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11. ebrios ocellos} Sebrius'

LI.-To LESBIA. "swimming," á melting," “ languishing,” like the dypov Bréuna

The three first stanzas are a version Kvonpns of Anacreon, 28, 21.

of the celebrated ode of Sapplio, which 14. domino] i.e. Amori-orsic' will be found at p. 97 of my Greek in the preceding line, see note on Tibull. Anthology. The fourth stanza is proII. 5, 63. Propert. I. 18, 11.

bably spurious: it has nothing to do 19, 20. Thus translated by Martin:

with the original. Probably the best

version of the ode is that of Ainbrose * And now, with such fair omens blest, Phillips, so justly praised by Addison, They live possessing and possessed.'

who quotes it in the 'Spectator:' Mr. Versions of the poem have also been Martin, the translator of Catullus, essayed, with various success, by gives the Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone's Cowley, Lamb, Elton, and Leigh Hunt. rendering at p. 178.

7. The hiatus has been supplied by XLVI.—FAREWELL TO BITHYSIA. 'quod loquar amens,' a conjecture of

Catullus, in the hope of enriching Parthenius; or by voce loquendum,' a himself out of the plunder of the

conjecture of Corradinus.

provincials, had accompanied Caius Memmius, the friend and patron of Lucretius, LXXII.-To LESBIA. to his prætorian province of Bithynia. In place, however, of making money,

Catullus, scandalised by Lesbia's he did not even clear his expenses. A conduct, is now disenchanted. He is pleasant circle of friends, ' dulces co- no longer her worshipper, though the mitum cætus,' enlivened the dreariness terrible fascination of her beauty is of the winter, “cæli furoræquinoctialis:' still strong upon him. The ideal wearied with which, the poet kindles charm is dissolved; but the earthly at the first breath of spring, and starts passion still burns.”. Martin, p. 153. off on a tour among the famous cities 8. bene velle] i.e. diligere. Plæof Asia, claras Asiæ urbes:' after dria, in Ter. Eun. I. 1, 25, utters a which he returned to Sirmio in the very similar sentiment:pinnace (see IV. above) which was 'O indignum facinus, nunc ego et building for him at Amastris.

Illam scelestam esse, et me miserum 6. claras urbes] such as Ephe- sentio, sus, Smyrna, Sardes, Pergamum, Lao- Et tædet, et amore ardeo.' dicea, Lampsacus, Cyzicus, etc., styled by Ovid, Ex Ponto V. 10, 21, Mag

LXXV.-To LESBIA. nificas urbes Asiæ.'

Catullus, finding it impossible to L.-To LICI IUS.

resist his enchantress, wilfully blinds

himself to her faults, content to be re1. Horace alludes to a similar pas- instated for a moment in her favour. time, that of capping verses. Sat. I. | Martin.

4. ex parte meâ] tuvudr uipos. 3. ut-delicatos ) as suited 5. Martial expresses a similar conmen of taste and wit.” Lamb. Doering flict of emotions: VIII. 53: places a semicolon after esse:' the

“Formosissima quæ fuere vel sunt, construction would then be, ‘ut con- Sed vilissima quæ fuere vel sunt, venerat esse [otiosos].

quam te fieri, Catulla, vellein, 19. ocelle] See note on IV. 2, Formosam minus, aut magis pudiabove.

cam!”

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MARTIAL.

MARTIAL was a native of Bilbilis in Spain. He was born on the 1st of March, in the third year of Claudius, A.D. 43: he came to Rome in the thirteenth year of Nero, A.D. 66; and, after a residence of 35 years in that metropolis, returned to the place of bis birth, in the third year of Trajan, A.D. 100, where he lived for 3 years at least, on the property of his wife, Marcella, to whose graces and mental charms he pays a warm tribute. While at Rome, he enjoyed the special patronage of the Emperors Titus and Domitian, and must have had an easy fortune, as he possessed a mansion in the city, and a suburban villa near Nomentum.

The · Liber de Spectaculis,' which relates to the shows exhibited by Titus and Domitian, and the first nine books of the Epigrams, involve a great variety of historical allusions, extending from the games of Titus, A.D. 80, down to the return of Domitian from the Sarmatian expedition, in January, A.D. 94, and throw much light upon the national customs and social habits of the Romans during the first century of the empire.

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DE SPECTACULIS.

Juvenal, XIII. 165, alludes to the 3.

national custom of twisting the hair: 4. Sarmata] Comp. Pliny, N. H.

“ Cærula quis stupuit Germani lumina,

flavam 18, 10. Sarmatarum quoque gentes

Cæsariem, et madido torquentem maxime pulte aluntur, et crudâ etiam farinâ, equino lacte, vel sanguine e

cornua cirro?” cruris venis admixto.'

10. aliter tortis] i.e. curly by 5. deprensi Nili] the source of nature, as the hair of negroes usually

is. the Nile was a mystery in ancient as in modern times. Nilus incertis ortus

8. fontibus it per deserta,' Plin. N. H. 5, 9. Comp. Hor. Od. IV. 14, 45.

