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It is remarked by one of the American officers, that the king, as he advances in years, will in all probability prove a blessing to his people. This eulogy, it may be presumed, was occasioned by a scene which had recently taken place, the opening of a large meeting-house, built by order of government, and solemnly dedicated to God. According to the report of one of the missionaries, not fewer than four thousand individuals were present, including most of the great personages of the nation. His majesty and the princess also attended. An elegant sofa, covered with satin damask, of a deep crimson colour, had been placed for them in front of the pulpit : the king, in his rich Windsor uniform, sat at one end, and his sister, in a superb dress, at the other. Before the religious services commenced, the young monarch arose from his seat, and, stepping to a platform in front of the pulpit, called the attention of the congregation. Addressing himself to the chiefs, teachers, and people generally, he said that the house which he had built, he now publicly gave to God, the Maker of heaven and earth, to be appropriated to his worship ; and declared his wish that his subjects should venerate Jehovah, obey his laws, and learn his word. When the service was over, the king once more rose and said, “ let us pray." In this act of devotion, he used the plural number, and gave the house again to God, acknowledged him as his sovereign, yielded his kingdom to him, confessed his own sinfulness, and prayed to be preserved from temptation and delivered from evil. He interceded also for the different classes of his subjects; for the chiefs, teachers, learners, and common people, for the missionaries and foreign residents; and concluded, in a very appropriate manner, by ascribing unto God the kingdom, the power, and the glory for ever.*

tendency as yet to paralyse the efforts which the natives are so laudably making to render themselves worthy of the support and confidence of enlightened Christians and distant nations. The constant complaining against the missionaries is irksome in the extreme, and in such contrast with the conduct of the missionaries themselves, that I could not but remark their circumspection and reserve with admiration. The latter never obtruded upon my attention the grounds or causes they might have to complain ; nor did they advert to the opposition they had experienced, unless expressly invited thereto by me."

“ So great was the friendship and correctness of deportment among the chief islanders that I could scarcely suppose myself to be among a people once, and so recently, heathen. Variance of language and complexion alone reminded me of it. These views may very widely vary from the opinions of those who have preceded me only a year or two ; I can well believe that we do not, by means of our intercourse, keep pace with their improvements. Intervals of three years make wonderful changes, and for the better : careful and recorded observations only will assure us of the reality of them."-Stewart's Visit, p. 395.

Since the period indicated by these details, civilisation has continued to advance, accompanied to a certain extent by an improved knowledge of christian truth. The intercourse with foreigners has made the natives acquainted with luxuries, and thereby created a desire for an extension of trade, which, in the course of time, will necessarily lead to industrious habits. Religion, too, will, at no distant period, become the rule of life and sanction of public law, instead of being, as was perhaps necessary at the commencement, the sole occupation of the converts. From the various missionary records we learn that christian principle, which was originally established by authority rather than on conviction, has not, in all the islands, maintained a uniform or unremitting course. In a communication, dated 1838, from an enlightened teacher to the American Board, some account is given of a “ religious awakening” in Mowee, Owhyhee, and Woahoo. In the course of the previous year a spirit of inquiry and increased attention was manifest ; meetings began to be very full and solemn; but the impressions, so far as he could judge, were not so deep and positive as he wished to see. There was more wakeful attention than real concern for the soul. Things continued in much the same state, with perhaps a little increase of feeling, till about the 1st of December, when prospects began to brighten. New

* Scottish Missionary Register, vol. xi. p. 474.

year's day seemed to mark the decisive feature of the crisis. Prayer now began to be offered with much fervency, and often with strong crying and tears; and from this time the character of the work was no longer doubtful. " By the 1st of April the whole population round us was under deep excitement; many, perhaps the majority, were not actuated by any real concern for their souls, but were moved because others were ; and it is feared they will relapse again into their former state of stupidity. Time only can tell how many have been raised to newness of life. Meetings are well attended ; but that deep solemnity and wakeful interest which a few months ago rested on the assemblies, has, to a great degree, passed away."*

The preacher, whose candour and good sense appear to great advantage, states some reasons for ministerial vigilance during such seasons of awakening. 1. The natives are very excitable on any subject; and in the present state of society, especially so on the subject of religion. 2. In a number of instances the fairest appearances are found connected with the indulgence of secret iniquity. This is not uncommon among the natives. 3. The history of excitements in these islands is calculated to produce caution. If they are real converts, they will not be likely to fall away by being looked at a few months, especially if they enjoy constant instruction.

To the actual condition of things we shall afterwards refer in general terms, regretting that our limits are inconsistent with minute details, for which we direct the attention of the reader to the original authorities. Meantime we may remark, that the Sandwich Islands are not the only scene of those occasional excitements called “ revivals," which, while they shake the faith of the unlearned, threaten to undermine the principles of morals, order, decency, and decorum. Even in those countries where the fundamental tenets of christian belief have been long established, and the usages of divine

* Missionary Register, vol. xxi. p. 75.

worship have ingrafted themselves on the habits of the people at large, it is not uncommon to witness a considerable ebb and flow in the popular mind in regard as well to doctrine as to ceremonies. Such persons as have carefully marked the events of the last twenty years in Great Britain and America, will have no difficulty in recollecting movements in the religious world not less remarkable than those of Owhyhee and Woahoo. In all ages, the theological thermometer has indicated such variations in the temperature of the great mass of society; but it is pleasant to add that the result, in most cases, has had a beneficial tendency. The “lump" cannot be fully leavened without a considerable degree of fermentation; a process, however, wbich, if not watched with a vigilant eye, is very apt to exceed the proper limits, and to terminate in a repulsive acidity. Still there is no reason to dread the issue of that working of hope and fear which has recently manifested itself in the hearts of the rude islanders, provided the teachers pursue a steady course, and direct the attention of their converts to that faith which is necessarily followed by virtue, knowledge, temperance, patience, godliness, brotherly-kindness, and charity.

CHAPTER X.

New Zealand.

New Zealand discovered by Tasman- Description of its Inhabit

ants—Cook examines the Coast-Makes a Passage through the Straits which bear his Name-Ungenerous Conduct of Surville-Expedition and Death of M. Marion-Loss sustained by Captain Furneaux-Intercourse between New Zealand and Australia-Tippahee-Moyhanger visits England -Murder of the Crew of the Boyd-Missionaries land at Rangihoua-Two Chiefs appear in London-Are introduced to the Prince Regent-Missionaries increase their StationsFavour manifested by the Chiefs-Measures proposed for forming a regular Church in New Zealand-Number of Stations-Desire of Improvement among Natives-Original State of European Population Associations formed for Colonization-New Zealand Company's Establishment at Port Nicholson-Great Immigration-Obstacles opposed by Government -Sovereignty of the Queen proclaimed-Charter granted to the Company-New Settlement called Nelson-Town of Auckland-Reflections on the actual State of the Colony and its Prospects.

The group which passes under the name of New Zealand was discovered by Abel Jansen Tasman, in September 1642. At that period, Anthony Van Diemen was governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, who, being desirous to add to the knowledge of maritime geography, more especially towards the unexplored regions of the South Pole, despatched this celebrated captain in charge of two small vessels, with instructions to ascertain the boundaries of the continent which was supposed to occupy all the antarctic parallels of the Pacific

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