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The general principle of dynamics developed here, of which I have already treated, and which I have applied to different examples of analytical mechanics, in two little German works intitled Os Analytische Bestimmung des Gesetezes der virtuellen Geschwindigkeiten,' &c. and “Weitere Entwickelung und Anwendung des Gesetzes der virtuellen Geschwindigkeiten," &c. is sufficient of itself to resolve all the questions of dynamics and statics; without its being necessary previously to consider whether the problem belongs to dynamics or statics, or to employ in the two cases two different principles. Under the point of view in which dynamics is here developed, statics forms not a separate part; the static state being only a particular case of dynamics in general, of which cases we may imagine an infinite number. This principle of dynamics rests on none of the principles of mechanics or statics at present known.'

This new theory is made to depend on the following consi. derations; viz. suppose a system of bodies, b, b', b”, &c., to which are applied divers individual dynamic impulsions, i, i, i', &c.; and let us farther suppose that these points of appliçation are so arranged that the space run over by one of them shall decide the space run over by all the others (as well in direction as in distance),' then the combined motion of the system may be considered by merely contemplating that of an individual point. Such a new principle of mechanics is something like the old principle of catching birds by laying salt on their tails; — at least, the practicability appears to us to be nearly the same in both cases.

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ART. XI. Des Juifs au dir-neuvième Siècle ; &c.; i. e. On the

Jews of the Nineteenth Century, or Considerations on their Civil and political State in Europe; followed by a Biographical Notice of those Antient and Modern Jews who have distinguished themselves in the Sciences and Arts. By M. BAIL, formerly Inspector of Reviews, and Member of the Legion of Honour. Second Edition, revised and corrected by the Author. 8vo. pp. 148. Paris. 1816. THE situation of the Jews has in the present age excited

considerable attention; various attempts having been made by benevolent individuals to convert them to Christianity, and to lessen the existing prejudices against their name and character. Bonaparte chose to take up the subject about twelve years ago with more than common warmth; in the hope, no doubt, of making this oppressed race useful in his military schemes, particularly in his views on Poland. Influenced by different motives, M. Bail, without belonging to the Hebrew nation, now comes forwards as their zealous advocate; dwelling with great emphasis on the persecutions which they endured in former times, as well as on the humi


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it being a common saying that at Constantinople « a Jew pays
both for being born and for being carried to the grave;" and
it is a curious fact that, under the feudal system, the Jews were
not only subjected to enormous taxes but passed by the name
of serfs main-mortables, their bequeathed property belonging to
the baron on whose land they lived, and who deemed hiniself
as much the proprietor of his Jews as of his own furniture.
· The chief relief in this picture of gloom is derived from the
improved condition of the Jews in France; where their num-
ber amounts to 50,000, of whom some live at Bourdeaux,
others at Paris, but the greater proportion in Alsace. M.
Bail recommends (p. 90.) that the attention of the French
legislature should be given to their education, and that a plan
should be laid down for preparing them to become admissible
to places of trust and respectability: - at present, indeed,
the law intitles them to such promotion, but their own habits
and the prepossessions of the public are adverse to it. – A
German writer asserts that, of twelve offences brought under
the cognizance of the courts of justice at Leipsic, eleven are
generally committed by Jews: but, granting this for the sake
of argument, nothing can better shew the different operations
of a free and a degraded condition; since in France they are
free, and we hear nothing, says M. Bail, of these irregularities.

The Jews fixed themselves in Alsace about. four centuries
ago; and their colony, which was limited at first to a very
small number, now amounts to nearly 17,000. Poland, howa
ever, is their grand receptacle: at Warsaw, Cracow, and
Lemberg, all business inay be said to pass through their
hands; and without them the poor and ignorant Poles would
be long in finding a market for their surplus-produce. At
Copenhagen, measures have been taken, within these thirty
years, to improve their education, and accustom them to regular
industry; and similar advantages are enjoyed by them in the
Netherlands, where in fact they have long formed a very active
and useful part of the community.
• It is often a subject of complaint that the Jews do not attach
themselves to husbandry; and sone writers have proposed to
make over to them portions of extensive commons, on condition
that they shall not sell or alienate them, but shall perform the
cultivation with their own hands: while others have suggested
the establishment of petty colonies in uncultivated districts :
but all these schemes are liable to the ordinary objections
against any interference with the natural course of things.
Such calculations are beyond the depth of a military man, and
M. Bail deserves our attention more for the þenevolence of
his motives than for the ingenuity of his observations.

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Arab-cart mode o krabia, pe

facter of rafat, My bago, M.


the rays

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To the REMARKABLE PASSAGES in this Volume.
N. B. To find any particular Book, or Pamphlet, see the

Table of Contents, prefixed to the Volumé.

Arbois, on the wines of, 471.

Arguelles, the Spanish deputy, ABISVAL, Count, See O' hard treatment of, 511. 1 Donnel.