It appears from Sueton. Nero, 12,

that criminals were sometimes com8. Cilices] saffron (spica Cilissa, Ovid, 17, 12, above], mingled with pelled to imitate the flight of Dædalus wine, was sprinkled on the floors, and the aeronaut fell into the arena, where

in the Amphitheatre. On this occasion, also on the spectators, to diffuse a refreshing odour. Comp. Propert.

he was seized by a bear. IV. 1, 15: Pulpita solennes non

9. oluere crocos.' Hor. Epist. II. 1, 79. The best saffron came froin Mount 2. non promisit] Coinmentators Corycus in Cilicia, whence · Corycius suppose this to meau that the rhinocrocus,' Horace, Sat. II. 4, 68. ceros was not easily induced to fight.

9. tortis crinibus] the Sicam- | This explanation is borne out by the bri were a powerful German tribe. I 21st Epigram:

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“Sollicitant pavidi dum Rhinocerota manufacture of pottery. See Juv. magistri,

VI. 344. Seque diu magnæ colligit ira feræ : 5. i. e. it is easy to kill us. Desperabantur promissi prælia Mar- 6. Campano] the most highly tis,” etc.

prized of the Italian wines were grown 4. The pila’ was a stuffed ball, in Latium and Campania; riz., the used to bait animals in the Amphi- Setine, the favourite beverage of theatre.

Augustus, the Falernian, the Fun18.

danian, the Cæcuban, the Calene, the

Massic, etc. 2. Hyrcano] Comp. Virg. Æn. IV. 367.

21. Воок Ј

4. Claudius] was poisoned by the 1.

Empress Agrippina, who obtained from At the festival of Flora it was usual into his favourite dish of mushrooms.

Locusta the drug which she introduced for the spectators of the theatrical Comp. Juv. V. 146. representations then acted, to call upon the female actors to appear on

“ Vilibus ancipites fungi ponentur the stage naked. Cato's presence on

amicis, one of these occasions made it difficult Boletus domino; sed qualem Claufor the mob to demand this indecent

dius edit exhibition: whereupon he quitted the

Ante illum uxoris, post quem nil theatre.

amplius edit.” 13.

44. 1. Herculei] Tibur was famed

14. Charidemus] criminal for the worship of Hercules : Propert. II. 32, 5; Stat. Silv. III. 1, whom Domitian caused to be exposed

to a wild boar in the Amphitheatre. 183. The temple of that demigod at Tibur, was, with the exception of the Suet. On wild boars, as a luxury of vast temple of Fortune at Præneste, the the table, see Juv. V. 116. most remarkable which any city in the neighbourhood of Rome contained. See

51. Juv. XIV. 86 sqq. 8. Regulus] supposed to be the

1, 2. Martial puns on the continuRegulus mentioned by Pliny, Epist. I. ally recurring Homeric phrase Miotu.

λόν τ' άρα τ' άλλα. 5. 14.

62. An Epigram on the heroism of 1. docti vatis] i.e. Catullus, Arria, the wife of Cæcina Pætus, who, whom Ovid also distinguishes by the when her husband was ordered by the same epithet: 'cum Calvo, docte Emperor Claudius to put an end to his Catulle, tuo, Amor. III. 9, 66. life, but hesitated to do so, stabbed 2. Comp. Ovid, Amor. III. 15, 7: herself, and handed the dagger to • Mantua Virgilio gaudet, Verona Pætus with these words: “ Pæte, non Catullo.' dolet.” Plin. Epist. III. 16.

3. Censetur]" is valued, es

teemed." 19.

4. Stella was a poet and a friend of 2. Vaticanis] The Vatican hill Statius, who dedicated to him the first produced clay which was used in the book of his Silvæ.'

i M

а

see

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line

« We

Flacco] Valerius Flaccus, the poet. I the Campus Martius, wherein the

6. Peligni] See Ovid, Amor. III. people voted. Media' implies the 15, 8.

self-consequence of the fellow. 9. jocosae] Gades, the modern 3, 4. Publius and Codrus were two Cadiz, was celebrated for its dancing fine gentlemen. and singing girls, a common accom- alpha penulatorum] " the paniment to a Roman banquet. See pink of surtout-wearers.” Suetonius Juv. XI. 162: ut Gaditana canoro says that Augustus, passing through Incipiat prurire choro.' Comp. Mart. III. the forum, and seeing several Romans 63 ; V. 78.-Canius was a Roman poet, wearing 'penulas, then a novelty in to whom Martial addressed some costume, reproachfully recited Virgil's epigrams.

“Romanos rerum dominos, gentemque 100.

togatam.”

