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CONTENTS. 1.- Personal Adornment viewed in the Light of Christianity. 6.- Biographical Sketch. Mrs J. D. Hetherington. By the By the Rev. Robert Jamieson, ...

Page 241

Page 251 2.- A Call to Gratitude. By the Rev. George Burns, D.D., 243 7.-The Wisdom, Power, and Kindness of God displayed in 3.- The Protestant Church of France, Towards the end of

the Insect Creation. By the Rev. William Grant. Habits Last Century. By the Rev. John G. Lorimer,

of the Hive Bee,

253 4.- The Beauty and Bliss of Holiness,

........ 248

8.-Christian Treasury. Extracts from the Rev. Dr Andrew 4.-A Discourse. By the Rev. Thomas Guthrie,

............... 2.
Thomson, and Memoirs of Mrs Wilson, .......




Minister of Currie, Mid-Lothian.

CHRISTIANITY does not require its disciples to rit, which is in the sight of God of great price." observe any singularities in their personal appear- 1 Pet. iii. 3, 4. The reason of these pointed ance. Without interfering with the matter of exhortations of the apostles is to be sought for in dress, it leaves them at liberty to have their habili- the habits of their contemporaries, who were uniments made and worn in the ordinary fashion of versally noted for their grossly effeminate and the time and place where they live, and all Chris- superstitious attention to personal ornament. The tians, whether they are found in the high, the garments, both of Jews and Gentiles, were overmiddle, or the lower ranks, to equip themselves in loaded with devices and figures of embroidery, a manner suitable to the decencies of the state or which were worn by all ranks, partly from the love profession to which they belong. But against the of show, partly because they were wrought into prevailing vice of studying excessive finery, the those shapes deemed most efficacious in resisting sacred penmen of the Scriptures frequently enter the assaults of magic, and the influence of the evil their protest ; and, considering the moral influence eye. The one had their tunics richly fringed with of such a luxurious taste in dress,-its tendency to scraps of Scripture in letters of gold, and the other foster vanity, and lead the wearer to forget, in had theirs decorated with various emblems of their attending to the outward man, the ornaments of worship, which with both classes were used for moral and spiritual excellence, they condemn all the double purpose of amulets to protect them elaborate decoration of the person as unbecoming from danger, and of ornaments to gratify an inthe humility of the Christian character, and recom- satiable appetite for splendour and extravagance. mend a style of clothing free from all approach to Besides, both the men and women were extravagaudiness and pomp,-betraying no symptoms of a gantly fond of jewels, and carried their passion luxurious or effeminate taste, and conspicuous only for these gewgaws to so great an excess, that the for its neat, cleanly, and simple appearance.

The interference of the State became occasionally netwo most remarkable passages that are to be found cessary to restrict the use of them. The most in the New Testament, bearing on this subject, conspicuous in the list of personal ornaments are by Paul; “ Doth not even nature herself teach worn by the Greek and Roman ladies of those you that if a man have long hair it is a shame un- days were ear-rings of gold,—sometimes a single to him." 1 Cor. xi. 14. “ That women adorn large one, sometimes two or three attached to one themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness another, and hanging down on the shoulders ;and sobriety, not with broidered hair, or gold, or necklaces, set with gems, in three or four rows, pearls, or costly array.” 1 Tim. xi. 9. The writ- which were worn by men as well as women, and ings of Peter contain an exhortation so strikingly so very precious in some instances, that an ancient similar to this latter passage, that it may be pro- satirist accuses the fashionable belles of his day per to subjoin it bere, that it may be before the as bearing the value of whole forests and estates eye of the reader while he is perusing this illus- on their necks. The rage for this species of ortration. “Whose adorning, let it not be that out-nament was so strong and universal, that women ward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of wearing in the middle ranks of life would have made the of gold, or putting on of apparel ; but let it be the greatest sacrifices of personal and domestic conhidden man of the heart, in that which is not cor- venience, rather than have allowed themselves, their ruptible,—the ornament of a meek and quiet spi- husbands, or their daughters, to appear without the No. 16. APRIL 20, 1839.-11d.]