Asphaltus, See Pitch. Afghaunistaun, statistical parti. Astronomy, not so abstruse a culars of, 11.

science as many persons supAgriculture, report on the state pose, 427.. of this country with respect Augereau, Marshal, memoirs of, to, 92.

502. Aikin, Mr. on a bed of Trap, 251.

B Albanians, their manners de- Babbage, Mr. on the Calculus scribed, 226.

of Functions, Part II. 54. Albers, Dr. on nitrate of silver, Barbadoes, on the structure of, 165.

250. Ali Pacha, character of, 227. Barbier, M. his bibliographical

Of his sons, 229. Population services, 507... of his principal towns, 230. Barras, M. his adhesion to the Aloes, account of that tribe of Bourbons, 504. plants, 143.

Barrister, English, obs. on the American War, Dr. Franklin's requisites for forming, 166. et

opinions and negotiations re seg. Essays called The Barspecting, 133. 136.

rister praised, 168. Ancillon, M. memoirs of, 519. Barthélémy, M. his Memoirs an Andréossy, General, account of, unauthorized publication, 505.. 503.

Basalt, colonades of, in France, Aneurism of the Femoral Artery, 479. . case of, 162

Basedow, J. B. notice of, 460.
Angina Pectoris, cases of, 160. Bastile, liberation of its prisoners
Animal, on the fossil remains of by the Regent Duke of Or-

one, 54. On the feet of ani- leans, 518."
mals moving against the law of Bates, Dr. ext:act from his Ser-
gravity, ib.

mon, 334. .
Antioch, description of, 41. Beaulieu, Gen., account of, 508.
Antrim, and Derry, on sections Beggars, their impositions re-
of the coasts of, 249.

presented, 369. Arab-carriers, their curious Bellegarde, General, his military

mode of disputing, 34. . career, 509. Arabia, poetic description of an Beloochistan, particulars of vari· Arabian night, and of the cha.. ous parts.of, 259. et seq.

racter of the people, 379, 380. Berger, Dr. on the geology of Arafat, Mount, account of, 33. the N. E. counties of Ireland, Arago, M. on a modification of 246. On Dykes in the North

the rays of light, 529 : of Ireland, 249. App. Rev. Vol. LXXXIII.

Nn Berthollet,

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Berthollet, M. on the effects of

Vaccination, 539.
Binomial theorem, new demon-

stration of, 57.
Biot, M. on the reflection, po-

larization, and 'oscillation of

light, &c. 529. 535.
Birds, curious notices respect-

ing, 383-391.
Bitumen, See Pitch.
Black, Dr. on Angina Pectoris,

Bload, See Home..
· Bodmer, Professor, his patron.

age of Wieland, 493.
Bogg, Mr. on the geology of the

Lincolnshire Wolds, 257...
Bokhara, its great population, 17.
Bonaparte, papers rel. to his dis-

putes with the Pope, 484. His

interview with Augereau, 502.
Bougainville, M. notice of, 527,
Bourdeaux, on the wines of, 472.
Brewster, Dr. on the structure of

the crystalline lens, 53.
Brinkley, Dr.his method of clear.

ing the lunar distance, 414.
Brodie, Mr. on varicose veins,

Bromhead, Mr. on the fluents of

irrational functions, 58.
Bruno, Giordano, account of, and

of his works, 454. . .
Buckland, See Conybeare.
Burgundy, notices of the wines

of, 469.
Bustard, particulars respecting
that bird, 383

C .
Cæsarean operation, case of, 165.
Calla-baugh, description of a

pass near that town, 4.
Cambridgeshire, on the geology

of, 251.
Campbell, Archibald, his mis-

fortunes in a voyage round

the world, 307-314,
Cannibalism, instance of, among

the Tonga (or Friendly) islan-
ders, 345...

Cavendish, Mr. account of, 531.
Cavern, curious, in the Isle of

Sky, 239. In Hoonga island,

South Seas, 347.
Cevallos, Don Pedro, memoirs

of, 510.
Chalk-formation, in Ireland, de-

scription of, 248.. .
Champagne, account of the

wines of, 467. : ?
Charcoal, its properties and

uses, 143
Charente, on the wines of, 471.
Charles V. Emperor, Sir T.

Wyatt's relation of an inter-

view with, 410.
Chasteler, Marquis de, his mili-

tary services, 508.
Chateaubriand, M. memoirs of,

Chauveau Lagarde, M. notice

of, 513.
Chorea Sancti Viti, case of, 164.
Clare, Lord, anecdote, of, by

Dr. Franklin, 26. 5.
Claret, See Bourdeaux. .
Climate, obs. on its effects on

national character, 153.
Clinometer, account of that new

instrument, 257. '
Codes of Law, observations on

their futility, 367. .
Codrika, a modern Greek, notice

of, 512.
Collier, Mr. on tying the Caro-
· tid Artery, and the External

Iliac, 161, 162.
Conybeare, Mr. on the Geology
of Ireland, 246. 249.


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