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have been made the basis of the scheme pursued by those benevolent individuals who have carried to New Zealand the elements of knowledge both divine and secular, *
Proofs have already been afforded of a striking peculiarity in the character of this people, which is very encouraging to the hope of their ultimate civilisation ; namely, the eagerness they have shown to visit foreign countries, and to see with their own eyes whatever might gratify curiosity or prove subservient to usefulness. Even in the days of Cook this spirit of research displayed itself; and every one is aware of the difficulties which in more recent times have been overcome by these enterprising islanders in seeking an acquaintance with distant lands. Mr Marsden remarks,“ my opinion is, that if half the New Zealanders were to die in their attempt to force themselves into civil life, the other half would not be deterred from making a similar effort; so desirous do they seem to attain our advantages.” It is well known, too, that they are proud to array themselves in the dress of Europeans, and endeavour, as far as they can, to imitate their manners, and even their modes of feeling and thinking. Nay, many of them understand the language of their English visiters, and are themselves fond of speaking it ; while the desire for European clothes, blankets, tea, sugar, bread, and other comforts, has become general in the neighbourhood of the missions. +
* The settlements planted and fostered by the missionaries can now boast the following productions :-"Wheat, oats, barley, pease, horse and kitchen beans, tares, hops, turnips, carrots, radishes, cabbages, potatoes, lettuce, red beet, brocoli, endive, asparagus, cresses, onions, shalots, celery, rock and water melons, pumpkins, cucumbers, parsley, vines, strawberries, raspberries, orange, lemon, apple, pear, peach, apricot, quince, almond, and plum trees, pepper and spear mint, sage, rice, marigolds, lilies, rosepinks, sweetwilliams, rosemary, featherdew, lavender, Dutch clover, meadow, feschu, rib, and sweet-scented vernal grasses.”—Twenty Second Report of the Church Missionary Society, p. 199.
+ Proceedings of Church Missionary Society, 1820, 1821, p. 364. At first, considerable difficulties were encountered in the attempt From the facts now detailed, it is manifest that the process of civilisation has commenced in New Zealand under very favourable circumstances. The natives, so lately separated from the cultivated portion of their species, not more by their geographical position than by the deep barbarism in which they were involved, are now brought into the light of knowledge and religion, and are no longer ignorant that there are other pursuits than those of war, and other enjoyments than those of revenge. Christianity, which is in every sense of the word the religion of civilisation, has
them attended by literature and the arts, and it is not possible that she
to ingraft new habits on the untutored mind. Mrs Williams, wife of one of the missionaries, remarks, that “the best of the native girls, if not well watched, would strain the milk with the duster, wash the tea-things with the knife-cloth, or wipe the tables with the flannel for scouring the floor. The very best of them will also on a hot day take herself off, just when you may be wishing for some one to relieve you, and swim ; after which she will go to sleep for two or three hours. If they are not in a humour to do any thing that you tell them, they will not understand you : it is by no means uncommon to receive such an answer as 'what care I for that?' The moment a boat arrives, away run all the native servants—men, boys, and girls, to the beach. If there is any thing to be seen, or any thing occurs in New Zealand, the mistress must do the work while the servants gaze abroad : she must not censure them, for, if they are rangatiras, they will run away in a pet ; and if they are cookies,' they will laugh at her, and tell her that she has too much of the mouth. Having been forewarned of this, I wait and work away till they choose to come back, which they generally do at meal-time.' The teachers, who had nearly similar complaints to make, soon found that it was no easy matter to obtain a regular attendance from their restless pupils. It was not enough that the children were fed; the parents thought proper to insist upon being paid for permitting the young ones to attend school. Indeed, after the first month, they got tired of the school-room altogether, and the masters were obliged to follow them into the woods. By a more liberal expenditure of provisions, however, they at last brought them under more regular government. At the best, the scene was somewhat tumultuous. • While one child,' says Mr Kendall, ‘ is repeating his lesson, another will be playing with my feet, another taking away my hat, and another my book ; and all this in the most friendly manner.'”—Nineteenth Report of Church Missionary Society, p. 200.
should not eventually triumph over all the ignorance, prejudice, and ferocity with which she has here to contend. Such is the mild sway which her sublime faith is exercising over their rude minds, that it can hardly fail to restrain their destructive animosities, and abolish their sanguinary superstitions. Perhaps no feeling less ardent than a sense of religious duty could have supported the labourers in such a cause, surrounded by the difficulties and discouragements which met them at almost every step. But their task has gradually become easier and more cheering ; while few gratifications can be equal to that which they must enjoy, when they contemplate, as the fruit of their efforts under a benignant Provi. dence, a general amendment of manners and a great increase of comfort among the savage people whom they had undertaken to instruct.
