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which would have done honour to the most experienced diplomatist. They then retired and consulted for two days, and at last declared, that they had come to the determination not to sell their territory. Another application was made to the same effect. They retired again, and after three days' deliberation, returned, not with an acceptance of the offer, but with various complaints of the non-fulfilment of certain stipulations in former treaties ;-first, that they had not yet received all the money for the St. Mary's purchase ; secondly, that what they had received,' slipped under the table as fast as it was put on • the top ;' (meaning, that the money they received, soon disappeared, they could scarcely tell how;) and thirdly, that Governor Cass had, the day preceding, refused to give their young men a half-gill of whiskey each. The last complaint is much to Mr. Cass's honour. He withheld from the foolish and clamorous importunities of the Indians, the pernicious draught which would have urged them to a rash surrender of their rights. At length, each complaint being satisfactorily answered, the Ottowas yielded to the proposed terms. The difficulties started by the Chippewas and Pottowattomies were also removed, and the bargain was definitively adjusted after a debate of twelve days.
We are aware, that writers on this side of the Atlantic, have not unfrequently animadverted with great asperity upon American usurpations of Indian territory. In the contract we have just mentioned, there was no unfairness or encroachment: the most perfect equality was religiously observed. Although Mr. Schoolcraft's recrimination is somewhat too acrimonious, and, in his remarks upon our Hindoo territories, he manifests both misinformation and petulance, we deem it but just to extract the following remarks.
• The result of this treaty was hardly announced in our public journals, before it was published in England, with some severe animadversions. “ The United States," observed The Times, of London, " have driven another bargain, and a hard bargain it is, with the miserable Indians. For 35,000 dollars in merchandize, a little more than 50001. in money, as valued by those who furnished it, Governor Cass, whose diplomatic talents appear on this occasion to have been highly applauded, has prevailed upon the helpless aborigines to surrender five millions of fertile acres, to the westward of the lakes, and equal in surface to about a fourth of Ireland. Verily, Governor Cass may be said to understand his business.”
• This long-enduring prejudice and habitual propensity to vilify our country and its institutions, seem confined to no particular political sect in Great Britain, nor to exempt from its operation any particular measure, which, by the power of association, is calculated Lo call up our original sin of thinking, and acting, and judging for ourselves. With a power to expel the Indians from a territory which, during our wars with Great Britain, they have only occupied as a convenient avenue to make inroads upon our frontiers, we draw them into amicable treaty on the restoration of peace, and pay them what they acknowledge an ample equivalent for their title. 'We introduce into all our treaties provisions for bettering their condition, and enlightening and improving their minds. , We furnish them with blacksmiths and teachers, implements of husbandry and stock. We pay them large annuities; we pass laws to protect them from the cupidity of traders; and we employ agents to reside among them, to ensure the punctual payment of those annuities, and the faithful observance of those laws, and to attend to their numerous wants, and complaints, and distresses. If it be asked, what amount of monies we pay them, what laws we have enacted to protect their territorial rights, and to preserve their morals, let our statute-books furnish the reply. If it be asked, what injuries we have redressed, let the monthly, and quarterly, and annual returns of our Indian, and our subsistence department be examined. And yet, because we have not done all that an enlightened, virtuous, humane, and opulent nation could, or might, or perhaps ought to do, all this is to pass for nothing, or, if we believe the vituperative prints of England, is to be put down to the score of ingratitude, neglect, and national depravity.
Our English neighbours in the Canadas, manage these things in a different way.. When they covet a piece of territory, they boldly take possession of it in the name of the king. There is no consulting with the chiefs or head men of the tribe; no long and expensive treaty; no recognition of their title to the soil which is so unceremoniously taken away, and no annuities paid out with punctilious formality. The thing is cut short by “ his majesty's command.” This single line has cancelled more Indian titles in America, than the Government of the U. S. ever have, or probably ever will, purchase with all their accumulated and accumulating wants and means.
