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who at this time was only a preacher, and about mon, before the last prayer. But the of twenty-seven years of age. Much of the spirit of God accompanying the sermon, was so felt by light and love was imparted during the services of them, that they could not come away till all was the communion Sabbath ; and so filled were they over. When they returned to take their horses, with joy and peace, that, instead of retiring to rest, they called for some refreshment besore they the communicants joined together in little com- mounted ; but when it was set upon the table, panies, and spent the whole night in devotional they all looked to one another, none of them darexercises.

ing to touch it till a blessing was asked ; and as It had not been usual before this time to have they were not accustomed formerly to attend to service on the Monday after the dispensation of such things, one of them at last remarked, “I the Lord's Supper; but God had vouchsafed so think we should ask a blessing. The others asmuch of his gracious presence on the preceding sented at once to this proposal, and put it on one days of this occasion, that they knew not how to of their number to do it, to which he readily conpart on the Monday, without thanksgiving and sented. And when they had done, they could not praise. Mr Livingstone was with difficulty pre- rise till another had returned thanks. They went vailed on to preach the sermon. In the memoirs of on their way more sedately than they used to do, his life, written by himself, he gives the following but none of them mentioned their inward concern memorandum in reference to this sermon : “ The to the others, only now and then one would say, only day in all my life wherein I found most of the Was it not a great sermon we heard ?' another presence of God in preaching was on a Monday would answer, “I never heard the like of it: after the communion, preaching in the churchyard They went to Edinburgh, but, instead of attendof Shotts, June 21, 1630. The night before, I had ing the amusements, they kept their rooms the been with some Christians, who spent the night in greater part of the time they were there, which prayer and conference. When I was alone in the was only about two days, when they were all quite fields, about eight or nine of the clock in the weary of Edinburgh, and proposed to return home. morning, before we were to go to sermon, there Upon the way home, they did not discover the came such a misgiving of spirit upon me, con- state of their minds to one another; and after sidering my unworthiness and weakness, and the arriving in Glasgow they kept themselves very multitude and expectation of the people, that I much retired, coming seldom out. At last, one of was consulting with myself to have stolen away them made a visit to his friend, and declared to him somewhere, and declined that day's preaching, but what God had done for him at the Kirk of Shotts. that I thought I durst not so far distrust God, and The other frankly owned the concern that he had so went to sermon, and got good assistance about been brought under at the same time ; and both of an hour and a half upon the points which I had them proceeding to the third, and finding him in the meditated on, • Then will I sprinkle clean water same state of mind, they all three agreed immeupon you, and ye shall be clean ; from all your diately to begin a fellowship meeting They confilthiness and from all your idols will I cleanse tinued to maintain a practice suitable to their proyou. A new heart also will I give you, and a fession for the remainder of their lives, and became new spirit will I put within you, and I will take eminently useful in their day and generation." away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will From this, and other well attested instances, it give you an heart of flesh.' Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 26. appears that the revival on this occasion was not And in the end, offering to close with some words characterised by those faintings, exclamations, rapof exhortation, I was led on about an hour's time, tures, and other enthusiastic excesses, which have in a strain of exhortation and warning, with such brought discredit on similar work in our own liberty and melting of heart, as I never had the country and elsewhere. The Word of God sank like in public all my life time.”

deep into the hearts of the hearers, forcing them To this sermon, under the blessing of God, no to retire, like the stricken deer, into solitude, there less than five hundred people ascribed their con- to weep and mourn, till the dart was extracted version. And in gratitude for such a remarkable by the Hand from which it had come, and the token of the divine countenance on this day, the balm of consolation was poured into the bleeding Church of Scotland has ever since devoted a part wound. It was some time before the modesty of of the Monday after a communion Sabbath, to the the converts would permit them to own the change duty of public thanksgiving.

which had been wrought upon them, till, like the Some incidents occurred on that remarkable spring of water, which cannot be controlled or Monday, one of which, as illustrating the striking concealed, the grace of God evinced its power by effect produced by Mr Livingstone's discourse, bursting from the once stony heart,” and pourmay be now related. “Three young gentlemen be- ing itself forth in the pure, and peaceful

