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your sails." See note on Ovid, above.

11. mandantis] scil. mei: tongue as I enjoined you."

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1. 8, | asks herself whether she is to revel in luxury, while Protesilaus endures the hardships of war? Comas pectar' and 'caput premetur' are accusatives of reference, like Corpora tegi,' verse 32, above.

16. jamque] "and presently." 23, 24. This idea may have been suggested to Ovid by the following stanzas-the translation is the work of the poet Ambrose Phillips-of Sappho's Ode, celebrated for its portraiture of the workings of passion on the human frame:

"My bosom glow'd; the subtle flame
Ran quick through all my vital frame;
O'er my dim eyes a darkness hung;
My ears with hollow murmurs rung.
In dewy damps my limbs were chill'd;
My blood with gentle horrors thrill'd;
My feeble pulse forgot to play;
I fainted, sunk, and dy'd away."

29. rediit] This is an instance of the lengthening of a final syllable, naturally short, because it is cæsural; Compare Virgil's line,

"Pectoribus inhians spirantia consulit exta."

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43. Dyspari] Hubertin's reading for 'Dux Pari:' latinised from Homer's Avoтapi eldos dρiote, Il. III. 39: "Paris, thou evil genius, beautiful in form!" a compound of dus Tápis. Burmann prefers Dux Pari.' ...damno tuorum] "to the ruin of your family."

44. hospes] "guest:" alluding to his violation of the hospitalities of Menelaus, whose wife he carried off.

45. Tænariæ] Spartan, from Tænarus, a promontory of Laconia. Of course it means Helen.

48. How many tears will your vengeance cost?

49. The ' omen sinistrum' was the expression multis flebilis:' which Laodamia fears may include Protesilaus.

50. "Let my husband consecrate his arms to Jupiter, the author of his return." 'Reduci' is here active in

... animus] "my senses.' 32. corpora] the plural, poeti-sense, equivalent to 'reductori,' as in cally, for the singular. Corpora' is the accusative of reference, grammatically see note on Ovid, 21, 29, above.

pampineâ hastâ] the thyrsus: a pole covered with vine- or ivy-leaves, carried by Bacchus, and by Satyrs, Mænades, and others engaged in Bacchic festivities. Those who were touched with it were supposed to be seized with frenzy. See Horace, Od. II. 19, 8. Ovid, Amor. III. 1, 23. 'Bicorniger' is an epithet of Bacchus.

35. Phylaceïdes] Phylaceïs, a derivative from Phylace, a Thessalian town. Burmann reads 'Phylleïdes,' from Phyllus, another Thessalian town, without apparent reason.

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36. sinus] a poetical equivalent to vestes.'

37-41. In these four lines a spirited contrast is maintained. Laodamia

Martial, VIII. 45, "redux Fortuna." On the conclusion of a war, it was usual to hang up one's arms in the temple of the tutelar God. Thus Hector vows he will suspend the arms of Ajax, if he conquers him, in the temple of Apollo; Il. VII. 82: and Horace, speaking of a retired gladiator, says: "Veianius, armis Herculis ad postem fixis, latet abditus agro:" Epist. I. 1, 4

51. subit] sub. mentem.

56. hospes] i. e. Paris. After 'rapere,' sub. Helenam.

58. Quique] Qui' is here followed by a subjunctive mood, because it is equivalent to 'talis ut:' the sense being, as one who represented in his own person the wealth of Phrygia." See L. E. p. 142, Rule XV. (b).

59. potens] sub. venerat.


60. How small a portion of his ple verb, rapiat,' which would require forces attended him? a preposition. After ante' sub. rapuit. 75. causâ] "in the justice of his

61. His] sub. classe virisque. consors] "sister." Ledæa] i. e. Helen, daughter of


Gemellis] i. e. Castor and Pollux, her twin brothers.

63. Hectora] Greek accus. nescio quem] Anglicè: "whoever he is." Madvig, Lat. Gram. § 356, Obs. 3, remarks: "The expression nescio quis is often inserted in a proposition that is not interrogative, by way of parenthesis, or as a remark applying exclusively to a single word; e. g. Minime assentior iis, qui istam nescio quam indolentiam magnopere laudant," ""that-how shall I term it? -insensibility to pain:" Cic. Tusc. III. 6.

