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- This prince, the great grandfather of the reigning duke, was respected by his neighbours as a man of the highest integrity, and beloved by his subjects as an excellent sovereign. These qualities caused him to be intrusted with the guardianship of some of the princes of the kindred houses of Saxony during their minority. He had four sons. The eldest, who succeeded him, married the Princess Sophie Antoinette, sister to the celebrated Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, as also to the Queen of Denmark, to the cona sort of Frederic the Great, and to the grandmother of the present King of Prussia. By this union the house of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld became nearly allied to most of the reigning families in Europe, to which it was not previously related. Its connections were still farther extended by the marriage of the two daughters of this prince, the elder, Sophia, to the Duke of Mecklenburg Schwerin, (by whom she was mother to the present duke,) and the younger, Amelka, to Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach and Bayreuth.
. The three younger sons of Duke Francis Josias devoted themselves to the profession of arms. Prince Christian, the elder, entered into the Austrian service, and during the seven years' war attained to considerable military distinctions, when ill health compelled him to quit the army and return to Coburg.
6. Adolphus, the third son, fell whilst very young, as colonel of a Saxon regiment of carbineers in the first Silesian war.
. The fourth and youngest of these brothers was Frederic Josias, the celebrated commander of the allied armies at the commencement of the war of the French revolution. He entered at the beginning of the seven years' war into the Austrian service. Though then very young, the Empress-queen, Maria Theresa, intrusted him with the command of the Anspach regiment of cuirassiers. He signalized himself by his courage in various engagements, and was wounded in the battle of Collin. Highly esteemed by the imperial court for his mild amiable character, his valour, probity, and talents, he soon arrived at promotions and honours, Both in Gallicia and Hungary, where he was invested with the chief military command, an appointment of very great importance, he was beloved and respected ; indeed his memory is still rèvered by the Hungarians, who have not forgotten the protection which he afforded, to the utmost of his power, to the numerous Protestants resident in that country. When the Emperor Joseph II. commenced the last Turkish war, he assembled a particularly fine army, of near 100,000 men, and directed his efforts to the reduction of Belgrade. This army was commanded under the Emperor, by Field-marshal Laudohn. The Prince of Coburg was placed at the head of a corps of 18,000 men, destined partly to cover the grand army, and partly to make a diversion in Wallachia and Moldavia, by which also it was designed to establish a communication with the Russians, whose main force was engaged with Oczakow, and some other fortresses. At the same time that the Prince was de. tached with his corps from the Austrian grand army, general Suworoff was detached with the like views from the Russian. The F 3
necessarily narrow limits: but the concluding portrait well deserves to be exhibited to national attention.
• Though the preceding biographical notices would, without any further observations, furnish the attentive observer with a correct outline of this Prince's character, yet the delineation of his moral qualities is wanting to complete a most attractive and interesting picture.
• In his early youth, he manifested an excellent understanding and a tender and a benevolent heart. As he advanced in years he displayed a strong attachment to literary and scientific pursuits, and even at that time all his actions were marked with dignified gravity and unusual moderation. His propensity to study was seconded by the efforts of an excellent instructor, and as he remained a stranger to all those dissipations with which persons of his age and rank are commonly indulged, his attainments, so early as his fifteenth year, were very extensive. His extraor, dinary capacity particularly unfolded itself in the study of the languages, history, mathematics, botany, music, and drawing, in which last he has made a proficiency that would be creditable to a professor.
The vicissitudes which he was so early destined to experience, seem only to have contributed to preserve the purity of his morals; and they have certainly had a most powerful influence in the developement of that rare moderation, that ardent love of justice, and that manly firmness which are the predominant traits in the character of this Prince.
o Necessitated in like manner at so early an age to attend to a variety of diplomatic business, he acquired partly in this school, and partly in his extensive travels, a thorough knowledge of men, in all their relations; and though his experience has not always been of the most agreeable species, still it hạs not been able to warp the kindness and benevolence of his nature.'
This volume may be read with amusement and consulted with utility: the dryness of genealogical detail being frequently enlivened by anecdotes, characteristic of the times in which the several personages flourished. Perhaps, however, something of credulity marks the selection : ghost stories, and other marvellous relations, from which philosophical criticism would turn aside, being indulgently inserted: but the traditional fables, the grandmother's hearsays, of a family, will often assist the poet, and especially the dramatist, to give interest and costume to the themes which he chuses to celebrate.
An elegant portrait of the hero is prefixed, besides the engravings already mentioned.
ART. VIII. The
History of the Small-pox. By James Moore, Member of the Royal College of Surgeons of London, Surgeon of the Second Regiment of Life Guards, and Director of the National Vaccine Establishment. 8vo. pp. 320.
125. Boards. Longman and Co. IN N a dedication to Dr. Jenner, the author observes that his
zeal for vaccination has induced him to write the history of the small-pox, in order that the public may have an opportunity of contrasting its baneful effects with the benign consequences of cow-pox. As he has already appeared as one of the most successful defenders of the latter disease, we admit the propriety of the office which he has now assumed; and we agree with him in thinking that this volume will tend to promote the object which he proposes to himself. The first four chapters are purely historical, containing a discussion concerning the origin of the disease, and an account of the manner in which it spread over the different parts of the globe, after its unequivocal appearance in Arabia in the seventh century. Before this period, it seems not to have been known either in Europe or in Africa, nor in the western parts of Asia; since the different expressions, which some learned men have supposed to refer to small-pox, are very vague and indeterminate; while, on the other hand, we may venture to assert that the actual prevalence of such a disease must have been recognized by clear marks of distinction, and been too notorious to leave any doubt of its existence.
On searching, however, into the remote annals of the Chinese history, some reason appears for supposing that the small-pox has been long known in that extensive empire, and in the neighbouring islands of Japan. Some old documents are produced, which speak of its existence a great while before the Christian æra, and in which “a description is given of the fever, the eruption of pustules, their increase, suppuration, flattening, and crusting.' It is farther stated that the practice of inoculation was used in very remote ages, the operation being performed by placing some of the dried purulent matter up the nostrils; and we are also informed that in Hindostan, according to the traditions of the Bramins, the small-pox is of immense antiquity.' In India, every thing is veiled in fable; and it requires great skill and consummate caution to develope the truth from the mysteries with which it is intermixed : but we are told that the antient Sanscrit contains several names for the small-pox, and that a goddess was invented whose especial province was to watch over the disease. It would seem, however, that the ravages of small-pox were confined to certain districts of India, or at least were of rare