, and longing to Glasgow had made an appointment to fertilising stream of a holy conversation. go to Edinburgh to attend some public amusements. Having alighted at Shotts to take breakfast, one of their number proposed to go and hear

Edinburgh; and sold by J. R. MacNAIR & Co., 19, Glassford Sireet,

Glasgow; JAMES Nisbet & Co., HAMILTON,' ADAMS & Co., and sermon, probably more from curiosity than any

W. M'COMB, Beifast; and by the Booksellers and Local Agents in other motive ; and for greater expedition, they all the Towns and Parishes of Scotiand; and in the principal Towns arranged to come away at the end of the ser

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Printed and Published by Join JOHNSTONE, 2, Hunter Square,

R. GROOMBRIDGE, London; W. CURRY, Junior, & Co., Dublin;

THE

SCOTTISH CHRISTIAN HERALD,

CONDUCTED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF MINISTERS AND MEMBERS OF

THE ESTABLISHED CHURCH.

CONTENTS. 1.- The Effects of Christianity on the Moral Condition of the 6.-Sacred Poetry. “Oh, that I had Wings like a Dove! for Poor. By the Rev. John Hunter, A.M.,.

.Page 417

then would I fly Away and be at Rest."--Psalm lv. 6. 2.-The Wisdom of God Displayed in the Production, or

By C. F. Buchan,

Page 424 Birth of Insects. By the Rev. William Grant, ........ 419 7.- A Discourse. By the Rev. Alexander Turner,

it. 3.-Sacred Poetry. « The Crown of Amaranth,"

421

8.- Christian Treasury. Extracts from Rev. Thomas Griffith, 4.--Biographical Sketch. The late Rev. John Scott, D.D.,

Morrison, and Lord Erskine,

428 Minister of the New Church, Greenock. By the Rev. 9.-Sacred Poetry. Christian Warfare." By Charlotte David Landsborough,

ib.
Elizabeth,

429 5. - Impiety Rebuked,

424 10.--The History of Laud's Liturgy. By the Rev. Thomas M'Crie, 429

THE EFFECTS OF CHRISTIANITY ON THE MORAL CONDITION

OF THE POOR.

BY THE REV. JOHN HUNTER, A.M.,

One of the Ministers of the Tron Church Parish, Edinburgh.

When the Christian dispensation was first made Holy Ghost, upon the dispositions and conduct of known to mankind, corruption of morals had risen the primitive Christians. to a most alarming height. Human sacrifices Honest and industrious in the discharge of the were very generally offered up on the altars of active duties of life, they seized upon every opportheir pretended deities ; infants were exposed to tunity of engaging in devotional exercises, of hearsuffering and death by their unnatural parents ; ing the Word of God, and of encouraging each slaves were treated by their masters with the ut- other in the faith and practice of true religion. most harshness and severity, and were frequently The drunkard abandoned his intoxicating cup, the deprived of life upon the smallest provocation; the unjust renounced the gains of dishonesty, the most inhuman sports were encouraged by the avaricious became generous and liberal, the cruel, legislature, and formed the highest delight of benevolent and gentle, and the unchaste, patterns the people polygamy universally prevailed, and of purity and virtue. The spirit of Christ dwelt every species of licentiousness was indulged in in every mind, and his law was the guide of every without a feeling of remorse, or even a sense life. of shame. Awful is the picture which St. Paul Amid the severest insults and injuries the disgives us of the state of the Roman empire at ciples of Christ were mild and gentle, and like this period, and his account is fully verified by their divine Master, with their dying breath they their own historians and poets. "The city of implored the forgiveness of beaven to their inCorinth bad reached to such a degree of moral human persecutors. St. Luke tells us that “they degradation, that even the Roman Legion was sold their possessions and goods, and parted them not permitted to enter within its gates, lest they to all as every man had need. And they continushould be completely corrupted by luxury, effe- ing daily with one accord in the temple, and breakminacy, and vice.