(Second Series. VoL, I.

necessary mark of gentility. The same observa- | well was this known to be a distinguished feature tion is applicable to finger-rings, which were of in the practice of the early followers of Jesus, various forms and devices, and several of which that the first public tokens of a heathen's converwere worn on every finger. In other parts of sion to Christianity, were frequently given by the their dress they were no less luxurious and fond change on his outward man; and a criminal who of display. The men studied all the arts of effe- once came to trial under the assumed character of minacy by painting their beards, besmearing their a Christian, was shown, to the satisfaction of the clothes with fragrant perfumes, and covering their judge, to have been an impostor, by the luxuriant temples and shoulders with artificial curls, in imi- and frizzled appearance of his hair. tation of women. The false locks of Caligula, Although the taste of modern times may not which he fastened to his forehead whenever he lead to those excesses of fantastic decorations appeared abroad or in full dress, are particularly which were the objects of female ambition in the mentioned by his biographer ; and in the elaborate days of Peter and Paul, the moral of the apostle's work of Meursius on the luxury of the Romans, he exhortation still points to a becoming simplicity of describes it as scarcely possible to distinguish, on dress, admonishing “ the fairest of creation," not the public streets, gentlemen from ladies, the faces to expose their form, and minister to their vanity, of the unmanly sons of Romulus were so effeminate- by indecorous, gaudy, and sumptuous attire, and ly disguised by the attributes of the softer part of thereby sink the Christian in the woman; as those human kind. The embellishment of their head-do of whom it is said, that dress was the greatest pride of the Greek and Ro

Together lie their Bible and their paint, man ladies. Wearing their hair universally of a

At once t'improve the sinner and the saint." great length, they bestowed infinite pains on its It is not unlikely, that there were some Christian arrangement. They had instruments for this pur- women in the immediate eye of the apostles, who pose, of various sizes and uses ; and some of the lad betrayed an anxiety to rival the pagan

ladies busts and portraits that have come down from in the richness of their garb, and who had attracted antiquity, display a degree of care, ingenuity, and attention in the primitive Church by the elaborate skill, that would baffle," to use the words of an disposition and the dazzling splendour of their American writer, “the most accomplished hair- head-dress. To them the counsel of the apostles dresser of Paris at the present day." The hair was intended to convey a timely reproof. But was disposed into the most elaborate and captivat- it is no less applicable to many of the sex in the ing forms, by plaiting or twisting. Wreaths, present day, who set a value on the appearance diadems, baskets of Howers, clusters of grapes, and state of their apparel greater than seems becoronets, harps, violins, emblems of public temples, coming in women professing godliness. Some and conquered cities, were represented in mimic absent themselves from ordinances altogether, if form by the art of the ancient hair-dresser. The they cannot obtain, or have not got ready a dress conquest of Britain introduced a new element in the fashionable style of the day; some present of beauty into the coiffure. The light auburn themselves at church, attired in so gaudy and ostenlocks of the ancient British maidens excited the tatious a manner, as provokes the uncharitable envy of the ladies of Greece and Italy, and the suspicion that they repair to the house of Goddefects of nature in the dark colour of their own less to worship than to be admired. And others hair were anxiously supplied by strewing their entertain their family and their friends, on their heads with gold dust. Silver filings were used return, with such minute details of the materials, in a later age by those who could not afford the colour, the make, what is neat, or what sat the costlier metal.' But the ladies in the days of awry in the dress of their fellow-worshippers, as Paul preferred to adorn their “broidered hair shows that their eyes were not always directed towith gold.”

wards the preacher, nor their attention exclusively Enough has been said for the purposes of this given to the service. It is not possible, and it paper, without entering into any further detail of would not be wise, if it were possible, to prescribe the various cosmetics anciently in use, and the os- any rules for regulating the habit of a sex to whom tentatious display they made of white and red paint.* nature herself seems to have granted the privilege It was against these meretricious ornaments, that the of artificial decoration. Nor does the spirit of the apostles cautioned the primitive believers ; and we apostolic admonition lay Christian women under find many of the fathers also discharging the most any restriction as to the use of the gold, pearls

