law. converting them, the holy ofñce does not seem to have yers, notaries, or other persons belonging to the law, made much progress in that province for more than two who should assist heretics by their counsel or advice, centuries after its first institution. It was, however, or should be guilty of concealing any records, papers, firmly established there also in the reign of Ferdinand or other writings which might facilitate their criminaand Isabella, and soon stretched its iron sway over the tion. By these means, the wretched objects of inquiwhole nation, “ upon which it lay like a monstrous in- sitorial jealousy were deprived of all assistance in their cubus, paralysing its exertions, crushing its energies, perilous situation, and left to encounter alone the torand extinguishing every other feeling but a sense of turing examinations of their judges. No wonder that weakness and terror.”
many of them were induced to criminate themselves, The mode in which the inquisitors proceeded was, and, by a speedy death, seek an escape from their at first, comparatively simple, and their examinations dreadful sufferings. They knew that the heavy clank were conducted in a manner similar to the ordinary of their dungeon door sounded the knell of their de. courts of justice. But this simplicity suited not the parted happiness, for henceforth their reputation was genius of monkery, and was soon superseded by a gone. They might outlive the murderous trials to more tortuous and complicated procedure. They seemed which they would be subjected, and be again permitted to aim, not so much at the truth of the accusation, as to look upon the sun, but the foul breath of the Inqui. the conviction of the accused. They bad an estab- sition had blasted their character, and ruined their peace lished maxim, “that the Inquisition could do no wrong,” | irretrievably. Life was therefore, to them, an object in accordance with which they considered it an inde- of little value, and the grave was welcomed as the oni lible reflection on their proceedings if any individual refuge from their tormentors. But alas ! even there, whom they had once apprehended should clear liimself they were frequently not secure from the vengeance of from suspicion. They were not contented with pro- persecution. The Popes, to render the crime of berest nouncing judgment upon the words and actions of men, as much detested as possible, bad decreed that the but were intent on laying bare the hidden secrets of bodies of dead heretics should be disinterred and burnt, the soul. It was not sufficient that a man could prove and their name and memory to be pronounced for eve? himself innocent of any expression or act of hostility infamous. Dreadful tribunal! whose sentence withered to the Church of Rome : if they could only torture him in a moment the fairest hopes of young ambition, and into a confession that he had wronged her in thought, blasted the well-earned reputation of centuries!they at once proceeded to pronounce him guilty. In whose terrible denunciations caused the hearts of miltheir zeal to support the Church, and in the full belief lions to tremble, and the very grave to give up its that the end sanctified the means, they scrupled not to
dead! employ, in the detection of heresy, any artifice, however gross or deceitful. It mattered not what were
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CONTENTS. 1.- A Brief Account of the Revival of Religion at Kilsyth : in 5.--Discourse. By the Rev. Henry Moncreiff, A. B., ... Page 665
a Letter to a friend. By the Rov. W. M. Hethering- 6.-Sacred Poetry. * The Crucifixion." By John Davidson, 668 ton, A.M.,
... Page 657
7.--Christian Treasury. Extracts from Leighton, Rutherford, 2.-The Old Docter,
ib. 3.-Sacred Poetry. “ The Song of the Magi." By David 8.-The Infidel Reclaimed ; or the Conversion and Death of Vedder,
669 4.-On the Musical Instruments of the Jews. By the Rev. 9.-Unregenerate Man Degraded to a Level with the Beasts. James Brodie,
A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE REVIVAL OF RELIGION AT KILSYTH :
IN A LETTER TO A FRIEND.
BY THE REV. W. M. HETHERINGTON, A, M.,
Minister of Torphichen, Linlithgowshire. My Dear Sir,—As you expressed an earnest | mind with regard to religion; judging, at the vish that I would write to you an account of the same time, as accurately as I could whether their religious revival at Kilsyth, as soon after I had language and conduct were those of truth and visited the place as possible, I shall, without far- soberness, or whether they were merely the rether delay, give you an outline of what I either sult of some strange and temporary excitement. witnessed myself or learned from the statements But before proceeding to state what came under of others,-persons whose testimony, were I to my own observation, it may be expedient briefly mention their names, would command the most to mention the circumstances which preceded the implicit confidence, as beyond all suspicion. You events which at present have attracted, and still are aware that I am not myself disposed to admit attract, so much of public attention. I cannot, rashly, as true, any report of a strange or wonder- of course, in this be very minute, nor shall I atful character; but having repeatedly heard it stated, tempt it; as in all probability a full account of that a remarkable revival of religion, or what bore the matter will ere long be given to the public by strong appearances of deserving that designation, the much respected minister of the parish himhad taken place at Kilsyth, I thought it my duty self. It appears, that for many years the utmost to take an early opportunity of visiting that parish, pains have been taken by Mr Burns, the minister, that I might ascertain by personal investigation to promote the progress of vital religion among what reality there seemed to be in the reports that his people. Sabbath schools were established as had reached me. I went, therefore, resolved to early as 1809, and have been in operation ever make the most minute inquiry in my power,--to since. In 1826, the parish began to enjoy the believe nothing without what should appear to me benefit of an able, pious, and zealous schoolmaster, sufficient evidence, and to reject nothing which all whose labours were based upon the principles, should be supported by what I might deem suffi- and conducted in the spirit, of scriptural religion. cient evidence. On my arrival at Kilsyth, I had a gradual change was consequently effected in the the good fortune to meet with a clergyman, now rising generation, the fruits of which are now besettled in another part of the country, who had coming extensively apparent. In 1829, the kirkresided several years in Kilsyth, and was inti- session appointed a fast-day to be observed, exmately acquainted with the place and its inhabi- pressly for the purpose of humbling themselves on tants. Accompanied by him, I went among the account of the prevalence of vice and immorality, people freely, from house to house, and mingled and the low state of personal religion among them. with them while engaged in their daily labours, Though this was opposed by some, yet many were in their own abodes, or in public manufactories, awakened to a degree of serious concern on acand quite unaware of my visit, so that they could count of their sinful condition. From this time not be in the least prepared with answers to my forward a greater degree of earnestness in religiquestions, or with appearances arranged for the ous matters began to appear among the people. purpose of deceiving me. I conversed familiarly In 1832, the terrible scourge of the cholera exwith old and young, men and women, boys and cited an unusual degree of alarm in the minds of girls, and gathered from their own lips a plain ac- great numbers; and many prayer-meetings were count of their feelings, views, and entire state of formed, which were numerously attended. Nor No. 42. OCTOBER 19, 1839.-1fd.]
[SECOND SERIES. VOL. I.