ing bread from house to house, did eat their meat Yet both at Rome and Corinth the apostles of with gladness and singleness of heart, praising God, our Lord proclaimed the doctrine of salvation and having favour with all the people.” After the through the cross, and called upon men to renounce apostles of our Lord had slept the sleep of death, their crimes, and to live godly, soberly, and right-Christianity still continued to extend its triumphs eously, in the world ; and their preaching was and to obtain many proselytes, both among Jews effectual in the conversion of multitudes of the and Heathens. Comparatively few individuals of poor who once were the votaries of guilt and 'rank and learning joined themselves to the numcrime, but now were " washed, and justified, and ber of the followers of Jesus, but multitudes in sanctified, in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by humble life embraced the knowledge, and exhibited the Spirit of the living God." The sacred historians the practice, of genuine godliness. Striking is give us a lively and interesting picture of the the appeal which one of the first apologists of our change that was effected by the manifestation of holy religion

makes in behalf of his Christian the truth, accompanied by the influences of the brethren. “Among us," says be, “the meanest No. 27. JULY 6, 1839.-14d.]

[SECOND SERIES. VOL. I.

labourers, though unable to discourse or dispute | lowed fountain of our purity and our bliss. To for the utility of their religion, demonstrate its the influence of public religious instruction we excellence by their lives and good works. They owe in a great measure that energy of mind and do not critically weigh their words, and recite ele- freedom of thought and discussion which have gant orations, but they perform honest and virtu- preserved us from the calamities of despotism, on ous actions. Being buffeted, they strike not again, the one hand, and that industry and contentment nor sue those at law who spoil and plunder them; which have delivered us, in some measure at least, they give liberally to such as ask, and they love from the still greater evils of popular licentiousness their neighbour as themselves." “ Your jails," on the other. adds another, “swarm with criminals of your own

And the services of the sanctuary

have operated, religion, but you will not find in them one Chris- perhaps more powerfully than any other cause, to tian, except he be there because he is a Christian, preserve unimpaired the inestimable political adand purely on account of his faith.” Even the vantages which we and our forefathers have so long most inveterate enemies of the followers of Christ enjoyed. But it is in the private character and bore testimony to the excellence of their morals. habits of the humble follower of Jesus, who has been Pliny, a Roman magistrate, who was actively em- taught, by the energy of divine grace, to imbibe the ployed in their persecution, thus writes concerning spirit and imitate the example of his blessed Master, them to the Emperor Trajan: “ The whole of their that we obtain the most convincing proof of the guilt or error is, that they meet on a certain day salutary influence of a preached Gospel. Ignorant before it is light, and address themselves in prayer of ancient lore, or of the various improvements in to Christ as to some god, binding themselves by a art and science which bave marked the history of solemn oath, not for any purposes of wickedness, modern times, one precious volume is the treasure but never to commit fraud, theft, or adultery, of his heart; he reads it with unwearied interest never to falsify their word, nor to deny a trust and attention, and he derives from it his rules of when they shall be called upon to deliver it up." conduct, his sources of enjoyment, his consolaJulian the apostate, in like manner, in an epistle tions, and his hopes. When the morning sun to a heathen pontiíf, strongly recommends the arises, when the curtains of darkness are drawn imitation of the sanetity, the charity, and other around him, and often amid the bustle of active virtues of the Christians. “ It is," says he, “a life, he ascends, in thought and affection, to the disgrace to the Pagans to disregard those of their Author of his being, the Redeemer of his soul, own religion, while the impious Galileans, (as be and the Sanctifier of his heart and life; he unis pleased to term them,) do kind offices to stran- bosoms before God his wants, his sins, and his gers and even to enemies."

sorrows, and asks those heavenly aids which are After public religious instruction has sub- requisite to fit him for duty, to preserve him from sisted in a country for many generations, it is temptation, to prepare him for trial, and to render more dillicult to trace its direct operation upon him meet for the enjoyment of heaven. His purest the opinions and habits of the humbler orders of and highest delight is to assemble around him the society. It gives birth to valuable institutions, children whom he loves with the fondest affection, which in their turn unite and co-operate with and to teach them, by the force of example, by the it in producing the most beneficial effects upon influence of persuasion, and by the voice of affechuman character. Still we are daily permitted tion, to know the God of their fathers, and to to observe its divine influence in that patient “ serve him with a perfect heart and a willing industry, that sobriety of manners, that conjugal mind." affection, that attention to the duties of social The sacred incense of domestic prayer and praise and domestic life, and that cheerful contentment continually ascends to heaven from his holy dwellwith their lot, which in general mark the con- ing. The day of the Lord is hailed as a season duct of the poor in those countries where Chris- of holy rest and gladness ; and, while in the temple tianity is preached in its primitive simplicity of his God he listens to the message of reconciliaand beauty,