, vehement invectives against the same vice, which or costly array” that is becoming their rank, or seems to have increased in the declining age of suited to their circumstances. It only condemns the empire. While they affected no peculiarities any departure from sobriety which leads to proin the form and style of their clothing, they urged digality and extravagance in expense, and fosters on their Christian brethren the propriety and ob- a disposition to study that immoderate care and ligation of showing the superior excellence of display of the person which is not very consistent their principles and taste, by attiring themselves with attention to the higher duty of improving the in a manner equally removed from the extremes state of the mind and the heart. The propriety of elaborate decoration and sordid negligence. So of this limitation will be apparent to every,one, of concealing their age, by dyeing their gray hairs with black. This tion in dress be extended to furniture, and every

Some old people, in those days, resorted to the mean artifice and if the Christian principle of observing moderawas alleged of Ilerod the Great.-Josephus Antiq. xvi. 8.

David says,

other branch of personal and household expenditure, the left, I willingly admit that there was in almost the beneficial effects of following the precept would every class a seriousness of demeanour befitting the be discernible throughout the whole economy of awfulness of our situation, and how could it be otherlife.

wise under such an appalling visitation. The mariner, when the stormy ocean rages around him, when thunder

rolls, and lightnings flash, and death stares him in the A CALL TO GRATITUDE.

face, whatever may have been his former life, calls BY THE Rev. GEORGE BURNS, D.D., upon God for mercy and deliverance. Bending his Minister of Tweedsmuir, Peebles-shire.

knees before that God who was not in all his thoughts

when the scene was peaceful and serene, it may now Self-love is one of the most powerful principles of be said of him with perfect truth, and in the full human conduct. Its influence is equally conspicuous emphasis of its meaning, “ Behold he prayeth.” But in the means which are employed to avert dangers when the Lord rebukes the wind and the sea and there which threaten to disturb or annihilate our peace, to is a great calm, then the tempest and the ruler of the alleviate the pressure of calamities with which we are tempest are alike forgotten. And so it was in the case actually visited, and to increase the enjoyments of per- of the deadly pestilence. The fearfulness which sursonal affluence and ease. Even benevolence itself, which prised the hypocrite gave place to thoughtlessness and is certainly the most disinterested of all our feelings, inconsideration, as soon as it seemed to have spent its bas been thought by some moralists not altogether free violence ;—the God who sent it in his wrath, and refrom the influence of the selfish principles, because there moved it in his mercy, was no longer regarded by is a luxury in doing good to others which men may be thousands who had quailed before the mysteriousness led to taste from a regard to their own individual en- of its way, and the mightiness of its force. Much as joyment. But, whatever truth there may be in such the soil has been ploughed by the share of adversity, speculations, certain it is, that fear has a more power has the proper harvest not been produced. ful infuence on human conduct than gratitude. When

“I will sing of mercy and of judgment,” disease invades the frame, when adversity clouds the and his resolution should be ours. “ Bless the Lord, domestic scene, and when a succession of calamities O my soul, and forget not all his benefits," was his combines to destroy the bappiness of life, then we be- fervent expostulation, and its spirit, as well as langin to reflect, to recognise a providence, and to call guage, should be ours. For, is not ingratitude to God upon God. But when the scene comes to be changed, as unreasonable as it is ungenerous ? Every blessing, when health is restored, and when prosperity surrounds even the most inconsiderable, is wholly unmerited on us with its smiles, then serious thought is banished, our part, and evinces infinite condescension and love in impressions of a providence are effaced, and the Author the great Benefactor. And when we reflect on the of our renewed enjoyments is forgotten. The same number and magnitude of those favours which all of features of deformity mark the face of nations. When us have received from God, how numerous and how the designs of an inveterate foe have been signally powerful must our obligations appear! Can you refrustrated, wben an expedition has been crowned with fect, reader, on the gifts of creation, the powers both success, and when victory bas rested on the banners of of body and mind with which you have been formed, a nation, exultation becomes the general feeling, seasons while others have been born to feebleness and disease, and modes of rejoicing are publicly countenanced and or to the still greater misfortune, weakness and imper. enjoined. But how seldom is the providence of heaven fection of mind? Can you reflect on the escapes which recognised! Human skill, military prowess, and a preserving goodness has enabled you to make from combination of fortunate incidents are commonly as- dangers unforeseen, and from diseases which have car, signed as the causes of success. When, on the con- ried others to their long home? And do you feel no trary, there has been a succession of public calamities, emotions of gratitude to the best of benefactors rising when promising schemes have been thwarted, and when in your breast ? Behold that ghastly look-these a country bas been threatened with all the horrors shivering limbs—that form wbich seems bending to which mark the career of an invading enemy, then men the dust, under a load of disease and sorrows, and begin to recognise the hand which seems to write their ask yourself, Why is not his situation mine? Why doom.

