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tum monumenta regis," Od. I. 2, 13, where see Macleane.

56. templum] the 'curia' of Pompey, where the Senate met on the fatal Ides of March. The senate-house was called 'templum,' because it was consecrated; 'templum enim omnis locus inauguratus et sanctus.' Burmann.

59-62. Condere] scil. Cæsarem. -On the rescue of Paris from Menelaus, see Hom. II. III. 380 on the rescue of Æneas from Diomede, see Il. V. 311 seqq.

63. licet intres] "You may enter." On the omission of ut,' see note on Ovid, 38, 69.

65. rerum tabularia] "the archives of the world." Cf. Virg. G. II. 502: "populi tabularia."

66. concursum cœli] "the crash of the sky": i. e. thunder.

| very easily mislead. The site of the battle is accordingly confounded by Manil. I. 906; Ovid, Met. XV. 824 ; Lucan, I. 680; VII. 854 ; Juv. VIII. 242." Merivale's Hist. of the Roman


80. nomen] Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey the Great, whose fleet was defeated, B.C. 36, by Agrippa, the lieutenant of Augustus.

81-84. Antonius repudiated his wife Octavia, and married Cleopatra, the Egyptian Queen, who is here described as 'tædæ non bene fisa,' "fruitlessly relying on her marriage," which she fondly hoped would secure her an ascendancy over the Roman Empire. Cf. Hor. Od. I. 37, 7:"dum Capitolio Regina dementes ruinas Funus et imperio parabat."

ab utroque Oceano] "on both

72-3. "You will cause him to mount oceans." to Heaven as a God."

76. suos] "on his side." Cf. Cic. pro Quint. 7, 29: Alphenus utebatur populo sane suo,' "Alphenus found the people devoted to him." Ovid, Met. IV. 373 Vota suos [propitious] habuere Deos.'

77. Augustus, B.C. 43, marched, with the Consuls Hirtius and Pansa, against Antonius, and attacked him before the walls of Mutina.

78. Pharsalia] "Regarding the battle of Philippi a curious error was perpetuated among the Roman writers. They concur in representing it as fought on the same spot as the battle of Pharsalia. The name Macedonia was given by the Romans to the whole region between the Adriatic and the Hellespont, and such names as Emathia and Hæmonia were applied very loosely by their poets. I am inclined, however, to think that the mistake arose from the ambiguity in Virgil's lines, which became a locus classicus with succeeding poets: G. I. 489 seqq. The poet here refers to two distinct battles; the one, Pharsalia, in Thessaly, the other in Thrace; but the words might


Cf. Met. XI. 168: 'a lævâ,' on the left hand." Ovid apparently alludes to the wars of Augustus against the Cantabri in Spain, B.C. 27; and to his Syrian expedition, B.C. 21, when he received from Phraates the standards taken from Crassus, and a complimentary embassy from India. See Hor. Epist. I. 18, 56.

91. prolem] Tiberius, the successor of Augustus in the Empire. conjuge] Livia.

93. similes æquaverit annos] i. e. shall have lived as long as Julius Cæsar: to whorn hanc animam,' 95, of course refers. As Julius was slain at a comparatively early age, in his 56th year, Heinsius conjectures Pylios' for 'similes:' referring to Ovid, Trist. V. 5, 62, where the poet prays for 'anni Pylii,' for Augustus.

97. excelsâ arce] "the citadels of heaven." Cf. Hor. Od. I. 12, 47: "Micat inter omnes Julium Sidus velut inter ignes Luna minores."

100. The construction is eripuit recentem animam sui Cæsaris membris.' 102. lumen capere] "to grow luminous."

105. See Note on v. 4. above.

107. Hic] Augustus. 108. obnoxia] "subject to." 109. unâ in parte] "on this point only": i. e. opposes only his desire to rank second to Julius Cæsar.

114. mundi triformis] Cf. Met. XII. 41: "triplicis confinia mundi:" the epithet regards the universe as consisting of earth, air, and sea.