tion and mercy, he experiences a "peace which That sacred ordinance which inspires them with passeth all understanding." The ordinances of the fear of God renders them, at the same time, religion appear to him like streams from the sounloval and patriotic citizens. In the sanctuary they tain of bliss, intended to refresh the weary pilare taught to honour the king, to be subject to the grim, while he wanders through the wilderness powers that be, not only for wrath, but also for of life to the land of rest. Under their purifying conscience' sake, to obey magistrates, and to lead and comforting influence, poverty is turned into quiet and peaceable lives in all godliness and riches, and affliction into joy; and even amid honesty.

the convulsive agonies of expiring nature, the And it is an important fact, that at the present good man is heard with holy exultation to exmoment, is in former periods, the very same in- claim, “O death, where is thy sting? O grave, dividuals who have attempted to sow the seeds of where is thy victory ? Thanks be unto God, sedition and anarchy in our native land, have also who giveth me the victory through Jesus Christ laboured with unwearied assiduity to destroy the my Lord !" This is no ideal picture,—it has altar, to render the ministers of religion objects of probably been witnessed by many whom I now contempt and abhorrence, and to poison the hal- address; and it teaches us, in language the most

rest.

impressive, that the preaching of Christ crucified | one they infest. There is scarcely one substance which is indeed the wisdom and the power of God unto this carth produces which does not equally own their salvation.

sway. With all they are connected--receiving or affording food. All, therefore, are now pressing their claims

to be heard as witnesses : among such contending THE WISDOM OF GOD DISPLAYED IN THE claims I know not which to select. I must therefore PRODUCTION, OR BIRTH OF INSECTS. take one part of the subject, and transcribe the evi. BY THE Rev. WILLIAM GRANT,

dence of one or two witnesses, as an example of ihe Logicalmond, Stirlingshire.

The generality of insects pass through four states of

existence,—the egg,--the larva, or caterpillur,-the The connection which exists between the various

pupa, or chrysalis,--and the imago, or perfect. branches of nature, though it forces itself on the no

With regard to the first of these, it is a common tice of naturalists, is searcely observed by the generality opinion that the eggs of insects remain a certain, deof mankind. They regard creation as a series of works, terminate time, after which the insect comes forth. each perfect in itself, but in nowise, or but slightly Or, if it is known that this period is varied, the princonnected with each other. So distinctly is this idea ciple, the rule by which it is shortened or prolonged, at variance with reality, that I may unhesitatingly is not understood. The cause, howev of the variaaffirm that not one part of existing nature, however tion is to be found in the variation of the temperature; insignificant, could be removed without involving the in a word, it depends upon heat. Upon this simple rest in inextricable confusion. The truth of this state- fact I would offer a few remarks. ment must be allowed by all who have made one portion

If the period of their birth had been determined by of creation their peculiar study. They find it impos- any other cause, I do not see how insects could be, sible fully to understand their subject without some

with any certainty, continued from year to year. Let knowledge of the others. The wider their knowledge

us suppose that those insects who find their food amid of the laws which pervade the whole, the more fully the vegetation of the forest, lay for a certain time in do they understand the single subject in which they the egg, and that, independent of the temperature, they delight. This does not merely arise from the analogies were to come into life after a period of six months from and similarities they find, but also, perhaps more espe. September to March, what would be the consequence? cially, from understanding the purposes they are meant Some seasons might be backward, the trees might not to serve,—from observing their connection with some

put forth their leaves till April had arrived, or was other part of creation.

