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advantages of thriving trade and general prosperity would open the eyes of the civilized part of the world to a new system? We may be assured that, in any state of society, motives will not be wanting to induce individuals to cling to each other, and to feel the necessity of mutual support. Has not Providence created us with wants which call for the exertion of all our powers; and is it not more dutiful in us to suppose that such is their proper employment, than to imagine them to be given us for the annoyance of our fellowcreatures ? The navigation of the ocean, the cultivation of uncleared lands, and the augmentation of produce in proportion to the increase of population, are all tasks which call for a wide field of exertion, and offer employment to the faculties of mankind for many successive ages.
With all the appearance of caution and deliberation, and with an evident disposition to impartiality, Dr. M. yet allows himself to be carried away by first impressions, and to give credit to reports of very doubtful authenticity. In proof of this allegation, we have only to point out to his readers a passage (vol. i. pp. 96, 97.) in which he lays too much stress on the effect of the character of individuals in giving a turn to political transactions. The Maid of Orleans was a very active personage in her day: but to say that she was the means of turning the tide of war against the English is not more correct than the assertion that, had Bonaparte succeeded at Waterloo, he would have dissolved the Coalition. England, in the one case, was as unfit to maintain a distant war in the heart of an enemy's country, as France, on the other, was incapable of withstanding the combined arms of Europe.
We have felt it our duty to express, without reserve, the animadversions which the perusal of this work has suggested to us; not with the slightest intention to depreciate a writer of such respectable intentions as Dr. Miller evidently possesses, but in the hope that our remarks might not be found wholly useless in the event of a continuation of his labours. sent volumes do not (preface, p. 2.) form above a third part of the whole course of lectures; and if in his subsequent compositions Dr. M. shall be induced to make any alteration in the disposition of his materials, or to limit those theoretical views which he has scattered with too unsparing a hand throughout the pages before us, we shall consider ourselves as amply indemnified for the labour of dissecting his first publication, and even for the ungracious task of exhibiting its defects to the public eye. We would by no means be understood, by the negative tone of this article, as discouraging all attempts at
forming a theory of history; and we extract from the work of the well known Gentz (as quoted by Dr. M.) the following remark, to exemplify the success with which a political philosopher may establish an important distinction :
• Politics, as far as they depend upon personal characters and dispositions, can be considered only as an art, since these considerations can never be made the objects of general science; but the elementary and essential part of politics, which relates to the absolute and relative strength of nations, and is founded upon the knowledge of their geographical situations, their means of invasion and resistance, their natural and constant objects of industry, and their general and predominant interests, is of the class of science, because its principles are fixed and immutable.'
We cannot conclude without observing that Dr. Miller is extremely familiar with the leading events of antient and modern history, and adduces his illustrations with the greatest facility; indeed, our objections to his book affect less his statement of facts than his reasoning, which, besides being unfit to stand the rigid scrutiny of the critical investigator, is likely, we apprehend, to be regarded as too dry and abstract by the more superficial class of readers. In short, we must characterize him as a writer who has read much, and given great latitude to his fancy, but very little exercise to his judgment.
ART. V. Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, Vol. VII. Part I. 8vo. pp. 300;
los. 6d. Boards. Longman and Co. THE 'HE first
paper in this volume, and which occupies nearly one-fourth of the whole, is a description of the Mineral Waters of Spa in Germany, by Dr. Edwin Godden Jones. The water was originally examined by Bergmann, and more lately by Dr. Ash: but the improved state of chemical knowlege, especially that part of it which respects the analysis of waters, seemed to offer a fair opportunity for the exercise of the present author's scientific skill. He begins by a description of the town and its vicinity, the nature and composition of the neighbouring hills, the disposition of their strata, and, in short, of all those circumstances which might be conceived likely to throw any light on the subject under examination. Not fewer than sixteen mineral springs have been discovered in and about the town of Spa, but only seven are now employed, and to these Dr. Jones confined his attention. The one which possesses the most active medicinal powers, which was probably first noticed, and is generally at present known through Europe under the denomination of Spa-water, is called the
Pouhon spring, and rises in the centre of the town. The quantity of water which it discharges is very great; and we are informed that besides what is drunk at the well
every morning, the inhabitants are allowed to carry away as much of it as they please, which, as they use it for their common beverage, they are doing all the day: added to this consumption, I have often seen five or six hundred bottles filled with it for exportation, in one morning, without the well appearing much the emptier.' Its sensible properties are then described; and afterward we have a minute account of its chemical properties, as ascertained by re-agents : an examination which seems to be very complete, and to have been conducted with every minute attention to accuracy. We do not, however, judge it necessary to enter into this detail; since, though all the usual experiments appear to have been diligently employed, we do not observe that any new processes were instituted, or any additional light thrown on the method of analysis. It is worthy of remark that, after a long series of rainy weather, the whole amount of the solid contents of the water is increased: but that the iron, which is considered as the most active of the ingredients, is rather diminished in quantity. The general result is thus given : • The water of the Pouhon fountain therefore appears to be a powerful and highly carbonated chalybeate, containing more iron and particularly more carbonic acid, than almost any with which we are acquainted, and from these two ingredients are its medicinal properties to be estimated, for the
others are in quantities too small to be taken into the account.'