116. comites] the Penates, which Eneas rescued from the flames of Troy, and brought to Latium: En. II. 717.

119, 120. He alludes to the new temple of Vesta on the Palatine, where Augustus also erected the porticoes and library, known as the 'templum Apollinis Palatini,' referred to in the words Phoebe domestice.' Horace alludes to the library in the line, "Scripta, Palatinus quæcunque recepit Apollo." Epist. I. 3, 17. 123. Cf. Horace's prayer for Augustus:

"Serus in cœlum redeas, diuque
Lætus intersis populo Quirini."
Od. I. 2, 45.


Dædalus had been imprisoned in Crete by Minos: he resolved to escape: and, as he could not get away by sea, he determined to attempt a flight through the air. With this view, he made wings of feathers united by wax, for himself and his son Icărus. They ascended, but Icarus approached the sun too nearly: the wax melted, and he fell into the sea and was drowned. Dædalus afterwards alighted at Cumæ, on the Campanian coast, where he built a temple to Apollo, the doors of which he decorated with sculptures illustrative of his adventure, as described by Virgil, Æn. VI. 14-33, where see the notes in Professor Conington's edition. Dædalus- -as the name implies was a personification of manual art.

2. exsilium] Dædalus had been banished from Athens by the Court of Areopagus for the murder of his nephew Perdix, of whose mechanical skill he was jealous. He retired to the Court of Minos in Crete, where he built the Labyrinth. The monarch, offended by his construction of the wooden cow for Pasiphaë, afterwards imprisoned him.

5. possideat] "though he possesses": 'concession,' admission,' ' assumption,' are often signified by the subjunctive thus used independently: e. g. " Hæc sint falsa sane; invidiosa certè non sunt:"" granting that this is false," etc. Cic. Acad. II. 32.

6. animum dimittit] "lets his imagination rove among unknown devices." Cf. Met. III. 381: "aciem partes dimisit in omnes." Virg. Æn. VI. 285.


7. naturamque novat] changes his natural form," "pennis non homini datis," Hor. Od. I. 3, 35. Cf. Ovid, A. A. II. 42: "sint mihi naturæ jura novanda meæ."

8. Burmann remarks, that the arrangement of the feathers, beginning with the least, would be more accurately expressed by 'longâ breviorem sequente,' but the metre requires the construction in the text.

9. clivo crevisse] "to have grown in a slope," i. e. to be thus tapered by nature. Marriott.

quondam] "often," "sometimes," indefinite, as in Virg. G. IV. 261: "Frigidus ut quondam silvis immurmurat Auster." Hor. Od. II. 10, 19: “quon| dam citharâ tacentem suscitat Musam -Apollo."

10. Tibullus illustrates this comparison by his description of the pipe: "Fistula, cui semper decrescit arundinis ordo: Nam calamus cerâ jungitur usque minor:" II. 5, 30.

11. medias] scil. pennas: "the middle part of the feathers." 12. veras] "real."

13. sua se tractare pericla]

"that he was meddling with things | tomb of Ninus (1-36). Thisbe, arridangerous to himself."

14. renidenti] "beaming" with pleasure.

19. libravit] Cf. Virg. G. IV. 196: where the bees" sese per inania nubila librant." So Dædalus is described elsewhere by Ovid, Ars Am. II. 68: "Inque novum timide corpora librat iter." 21. instruit] "furnishes" with wings.

22, 23. demissior- celsior] "too low-too high."

24, 27. Dædalus tells Icarus not to steer his course as a navigator does by the stars: but to follow him. Helice, the Great Bear, so called from its apparent revolution [exíσow, vclvo] about the Pole Star. Orion was after death translated among the stars: whence Ovid, Fasti, IV. 388: "Ensifer Orion æquore mersus erit."