But let us for a moment cast our eyes upon Hindostan, and behold the unholy wars, the murders, and abominations which, like a burning sirocco, have swept away the native institutions of that devoted country, and drenched it with the blood of its unoffending inhabitants. It is truly becoming in those who have drained the rich inheritance of ninety millions of Hindoos, to reproach us for paying a few scattered bands of hunters for portions of territory, which they do not want, cannot improve, and are willing to part with. pp. 371--3.
With regard to the value of the soil ceded by the treaty, much useful information will be found in Mr. Schoolcraft's volume. The tract lies between the parallels of 40° 41' and 43°. The winters are milder than in Connecticut. The prairies afford the finest grazing, and the expense of transporting the wool to New York will be trifling, when the canal is completed. The country is undulating between Detroit and Lake Michigan in a south-westerly direction from the Huron to the St. Joseph. The prairies are perfectly salubrious, interspersed with fine lakes of excellent water, and bordered with stately forests, which occasionally resemble orchards and groves planted by the hand of man. The lakes, which contain abundance of fish, are of various dimensions, from one to six miles in circumference, with tine outlets, which meander through the surrounding country. Generally speaking, the country is open, but it is studded with oaks and hickory, and the forests contain every variety of timber. In summer, the prairies are covered with flowers of the richest hue, varying from the white lily to the imperial purple, rich orange, crimson, and pink.
We have derived much information and some pleasure from Mr. Schoolcraft's book. Science owes much to his labours; and our praise would have been unmixed with the slightest reproof, if our taste had not been perpetually offended with the affected and ambitious phraseology which, we find from other specimens that have fallen under our notice, is at present the besetting sin of Trans-atlantic writers.
Art. II. I. Queries and Replies respecting the present State of the
Protestant Missions in the Bengal Presidency. The Queries by Henry Ware, D.D. Hollis Professor of Divinity in Harvard Col. lege, Camb. Massachusetts, U.S.; and the Replies by William
Adam. 8vo. pp. 90. Calcutta. 1824. 2. Correspondence relative to the Prospects of Christianity and the
Means of promoting its Reception in India. 8vo. pp. 138. Cam
bridge, U.S. 1824. WHILE our good friends on the other side of the Tweed
have been ingeniously endeavouring to prove, that the practice of the Bible Society for the last fifteen years has been at variance with the injunctions of God's word, and the conduct of its Committee a violation of integrity,--our neighbours on the other side of the Channel have discovered, that • the total failure of the Bible Society is a matter of history. The Institution is thus attacked at once in flank and rear. We have the Presbyterians of Edinburgh and the Papists of Dublin both denouncing it, though on different grounds, 'as not entitled to the support of the Christian world,—the one charging it with heterodoxy, the other with imposture and fraud. The following extract is taken from a letter addressed by a Priest in Carlow to Dr. Singer, Trinity College, Dublin, which has appeared in a Dublin newspaper.
• In the Oriental Herald, a correspondence between the Rev. Mr. Adam, missionary in Calcutta, Professor Ware, of Harvard College, Cambridge, U. S., and the famous Rammohun Roy, a convert to Christianity, is published. This work every where bears the marks of great care in examining facts, and great candour in drawing in
ferences. It was first published in the country of which it treats, fearlessly challenging contradiction from those who were on the spot, ready and willing to refute its errors, if they existed. From this correspondence, from these authorities, all Protestants and Biblicals, it appears : First, the three most active and distinguished Missionary Societies have made eleven converts. Secondly, that these eleven converts were of the lowest and most immoral of the country. Thirdly, that the conversion of these eleven converts was more than doubtful, for they were bribed with money. I have not heard how many of these Eleven Converts were Unitarians, Socinians, Anabaptists, Wesleyans, Calvinists, Jumpers, Arians, Aronians, Sabatans, or Cowardites. Fourthly, the pious Missionaries so enriched themselves that they got forty thousand pounds from the Christian public, to circulate the Scriptures in the Oriental dialects. That in these Reports--they mention, that they published the Scriptures in a language which did not exist. Fifthly, that they pocketed the money. From these well attested facts, I draw the following conclusions: First, that the total failure of the Bible Society is a matter of history; secondly, that your brethren deceive and rob the public.'