It has been justly observed, that if we stop at the present point of our advancement in the attempt to civilize the New Zealanders, there would be room for doubt whether we have not rather inflicted an injury upon them than conferred a benefit. They are still savages in almost every thing except their knowledge of the wealth and power of their European visiters, and in their possession of a few of the products of our manufactures which they themselves have not yet learned to practise. Besides, some of the worst propensities of the native character are inflamed ; and bad habits, formerly unknown, have been acquired. For example, they have probably carried on their wars with greater destruction of life than formerly, since they got muskets into their hands. The remedy for all these evils is the continuance of the training in religion, letters, agriculture, and the more simple of the arts. Sound and useful knowledge will at once occupy their minds, improve their feelings, and spread around them the blessings of security and competence. In this way we shall fulfil one of the most important duties incumbent on a commercial and maritime country. It is the price which we
called upon to pay for the many benefits we derive from our intercourse
with the whole race of mankind in the East and in the West. *
On no other foundation than on that of mutual kindness shall we be able to establish our settlements in New Zealand. The people have not concealed that they will resist every intrusion of strangers who may threaten to reduce their tribes to slavery ; and this they would do with an obstinacy which, though it might not succeed in warding off the usurpation, would certainly prolong the contest till the best blood in the land should be shed, and the spirits of the survivors permanently alienated. Even the small colonies already founded by our countrymen have not a little alarmed the patriotism of some of the chiefs. One of them on his deathbed expressed many apprehensions as to the ulterior designs of those formidable Europeans whom he had been the principal means of introducing to his native shores. Another revealed to a missionary his serious fears lest the English should in a little time increase their force, drive the inhabitants into the woods, and take possession of their
It is known to most readers that Tooi, a young chief, and his friend Teeterree, visited England in the year 1818, where the former, more especially, conducted himself with great propriety, and seemed fascinated by the usages of civilized life. Next year, having returned to New Zealand, he went on board Captain Cruise's ship, who remarks, that " at breakfast he conducted himself quite like a gentleman.” It is added, however, that his conversation all the time was a continued boast of the atrocities he had committed during an excursion which he and Krokro had made two months before to the river Thames; and he dwelt with marked pleasure upon an instance of his generalship, when having forced a small party of his enemies into a narrow place, whence there was no egress, he was enabled successively to shoot two and twenty of them, without their having the power of making the slightest resistance. To qualify this story, he remarked that, though all the dead bodies were devoured by the tribe, neither he nor
his brother ate human flesh, nor did they fight on Sundays. When asked why he did not try to turn the minds of his people to agriculture, he said it was impossible ; that if you told a New Zealander to work, he fell asleep;
but if you spoke of fighting, he opened his eyes as wide as a teacup; that the wholo bent of his mind was war, and that he looked upon fighting as fun.”—Cruise's Journal, p. New Zealanders, p. 419.
territory. Wheety, a third individual of the same class, who appears not to have been so devoted a patriot as some of his brethren, was wont to predict, as an event neither to be hindered nor regretted,“ that New Zealand would one day be the white man's country.” Were such suspicions to be generally entertained, the bloody retribution with which they have on several occasions avenged their real or imaginary wrongs, may prove to us an earnest, both of the consummate cunning they can employ in devising their plans of murder, and of the remorseless cruelty they display in putting them into execution. Our interest, therefore, is closely connected with our duty in pursuing the generous path into which the government has entered ; carrying to the interesting people whose inheritance we seek to share the invaluable boon of a divine religion, and a portion of that useful knowledge which, while it gradually elevates the barbarian 'into the philosopher, secures to him all the benefits for which society was formed.
While we write, an Act has been passed under the auspices of ministers, “ for regulating the sale of waste land belonging to the crown in the Australian colonies,” and for promoting emigration on a large scale. This resolution seems to be founded on “ Extracts of Correspondence relative to New Zealand” laid before the House of Commons in the course of 1841; in which are contained very ample details concerning the steps previously taken for establishing a regular colony in that settlement. In pursuance of the plan submitted to the Secretary of State, the extensive districts not yet occupied will, with the concurrence of the natives, be exposed to sale at the upset price of one pound an acre, in such quantities as may best promote the improvement of the country and the interests of the emigrants themselves. By these means an end will be put to the abuses which have hitherto more or less attended the appropriation of land, even in cases where neither violence nor fraud was meditated. The same arrangement will tend not only to augment the trade of the islands, but also to secure it