was not I born, like him, the victim of misfortune ? This tendency to acknowledge God as the source of Why am not I, instead of him, exhibited to the world calamities and to neglect him as the author of blessings, a spectacle of disease and of wretchedness? Behold, bas always proclaimed the perversity and desperate in yonder cell the companion of thy former days, sunk wickedness of our hearts, and while human nature in solitude and gloom; mark the eye which used to continues the same, we have reason to fear that it will beam intelligence, as it casts upon you the vacant thus be perpetually deformed. Of ten lepers that stare ; observe the bands which used to earn the rewere cleansed, only one returned to give thanks to the wards of industry, or to perform deeds of enlightened generous author of their deliverance. Our mercies we beneficence, now waving a straw as if they wielded a record on the sea-shore, and the returning tide quickly sceptre ; listen to that tongue which used to edify and effaces the perishable memorial. Calamity we engrave to delight, now muttering the language of incoherent on the rock, and the inscription is preserved from age reproach, unmeaning applause, or disgusting profanity! to age. Whilst the pestilence was raging in all its And while you contemplate the melancholy spectacle, deadly violence ; whilst the hand of the destroying ask yourself, Why is not his situation mine? Why am angel" was doing its appointed work, and our fellow- not I doomed to share in the same calamity? Quesmortals were falling by our side, on the right hand and I tions like these, addressed by cach of us to himself,


would have a powerful tendency to awaken the feelings | awake to the blessedness of your state ? is not your of gratitude to that God who has made us to differ heart open to the impressions of gratitude ? erd are you from others. Those who are placed in the circum- not determined, for the time to come, to testify your stances described, were possessed of the same claim gratitude, by improving as you ought the privileges you with us to exemption from those calamities with which enjoy, and by devoting your lives to the glory of that they have been visited, and therefore our obligations sovereign mercy which hath made you to differ from to the distinguishing favour of God are the strongest others ? Such must be your resolutions, and such your that can possibly be conceived. Above all, Christians ! constant practice, if you have one spark of generous can you reflect on the spiritual privileges which you feeling in your bosom, if you would avert the threatenjoy,--that your lot has been cast in a land where the ened vengeance of heaven, if you would secure the glad sound of the Gospel of peace is proclaimed, while gracions interposition of that mercy which alone can others, of the same nature with yourselves, and of save you. equal desert with you, have been dooined to spend their mortal existence in those “dark places of the

THE PROTESTANT CHURCH OF earth, which are full of the habitations of cruelty,"

FRANCE, that to you the great “angel of the covenant" has been revealed as a “redeemer from all evil,” whilst to them no Saviour has been made known, and no way of