This very distinct and pithy bill of indictment against all the Societies therein described, is of the same tenor as the charges brought forward at greater length in the volume published a short time ago by that most veracious and learned personage, the Abbé Dubois. In reviewing his publication, we intimated our suspicion,* that the poor old priest had been
spirited up to abuse the Bible Society and the Serampore • Missionaries by some of the Qui-hies of Calcutta. We had no doubt, that the plan and substance of his work had been concocted in the country of which it treats,'-aware at the same time, that between the anti-missionary party in this country and the enemies of religion in the Indian capital, there exists an entire sympathy and good understanding. But we were not aware of what turns out to be the fact, that the malignant calumnies of the Romish priest were founded on information supplied by Unitarian coadjutors. This appears, not only from the above extract, but from the manner in which the Unitarians in this country have adopted and improved upon the Abbé's calumnies. Were less important interests involved, it would be truly amusing to see how the worthy confederates play into each other's hands; how Mr. Fox, the Unitarian, who joins with the Carlow priest in accusing the Missionary Societies of practising a systematic delusion on • the public,'-gravely refers to the authority of the Abbé Dubois, while the Papists of Ireland refer us back to the Protestant authority of Mr. Fox's colleague, the Rev. Mr. Adam.
• Eclectic Review, N.S. Vol. XX. p. 291. (Oct. 1823.)
There can now be little doubt where the Abbé obtained his instructions. The immediate object of his personal attack, our readers will recollect, was the late estimable William Ward, one of Mr. Adam's former colleagues ; and the apparently unprovoked as well as malignant character of the attempt to fasten the charge of calumnious misrepresentation on that excellent individual, struck us at the time, and no doubt struck many others, as a most singular circumstance; more especially as the Abbé did not appear to have had any personal ground of complaint against the Serampore Missionaries. Although his accusations are couched in general terms, so as to include all the Protestant missionaries who have been sent out to India, it is the Baptist Mission of Serampore against which he levels his chief accusations and invectives. Of even the existence of the London Missionary Society, he appears to have been ignorant, noticing in succession, the Lutheran Mission, the Moravian Brethren, the Nestorians in Travancore, and the Baptists of Serampore as alike unsuccessful. Now, of the state of things in the Mysore, where the Abbé was stationed, he might be supposed to know something; but all that he pretends to know about the state of the Bengal Missions, must be derived from hearsay. How comes it then, that he fastened on the Serampore Mission, of which he knew nothing, rather than on the Travancore Mission and on the other stations within the Peninsula ? The fact is, that, after residing for twenty-five years in India, the learned Missionary knew
little more about the real state of the Protestant Missions, or the state of India in general, than before he left Europe, till he went to Calcutta. He had become, in that time, very learned in the learning of the Hindoos; and his " Description “ of the People of India," though superseded in great measure by Mr. Ward's larger work, still forms a valuable document. But ample proofs were adduced, in reviewing his “ Letters,” of his consummate ignorance on other subjects ; and the Rev. Mr. Hough has shewn, that he was as ill informed respecting the Tamul and Malayalim versions, which he erroneously ascribes to the Serampore Missionaries and the agents of the Bible Society, as of any of the twenty-four Serampore versions, on not one of which he is competent to give a critical opinion. Yet, of all the soi-disant translations of the Scriptures circulated in India by the Bible Society, did he write to his friend J. S., that they were fit for nothing but waste paper. That letter, the Abbé tells us, he wrote at the request of his Calcutta friend, we may now guess upon what information. The Abbé could not disguise the distressing feelings of indignation excited in his mind by seeing the