5. By 'grex togatus,' the 'anteam6. septimas Kalendas] i. e. bulones,' servants who went before, seven months.

habited in the toga, to clear the way, 13. nigræ sordibus monetæ] are meant. Grex capillatus' refers to “ with dirty black coins," i. e., with the throng of long-haired youthful asses, not denarii : with copper, not slaves who attended persons of consesilver.

quence. 15. plumbe à selibrâ]

6. sella] the litter, resembling an only cost you a worthless halfpenny.” | Indian palanquin, fitted up with The commentators take 'selibra' as couches. Its use, except for invalids, equivalent to semis: which is used

was thought a mark of effeminacy : proverbially for what is worthless. Juv. I. 32. The lintea' are the Thus, Vat. in Cic. Fam. 5, 10, 1: curtains pulled to and fro by 'lora,'

non semissis homo,' “a man not worth“ strings." Some interpret lora' as a groat.” • Plumbeus' is an epithet of the straps which fastened the litter to contempt : thus, Plaut. Trip. IV. 2, the shoulders of the slaves. But it 120: “ Cui, si capitis reus sit, nummum seems clear that it was borne on poles, nunquam credam plumbeum."

asseres.

8. The sale of the ring was generally 106.

the last resource of hopeless insolvency.

Thus, Juv. XI. 42: 4. anus] is here used adjectively, like anus charta, Catull. 69, 45. 'Talibus a dominis post cuncta novissiThe meaning is: an old cask of

mus exit Nomentane wine takes any title it Annulus, et digito mendicat Pollio pleases : i.e. it improves so much by

nudo.' age, that it might pass for Setine or

Claudius' was a pawnbroker. Falernian wine, or any other first growth.

75. II.-38.

6. rastris) attendants were 1. Nomentanus) See the pre- ployed to take away the corpses of men fatory notice of Martial's life.

and animals at the Amphitheatre, and

to rake the sand over those portions of 57.

the arena which were slippery with

blood. 1. lentom] "lounging.

10. lu pâ] the she wolf who 2. Septa] the enclosed space in suckled Romulus and Remus.

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em6

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III.-38.

14. rubentibus pennis] the This Epigram is an apt illustration Phoenicopterus, or flamingo. of the seventh Satire of Jurenal, which

15. Numidicæ] sub. gallinæ : graphically portrays the general dis

Guinea-fowls. couragement under which both litera

17. Rhodias] a high value was ture and law laboured at Rome in the attached to the poultry of Rhodes. early part of Domitian's reign. See

20. sinum] the lap, or fold of the especially V. 30 seqq., and 106 seqq. tunic, in which she carried their food. Martial adds, v. 10, that the calling of

24 caupo] a caupona' was a parasite was also nearly bankrupt.

erected near the country-house for the 4. triplici foro] i.e. the Forum accommodation of travellers. Romanum, called also “Vetus,' and

albo] probably dropsical." Magnum' the Forum Cæsaris, built by Comp. Hor. Od. II. 2, 15: ‘aquosus Julius Cæsar: and the Forum Augusti,

albo corpore languor.' added by Augustus, owing to the great idle." Comp. Plaut. Pæn. I. 2, 119.

25. nec perdit oleum] 'is not increase of judicial business. 6. “Neither of them paid their fall Cic. Fam. VII

. 1, 3. house-rent." So in Juv. IX. 63: "sed

29. facilis] 'Easily cultivated.' pensio clamat, POSCE:' “his rent, now

A 'gestatio,' a place for gentle exercise, due, shouts, Beg."

was usually attached to Roman gardens. 8. audieris] sub.si,' or 'cum.'

Plin. Ep. V. 6; II. 17.

31. capillati) youths with long

hair, which was thought an ornament. 49.

35. metam lactis] i.e. cheese. 1. On the Massic wine, see Horace,

33. coactos non amare] beOd. III. 21, 5; I. 1, 19: Virg. G. II. cause castrated. 143. The Veientane wine is charac

45. famem mandam] the villa terised in disparaging terms by Persius, was pretty, but not prolific. V. 147: Veientanumque rubellum

46. meras] nothing but laurels ; Exhalet rapidâ læsum pice sessilis i.e. no fruit trees. obba.'

49. This sentiment may be illus50.

trated by Cato's dictum: “Vendacem,

non emacem, oportet esse patrem3. soleas] it was usual to take off familias.” one's slippers on sitting down to dinner. Thus, in Horace's description of a

63. supper, Nasidienus, when about to rise,

soleas poscit,' Sat. II. 8, 76. Comp A satirical portrait of a Roman fine Aristoph. Vesp. 103: evoùs and gentleman. δορπηστου κέκραγεν εμβάδας.

5. Gaditana) see note on Mart. I. 9. scombris] unsuccessful poems 62, 9, above. were used to wrap mackarel in. Comp. 9. tabellas] billets doux. Persius, I. 42: "et cedro digna locutus, 10. i.e. he is too fine to sit very near Linquere nec scombros metuentia car- any one. mina, nec thus.' Comp. Hor. Epist. II. 12. Hirpinus] a celebrated race 1, 267.

horse: thus alluded to by Juvenal" 58.

VIII. 62:

Sed venale pecus Corythæ posteritas et 7. senibus autumnis) i. e. with Hirpini, si rara jugo Victoria sedit.' old vintages.

An old stone at Rome contains the 11. inermi] i.e. without horns. following inscription :—HIRPINUS NE

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