The Emergence of Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century: A Privileged Moment in the History of England, Scotland, and France
Indiana University Press, 1994 - 164 sider
"Through an analysis of the writings of Descartes, Pascal, Hobbes, Grotius, Pufendorf, Locke, and others, and culminating in the leading figures of the eighteenth century Scottish Enlightenment, Becker traces the decline of the medieval conception of society, characterized by the correct performance of duties and obligations and which prized above all else honor, heroism, and charitable benevolence. In its stead emerged a new view of society based on self interest and privacy and in which sociability was reduced to the minimum required to guarantee economic freedom and property rights. The result projected a notion of society as an abstract entity with a life of its own, independent of personal ties of duty and obligation. This concept came to fruition in England and Scotland at what Becker calls a "privileged moment," when political and religious stability combined with rapid commercial expansion. Although there were differences in the ways their societies were transformed, eighteenth-century England and Scotland provide the clearest expression of the newly emerged civil society."--BOOK JACKET.
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Toward an Understanding of Civil Society
Civil Society and the Case of England and Scotland
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acts Adam Smith advantages affection arts association authority benevolence called Cambridge character civil society claims conception concerning contemporary course critics culture David decline desire discussion duty early economic Edinburgh eighteenth century England English Enlightenment Essay essential ethical experience fact force forms France French gained heroic Highland History Hobbes honor human human nature Hume ideals ideas improvement increase individual industry interest John justice labor land late less limited literary live Locke London manners middling mind moral nature noted novel obligation observe offered origins Oxford passions philosophers play political practice present provides question reason recent religious Scotland Scots Scott Scottish secure sense sentiment served seventeenth century Shaftesbury social term theory thought tion traditional virtue wealth writings
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