Of the next spring which was examined, called the Geronstere, the sensible qualities differ from those of the Pouhon, in emitting a peculiar disagreeable smell;' which has been generally supposed to depend on its containing sulphuretted hydrogen, and to this impregnation many specific virtues have been attributed: but such does not appear to be the case, because, after the most minute examination, no sulphat could be detected. — The water of the remaining springs contains much less solid matter than that of the two first, especially of the Pouhon, and some of them may even be regarded as unusually pure. One, which is called the second Tonnelet, holds in solution no more than between three and four grains in a gallon: but they all afford nearly the same quantity of carbonic acid, amounting in most of them to more than the bulk of the water; and, in all, the proportion of oxyd of iron, which is dissolved by the carbonic acid, is considerable. The quantity of carbonic acid and of iron is sufficient to render these waters very powerful agents in many morbid states of
the system, and the author justly observes that there are several circumstances connected with these waters which greatly contribute to their efficacy; such are the pure mountain air, the amenity of the situation which tempts the invalid to active and agreeable exercise, and the manner of living generally observed by patients at Spa, which is on the whole highly conducive to the restoration of health. These advantages will always render this beautiful spot a favourite place of resort for invalids.'
Dr. Black, of Newry, published some years ago a statement of two cases of Angina Pectoris, and he now gives an account of two more.
In the first, no previous circumstances in the history of the patient could be deemed likely to lead to the occurrence of the disease, except great mental uneasiness, the consequence of domestic calamity. The case presented the usual symptoms, terminating in fatal hydrothorax; and the following appearances were discovered on dissection :
• The cartilages, by which the ribs are connected with the sternum, had become completely osseous. The cavity of the chest contained a large quantity of fluid. The heart was loaded with fat, large, fabby, and soft. The valves were all sound. There were several osseous scales on the internal surface of the aorta, near its origin. The coronary arteries (which are still in my possession) were ossified through their whole extent.'
In the second case, the symptoms of the complaint also came on after the patient had experienced a considerable degree of agitation, and, like the former, ended in hydrothorax. The cartilages of the ribs were here also ossified, the cavity of the chest contained eight or nine pints of water, and the coronary arteries exhibited a highly diseased appearance.
They were ossified in a remarkable manner. They are in my possession. One of them divides, immediately after its origin, into three principal branches, every one of which is osseous through its whole extent : saving that the bony structure is interrupted at intervals. The longest branch, which is five inches long, is not pervious to the smallest probe for more than half an inch; the other two branches not so far. The other coronary does not divide into branches, but its calibre is perfectly obliterated, and they are all as rigid and incompressible as any other bone of the same diameter. About three inches of the aorta being cut out, its internal surface exhibits a number of osseous scales, surrounding more especially the origin of the coronaries. There is one very remarkable lamina of bone, one-third of an inch long, nearly as broad, and as thick as a shilling.'
The paper concludes with some interesting pathological observations.
In the next memoir, Mr. Kinder Wood, of Oldham, relates some cases of a very fatal Affection of the Pudendum of female Children. This affection seems not to have been exactly described by any previous writer; it commences with fever; inflammation is soon observed to take place; and, unless very prompt means be employed for its removal, gangrene quickly
No cause can be assigned for the complaint. One of the earliest symptoms is pain in passing the urine, and in a few hours all the constitutional affections supervene which accompany
the fever of mortification. The disease seems to be totally distinct from the erysipelas infantilis. The external application of lead-water, with the internal use first of purgatives and afterward of bark and aromatics, is the plan of treatment recommended. The paper thus terminates:
• Upon looking over my notes, I find that, in nine years, I have seen twelve cases; of these, I have only seen the two above related so early as to be materially serviceable; the others being among the children of labourers, had little chance, either from the attention or punctuality of the parents, of getting over so very forinidable a disease. One, a little girl of two years old, recovered, and was attacked again in the course of a fortnight, which second attack proved fatal. In a girl, five years of age, where the earlier appearances of the disease had been entirely overlooked, the mother, upon finding an extensive ulcer, brought the child to me, under the idea of its having received injury from fire, which had escaped attention. The case proved fatal.'
It is the object of the ensuing paper, by Mr. Stansfield of Leeds, to shew the beneficial effects of the seton in a case of Fracture of the Os Humeri which exhibited no disposition to unite, according to the plan recommended by Dr. Physic of America. — Next comes the History of a Case of Wound in the Face, requiring the Operation of tying the common carotid Artery, which was performed with success, by Mr. Collier. The situation of the patient was so extremely urgent, that it appeared to justify the bold measure which was adopted, and which proved completely efficacious.—A minute detail then succeeds, by Mr. Goodlad, of a case in some respects similar to the last, in which the existence of a Tumour in the Face and Neck, so large as to threaten the immediate suspension of the functions necessary for life, was removed by previously tying the carotid artery. The circumstances attending this case, which are amply stated, seemed to render it impossible to ata tempt the removal of the tumour without cutting off the source of hæmorrhage, which would almost inevitably have proved fatal during the operation. It was accomplished without any peculiar obstacle or untoward occurrence, and proved Rev. JUNE, 1817.