28. Inter opus] "in the midst of his task and his warnings."

ving first, flies in terror at the sight of a lioness. Pyrainus soon after finds her veil, which she had dropped, torn by the beast, and bloodstained; and supposing her dead, kills himself for grief (37-73). Thisbe, returning, will not survive her lover; praying only that she may rest in the same grave with him, and that the mulberry tree which had witnessed the tragedy, might perpetuate its memory, by changing the colour of its fruit from white to red.

2. prælata] "fairer than ": lit. " preferable to: not "preferred to:" for the past participle has often the sense of the verbal adjective in 'bilis': e. g. 'inviolatus,'" inviolable": 'inaccessus,' "unapproachable": "contemptius,' "more despicable," Liv. IX. 55. Mayor on Philipp. II. § 65. Compare Ovid, Met. III. 440," inexpleto [insatiable] lumine."

31. quæ] the feminine gender is 4. coctilibus] "brick": as opused, because the mother-bird is meant. posed to stone: the latter material be43. Rapidi] "scorching." Cf. ing rare in the Mesopotamian plains. Virg. Ecl. II. 10: "rapido fessis mes- Compare Juvenal's description of Basoribus æstu," G. IV. 425. "rapidus-bylon as "a figulis munita," "fortiSirius." Rapidus,' in its original sense, fied by potters," Sat. X. 171. is nearly a synonym of ' rapax :' hence 5. primos gradus] "the first Lucret. IV. 712, 66 rapidi leones," advances" of love. "devouring lions." 6. tædæ coissent] "they remigio] Prof. Conington on Virg. would have been united under the sancEn. I. 301 [remigio alarum], tion of marriage." When a husband was says: "The original author of this conducting his newly-married wife metaphor, which has become a com- home, blazing torches of pinewood were monplace in poetry, is supposed to be carried before them. Hence the use Esch. Ag. 52." The phrase occurs of tæda' for "marriage." Hence in Lucret. VI. 748: and again in the Ovid, Met. IX. 721: "conjugium, En. VI. 19. pactæque exspectat tempora tædæ."

48. nomen] scil. mare Icarium. 49. nec jam pater]

father now no more."



44. PYRAMUS AND THISBE. Pyramus and Thisbe, two Babylonian lovers, whose union was not approved by their respective parents, appoint a secret meeting beneath a mulberry tree which grew by the

8. ex æquo captis mentibus] "with affections equally captivated." -a best] "they

9. conscius had no confidant."

11. duxerat] the party wall, which divided the two houses, "was cleft by a slender chink, which it had formerly contracted when in course of construction." With 'ducere rimam,' "to split," "to go into chinks," compare

'ducere formam,' "to take shape," 'ducere colorem,' 66 to take colour," Met. III. 484.

13. id vitium-nulli notatum] "this defect had been remarked by none." On the dative, see note on Ovid, 7, 3, above.

14. Quid non sentit amor?] | Compare Virg. Æn. IV. 296: “quis fallere possit amautem ?"

15. tutæ] safe, because not overheard.

18. Each tried to inhale the breath of the other.

20. Quantum erat] "how small a matter it was." So Ovid, Met. IX. 561 -Est mihi libertas tecum secreta loquendi, Et dainus amplexus, et jungimus oscula coram, Quantum est, quod desit ?" "How little is still denied us?"

Marriot. Cf. Met. XV. 468. 24. nequidquam] "fruitlessly ": because the wall was deaf to their remonstrances.

25. sub noctem] "at nightfall they said, Farewell: and each gave to his (sic) own side of the wall [suæ parti] kisses which did not reach to the other side." Bryce. Quisque,' as a collective noun, takes the plural.

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And in order not to miss each other by roaming over an extensive tract." "Neve' is equivalent to 'et ut


34. busta Nini] a monument built, it is said, by Semiramis in honour

of her husband Ninus.