well nigh spent. What would become of those insects No man is able, by taking a comprehensive and a which had appeared days, it might be weeks, ere there minute observation of all creation, to point out the was any food provided for them? Even though they almost infinite dependency and connection of its several could exist some time without any sustenance, how parts. We may be able to give a general sketch or could the tender larva, which required the warmth of outline of the grand chain that connects the whole, genial spring to cherish and enliven it, sustain the from the moss-grown rock to man; or, we may be able pinching cold, amid which it had prematurely begun to take a few isolated facts, and trace for a little the its life? manifold links which connect one species with thou- Or, if to remedy such an evil as this, the period of sanris around it. But, if we attempt to proceed, we their remaining undisclosed was lengthened to seven or are soon lost in the endless maze of connection. The eight months, so that, instead of appearing in March, mutual dependency does not darken before us, but it they were to appear a month or two later, what would be shines with such a brightness that we can no longer the consequence? The former evil might be remedied, number its rays. The multiplicity of the connections but another threatens their existence. In ordinary be wilders us. How exalted, then, must be our con- seasons, much more in early years, the greater number ceptions of Him who, by one glance, comprehends of the leaves would have attained their full maturity thein all,—of Him who planned these endless adapta- ere the insect appeared. Such leaves may be the fitting tions,—who planned them so that all are harmony! food for the full grown caterpillar, but they are totally None are unconnected and alone,-each has its place useless to it when at first it enters life no larger than assigned to it. The fabled melody of the spheres was a bair. Besides, if those insects which bind down the not more faultless than the actual harmony of all created opening bud with silken cords, providing themselves things.

with shelter and with food, --if these were only to apIt lies not within the subject I have assigned to my-pear when the plant had fully blossomed, their utmost self to take a general view of this mutual dependency. strength could not, as yet, bend the stubborn leaf. In I must confine myself to particular instances-instances such an arrangement, an unfitness, a want of connection drawn from the insect creation.

would be seen. But by the laws which now exist, No sooner have I announced the nature of the evi- | these evils are fully removed,—this twofold danger dence I am to lead, than I feel at a loss how to begin. provided against. By a special appointment, two For thousands of insects press forward, eager to bear events,-the revival of vegetation and the birth of intestimony to the wisdom of their maker. You will

sects-events continually varying as to the time of see that this is no figure of speech, but the sober truth, their occurrence, invariably take place at the same when you consider the manifold links by which this time. The same cause retards or hastens them. Early class are connected to the various orders of creation. or late, as regards the seasons of the year, these two There is not a spot upon the surface of our globe that events, without any connection, except that of utility, is not peopled by innumerable hosts,—while they glitter are and must be simultaneous in their occurrence. in every varied shape and hue beneath the scorching That you may the more clearly take notice of the influence of the tropics, they find a place amid the singularity and exactitude of this wholesome law, you frozen regions of the north.

should bear in mind how different the seasons are at " The flowery leaf

wbich different trees or herbs send forth their leaves. Wants not its soft inhabitants. Secure Within its winding citadel, the stone

Weeks, as you are well aware, very frequently interBut cbicf, the forest boughg

vene between the foliation of the one and the other. That dance ur numbered in the summer breeze,

Since, therefore, insects are limited to one kind of
The downy orchard, and the melting pulp
Or mellow fruit, the nameless nations feed."

food, devour the leaves of particular species, and refuse Nor is the region of vegetable existence the only all others, how minute must be the adaptation of the

llold, multitudes.

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ordained as his assistant and successor at Greenock, he did he know, that “though Paul may plant, and A pollos says,-

water, it is God alone who giveth the increase;" and “ Dr Scott was possessed, in an eminent degree, of therefore, every effort was made under a deep sense of almost all those qualifications which render a minister his dependence on God, and with a prayerful looking of the Gospel "a workman that needeth not to be for his blessing. This told on all his public appearashamed,"_excellent talents, extensive information,

ances. Coming into the sanctuary from conversing with very high attainments in personal holiness, a thorough knowledge of the Word of God, sound and comprehen- God, bis very manner said, “I have a message from sive views of Christian doctrine, great practical' ac

the Lord to you;" and the Lord, who called bim to quaintance with the effects of the truth on the minds deliver the message, permitted him in many cases to of men of different characters, and in different circum- see the fulfilment of his promise, that “his word should stances; and much Christian wisdom in rightly divid

not return to him void, but should accomplish that ing the Word of truth, so as to make it bear most

whereunto it was sent." directly and successfully on the minds of those whom he addressed. I had not the happiness of knowing him