BY THE REV. John G. LORIMER, salvation has been disclosed,—that to you pardon, Minister of St. David's Parish, Glasgow. peace, and eternal life are held forth for acceptance, wbilst to them the throne of Jehovah is surrounded AFTER so long contemplating the horrors of persecuwith gloom, and the darkness of the grave is bright- tion, it is gratifying to perceive and record the dawn of ened by no gleam of hope? But for the distinguishing more tolerant days. The old laws of oppression might favour of God we had been groping our cheerless way remain unrepealed, and the Protestants be exposed to amid the darkness of heathenism, groaning under the the hazard of their execution, wherever a violent Ro. galling yoke of a cruel and debasing superstition, ac- man Catholic, whether priest or layman, chose to call for companying the deluded Mussulman in his weary pil- their application. Still there was a general and growing grimage to Mecca for the purpose of expiating our improvement in the circumstances of the Reformed : sins, or with the blinded Hindoo lacerating our bodies, their meetings for public worship were connived at, and if not devoting them as expiatory sacrifices at the some of the worst forms of persecution allowed to go into shrine of Brahma ; and after having done all that the desuetude. So recently indeed as 1767, the Parliament gloomiest systems of idolatry demand of their wildest of Grenoble condemned a minister to death for preachand their most frantic devotees, we had been lamenting, ing in the open air ; and because he could not be found, in all the madness of despair, the utter inefficiency of the they burnt him in effigy. Five years before Mr Romost grievous privations and sufferings to accomplish chelle was executed at Toulouse ; but this seems to the great end in view. To use the words of an eloquent have been the last year of persecution unto death. writer, the Rev. Charles Wolfe, “the house which is Various circumstances led to this milder treatment. now the Lord's tabernacle and the place where his The Jesuits, the most formidable enemies of the Rehonour dwelleth, might be the temple in which we adored formed Church, had been deposed from power in this the god of intemperance and sensuality, or made our of year, as a society of men who, from their prored comferings to the wicked spirit that delighteth in war, vio- mercial delinquencies on a vast scale, were dangerous lence, and revenge ; or we might be flocking to the table subjects of the State. Louis XV. had died in 1774 of of our evil god, not to eat the bread of life, or to drink disease contracted in his guilty pleasures, and had been from the fountains of the living water, but to sound bis succeeded by Louis XVI., the unhappy king who afterpraises in festivals of drunkenness, riot, and indecency; wards lost his life in the revolutionary frenzy. This or we should be kneeling at his altar, not to offer the monarch was much milder, and more retired and literary sacrifice of a broken and of a contrite heart, but to in his character than his predecessor, more disposed worship him with the knife and with the blood of our to regard the privileges of others. Indeed, on various fellow-creatures; and perhaps we should now be pre- occasions he showed strong leanings toward toleration, paring the children that we loved as our own souls, to and was only prevented by his circunstances from pass through the fire of sacrifice that was kindled in making them more effectual. Then the appointment his honour, that we might satisfy his fury and avert his of Neckar, a Swiss and a Protestant, as Director of indignation. It is true, the very mention of these the Royal Treasury in 1776, an appointment called for things may now shock our feelings, and we may fancy, by the financial difficulties of the country, as well as if we please, that no possible conjuncture of circum- the success of his economical plans, had an influence stances could have reduced us to such crimes and favourable to the Protestant cause. In addition to enormities; but such was the state of the world at the these things, infidelity had now been busily at work time that the Son of God came down upon the earth; for between thirty and forty years, and was beginning and we shall not find it very easy to prove, either that to bear fruit. Not that infidels had any alliance with, we are a superior race of beings to the men of those or liking to Protestantism, (history proves that they days, or that the natural progress of society has caused are among the most merciless of persecutors) but that the difference between them and ourselves." Compare the better to diffuse their poison, they spoke much of ing then, Christian reader, your religious advantages liberty and toleration. So early as 1746, Diderot had with those of others, and contrasting your spiritual published his • Pensées Philosophiques,' which was condition with what it might have been, are you not considered one of the most direct attacks ever levelled at the Christian religion in France, and the labours of their heirs solicited to return. These were happy steps his coadjutors, Voltaire, Rousseau, Buffon, D'Alem- of progress, and good men might rejoice and hope that bert, Montesquieu, and their great common work, the the complete deliverance of the Protestant Chureh had * Encyclopédie,' all wrought in the same direction. come; but alas ! the triumph of infidelity was at hand. These, by sapping the power of Popery, more than by She is the severest of despots. Speedily was it found any assistance which they rendered to the Protestants, that the liberty which had been advancing was based were overruled, as instruments in the band of God, for on unsound principle, unsanctioned by the Word of the protection and milder treatment of his own Church. God, and so scarcely had it reared its head, before it The progress of the greater toleration of which I perished in the dark waters of revolution. In 1790 the spenk