35. 'pomum' applies to all kinds of fruits: even to truffles, Mart. XIII. 50. 38. præcipitatur] This is a very appropriate verb, since in places near the Equator the sun sets much more rapidly than he does in our northern regions, and the twilight is consequently much shorter. Bryce. Compare Virgil's phrase 'ruit Oceano nox:' and 'nox cœlo præcipitat,' Æn. II. 9: 'adoperta vultum,' 'oblita rictus,' are Accusatives of Reference. See notes on Ovid, 21, 29; 22, 18; 38, 22. Oblita' comes from 'oblino.'

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68. vitiato fistula plumbo] "a pipe when the lead gives way." The comparison is drawn from a source unworthy of poetry.

71. "cædis] a poetical variation of 'sanguinis.' 74. ne fallat] "not to disappoint": "fallat' depends on 'redit.'

77, 78. "She recognises indeed [ut] the spot, and the shape of the tree she had seen, but [sic] the colour of the fruit makes her doubtful." Madvig, Lat. Gram § 444, Obs. 3, says: "A comparison by means of ut-sic or ita is often made use of to draw attention to a difference, and to limit the first clause by the second, with the signification certainly, indeed—but; although

still, yet e. g. 'Ut errare potuisti, sic decipi te non potuisse quis non videt'? Cic. ad Fam. X. 20."

82. "When its surface is ruffled by a faint breeze." Cf. Ovid, Her. XI. 75: "Ut mare fit tremulum, tenui cum stringitur aurâ.”

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83. suos amores] "her lover." 84. indignos] = immeritos, deserving."

90. jacentes] "drooping."

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84. ebur] "the ivory scabbard." Virg. Æn. IX. 305. ensem-habilem vaginâ aptârat eburnâ. See note on Ovid 42, 48, above.

95. in unum] "for this one deed," suicide.

96. hic] refers to 'amor.' 99. nec] "not even."

100. hoc estote rogati] "admit this request." Verbs of asking,' 'demanding,' 'teaching,' 'concealing,' 'compelling,' take an accusative of the thing in the passive as well as in the active voice; e. g. 'hæc si monitus essem,' Ovid, 19, 9, above.

108. pectus imum] "the lowest part of her breast," that nearest the heart.

112. quod rogis superest] "what survived the funeral pile," i. e. the ashes, which were collected in an urn.

45. THE ABODE OF RUMOUR. This passage contains a mythological personification of Fame or

Rumour: akin to the pictures Ovid elsewhere draws of Envy, Met. II. 760, seqq.: Hunger, VIII. 790, seqq.; and Sleep, XI. 586, seqq. Virgil, Æn. IV. 173, had preceded Ovid; but Ovid has not copied from hin. Homer's personification of "Ooσa, Il. II. 93, Od. XXIV. 412, and the Hesiodic un, Works, 760, inay have supplied a hint to both.

2. triplicis] See note on Ovid, 42, 114, above. 3. quamvis distant in locality."

absit] "however

14. increpuit] transitive, as in Virg. Æn. IX. 504: "has caused to peal."

24. rerum] depends on 'quid,' as a partitive genitive.


THE following remarks are drawn from Dissen's valuable dissertation on the life of Tibullus. His chronological arrangement of the Elegies has strong internal evidence in its favour.

The exact date of the poet's birth is as little known as that of his death; the lines, III. 5, 17—

'Natalem primo nostrum videre parentes,

Cum cecidit fato consul uterque pari,'

are no authority, as there is little doubt that the third book was the production of Lygdămus, a poet far inferior to Tibullus. It is clear, however, that his death followed that of Virgil at no distant period, from the well-known distich of Domitius Marsus:

'Te quoque Virgilio comitem non æqua, Tibulle,

Mors juvenem campos misit in Elysios.'


Dissen assigns 695 A.U.C., 59 B.C., as the probable year of his birth; 736 A.U.C., 18 B.C., as the date of his decease.

Horace testifies to the high mental and personal qualities of Tibullus; he also congratulates him on his wealth and social position: Epist. I. 4, 6:


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