Much as he excelled as a public speaker, this was but until after he had been laid aside from the discharge of one of the bright features wbich combined in forming public duty; but it was my privilege, for several years so distinguished a character. The way in which he to act as his assistant, and to minister among his flock; discharged the more private pastoral duties formed a and I can truly say of him, as Burnet did of Leighton, that rich background to the picture. The ministrations of 'I have the greatest veneration for his memory, and that

the pulpit are a prominent and highly important departI reckon my knowledge of him among the greatest bless

ment of duty, but they depend for much of their efficacy ings of my life; and for which I know I must give an account to God in the great day.'”

on other duties, which though they attract less notice, From a well-written memoir, by the Rev. Dr Barr of are of unspeakable value. Most diligently did he teach

from house to house: and when we think of the amenity Port-Glasgow, from which we would be disposed to quote more largely than our space will allow, we learn of his manner, his fitness for giving advice both in that Dr Scott was born in 1765, licensed to preach the temporal and spiritual matters, the cheerfulness which Gospel in 1787, and ordained to the work of the minis- shed a mellow influence over the gravity of his deport

ment, and the deep interest which he took in all their try, in the New (West) Church Parish of Greenock, in 1793.

concerns, we cannot wonder that his visits were greatly

prized by a grateful and affectionate people. " The connection thus formed,” Dr Barr adds, “and

Among his more private pastoral services, we must which terminated only with bis life, was always viewed by him with feelings of peculiar sacredness and solem

not forget to mention his tender care and affectionate nity; and these feelings were reciprocated by the mem- superintendence of the young. “Feed my lambs," was bers of his numerous flock. No other individual, per- the command of Him whose own character is that “ be haps, could have been found whose talents and character feeds his flock as a shepherd, and gathers the lambs were so admirably adapted to the place and people. with his arm, and carries them in his bosom." LearnThe same expressions of popular attachment which ing of Christ, then, the lambs of the Rock were beloved welcomed him at the commencement of his work, attended him to its close ; and the experience of every

objects of bis special regard. Knowing how hopeless, successive year, by presenting to the subjects of his comparatively, it is to seek to bend the gnarled oak, be ministry additional evidence of his zeal and ability, his saw the importance of striving to train up the young in faithfulness and success, served only to give him a higher the way they should go. And God often blessed his place in their affections, and a firmer hold of their con- affectionate instructions, whether given to his younger fidence and esteem."

classes, or to those who were about to partake of the He was indeed a workman that needed not to be ordinance of the Supper, and he had often the pleasure ashamed; bis ministerial duties formed the business of of knowing that a blessing bad followed bis labours, by his life, so that he might have said, “ This one thing I seeing the boys whom he bad instructed become zealous do.” He seems to have acted in the very spirit of the Sabbath school teachers wben young men, and in many apostle's exhortation, “Be thou an example of the be- cases diligent Elders at a more advanced period; wbile lievers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in process of time, the young females grew up to be the in faith, in purity. Till I come, give attendance to pious mothers of well-regulated families. reading, to exhortation, to doctrine. Meditate on these In no respect, however, was he so much distinguished, things; give thyself wholly to them, for in doing this, as a “son of consolation." thou shalt both save thyself and them that hear thee.”

* But chief let comfort flow; As “it pleases the Lord, by the foolishness of preach

It is most needed in this vale of tears." ing, to save those who believe," and as the Gospel doc- To the children of sorrow and suffering he was almost trine of “ Christ crucified, is, to those who believe, as an angel from heaven, visiting their dwellings; nay, Christ, the power of God and the wisdom of God,” | in some respects even better to them than an angel from his great delight was to preach the doctrines of the heaven; for he had learned of Him who was the man Cross; and he was most diligent in making preparation of sorrows, and wbilst he wept with those who wept, for the duties of the sanctuary. All his learning, and his words came as balm to the mourners, when they talents, and valuable acquirements, were made to bear knew that he had himself drunk deeply of the cup of on his illustration of Scripture; and all the powers of sorrow, that death, by breach upon breach, had greatly his commanding eloquence were faithfully employed in reduced his fanily circle, and that disease for thirty striving to bring home to the heart the precious truths years had scarcely ever been a stranger to his abode. of the Gospel. Well did he know, however, that some- He knew the heart of the afficted, and he was remarkthing more than the “words of man's wisdom” is neces- ably fitted to sympathize with them in their sorrows, to sary to give efficacy to the preaching of the Word, --well speak a word in season to them, " and to comfort those

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