may be traced in the fact that, in 1787, or twelve Protestants might be said to be free. In eighteen years from the accession of Louis XVI., an edict was months the Christian religion, whether Protestant or granted favourable to the Protestants, in virtue of Popish, was proscribed, and all the institutions of Chriswhich they could assemble for public worship, enjoy tianity trampled under the feet of the most unrelenting their property in peace, and transmit it to their chil. persecution. Such was the beginning of the reign of dren. This important protection was not sanctioned infidelity and atheism. without considerable opposition from the Parliament. Decided as was the improvement which was introOne ardent member started up, and presenting a cruci- duced into the condition of the Protestants, during the fix, asked if they were going to crucify the Son of God reign of Louis XVI. down to the commencement of afresh ? The favourable result was the work, in a great the revolution, I am anxious to guard the reader against degree, of Rabaut de St. Etienne, an eminent Protestant | the idea that the toleration was steady or unbroken. minister, the tried friend through many years of the suf- No. It was at best precarious—depending chiefly on fering Church. As might have been expected, the pro. the good work of individuals, and every now and then tective edict, so different from those to which they had there was an attempt at revived persecution. What, been accustomed for nearly two hundred years, was re- indeed, could be expected of a country wbich, in a ceived by the Protestants with the greatest thankfulness population of little more than twenty millions, could and joy. No sooner was the Reformed Church publicly boast of nearly two hundred thousand Popish ecclesiasrecognised than multitudes ranged themselves under its tics, male and female? At the very time that the standard. Vast multitudes,-it is said not less than a monarch was showing kindness, at least forbearing million of persons,—hastened to the houses of the cruelty, to the Reformed Church, in 1775 there was judges to have their births and marriages registered. an attempt to restore the Jesuits, and contemporaneous Frequently aged men were seen registering their own with this, there was an endeavour to revive the oppress birth, and that of their children and grandchildren sion of the Protestants. Nay, in 1782, shortly before together. Such was the pressure of the crowd, that the favourable edict was passed, and in 1788, just after the judges were obliged to spread themselves over the it had been enacted, and when the doom of so many of country to avoid it, and probably also to avoid collision the Popish clergy was fast approaching, we find the old with the more intolerant Roman Catholics. In the spirit of persecution strong at work. In the one case, National Assembly of 1789 it was decreed, in the de the religious society of Dieppe was served with a lettre claration of rights, that “ all the citizens are equal in de cachet, and for three months the churches of several the eye of law, and are equally admissible to all dig. provinces were shut up. In the other, M. Mordaunt, nities, places, and public employments, without any the pastor at Dieppe, though he had attended to all distinction but that of their virtues and talents.” Ra- the prescribed formalities, was seized by warrant for baut, the great and good man to whom I have referred, celebrating a marriage. What does all this show, but had been returned a member of Assembly, and spoke that the toleration which Popery or infidelity permits is long and ably in bebalf of liberty of conscience. “I inconsistent and insecure, even where it boasts of edicts demand,” says he," for all the non-Catholics what and legal instruments. you demand for yourselves,-equality of rights, liberty, And now we must turn back and contemplate the the liberty of their religion, the liberty of their wor- spiritual character of the Protestant Church during the ship, the liberty of celebrating it in houses consecrated latter period of the century which we have been surfor that purpose, the assurance of not being troubled veying. We have seen that, in point of numbers, they in the exercise of their religion any more than you are were still very considerable,-that some estimated them in yours, and the perfect assurance of being protected so high as between three and four millions,-sixth part like you, as much as you, and in the same manner as of the whole population of France. There can be little you, by the common law.” “I suppress a crowd of doubt that the Protestants were numerous. It was mnotives, which should render two millions of unfortu. not uncommon for five thousand or six thousand to nates interesting and dear to you: they could present attend upon the ordinary preaching of the Gospel under themselves to you yet stained with the blood of their one minister, and eight thousand or ten thousand to fathers, and they could show you the marks of their assemble for the celebration of the Lord's Supper ; but own fetters." In the course of a few months, and won whatever might be their numbers, truth compels us by the labours and eloquence of this pastor, the Pro- reluctantly to declare they had declined, and were detestants were admitted to the rights of electors, and to clining still more, in their Christian attainments. There a share in all civil and military employments. On the were various adverse causes in operation. The Revo10th of July 1790, the confiscated property of the Re. cation of the edict of Nantes had driven the largest formed Church, which remained in the hands of go- body of the spiritual and devoted into exile. This was verament, was restored. The heirs and claimants were a sad loss, the magnitude of which it would not be easy invited to make good their claims, and the fugitives or to estimate. Then many were attracted by sympathy

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