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67. ubi vitâris] On this idiomatic use of the future, see L. E. p. 178, Rule III. Madvig's Lat. Gram. § 339, Obs. 1. Cf. the notes on Ovid, 14, 8; and 24, 32, above.-The last syllable in vitâris' is common in Prosody: see Kennedy's Lat. Gram. p. 133, § 214. W.'s Lat. Gram. p. 194. Prof. Ramsay, "Latin Prosody," p. 76, says: "We must consider the quantity of the termination ris in the indicative future perfect and subjunctive perfect, as common."

68. Hectoras] Burmann remarks that Cicero uses the term 'Thucydidas' similarly. Suet. Cæs. cap. I. says that Sylla, when asked to spare Cæsar, replied, "Cæsari multi insunt Marii." 69. facito dicas] "take care to say to yourself." In such phrases, 'ut' is often omitted: e. g. "Quid vis faciam?" "What do you wish me to do?" Ter. Eun. V. 9, 24. "Scribas velim," "I wish you would write." Cic. ad Fam. VII. 13.

70. sibi] scil. to spare her by preserving my own life.

71. si fas est] "if it is ordained." 74. Paridi] In prose this dative could only followeripiat,' not the sim


77. vivere] A Græcism for 'ut vivas: the final infinitive is a Greek, but not a Latin, usage.

80. meus] for in him I live.

81. deceat] The subjunctive is used, because 'non est quem deceat' is equivalent to non est talis ut eum deceat.' See L. E. p. 142, Rule XV. (e). See note on verse 58, above.


83. After multo' sub. pugnare.
85. nunc] before I dared not.
revocare] scil. te.
ferebat] "prompted me."

92.] See note on 'facito dicas,' v. 69, above.

93. Sors]" the oracle." Protesilaus proved to be the person thus indicated. 101. cum venies] "When you are returning." See note on Ovid, 14, 8, above.

109. pallens] in the 'paleness' of his face, Laodamia read a presage of his death. Compare the "Adrasti pallentis imago," En. VI. 480, which Eneas meets in the infernal world. Similarly Virgil describes Cleopatra, after the Actian defeat, "pallentem morte futurâ," En. VIII. 709.

116. solvar ab ipsâ lætitiâ] "shall actually faint from joy." See note on Ovid, 33, 16, above.

121. Amid these [i. e. osculis] the narrative is pleasantly interrupted; and the more fluent is the tongue, when checked by amorous delay.

123. subit] sub. mentem. 126. Cf. the parallel passage in En. IV. 309:

"Quinetiam hiberno moliris sidere classem,

Et mediis properas Aquilonibus ire per altum."

129. suam] Servius on Virg. Æn. II. 610, reminds us that the walls of Troy were originally built by Neptune and Apollo. In that passage, Virgil re

presents Neptune as the destroyer, as well as the creator ["Neptunia Troja"] of the city.

130. quisque] takes a plural verb, as a distributive word. See L. E. p. 7.

134. Inachi] a variation of 'Græcæ,' from Inachus, first king of Argos.

135. omen] Cf. v. 85, above.

137-144. Laodamia, ready to think any condition preferable to her own, contrasts her fate with that of the Trojan ladies; who, she says, if immediate spectators of the danger of their husbands, can still employ themselves in many pleasing offices of affection, buckling on their armour, etc., with fond injunctions to return.

144. Jovi] See note on v. 50,


147, 8. reduci] "on his return." pectora] a poetical plural, like corpora,' above.

152. Cf. Eurip. Alc. 348, seqq. 156. sonum]" voice." Cf. Anacreon, Od. XXVIII. XXIX. 160. faces] the bride, in a Roman wedding, was accompanied, during the ceremony, by three boys, whose fathers and mothers were living, one of whom carried before her a torch of white thorn, or, as some say, of pine wood.

return home. His wife Penelope, igno-
rant of the cause of his absence, is
supposed to address this letter to her
husband, entreating him to return to
his home and family, and informing
him of the anxieties she endured from
the solicitations of a band of suitors for
her hand.

1. Hanc] sub. epistolam.
lento] "slow to return."

4. Vix tanti fuit] "was hardly worth so much trouble." 'Tanti' is the genitive of price.

6. adulter] Paris.

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8. The term pendula' is used, because the warp stood upright in the loom, instead of lying horizontally, as at present.

9. fallere] "to beguile." Cf. Hor. Sat. II. 7, 114: "jam vino quærens, jam somno fallere curam."

13. Troas] the Greek accusative of Tpwes.

15. quis] indefinite: "any one:" ='aliquis,' only it is more indefinite and less emphatic. Madvig, Lat. Gram. § 493, a. In the Iliad, Antilochus is slain by Memnon, not by Hector.

17. Mencetiadem] Patroclus, the son of Mencetius, who, on Achilles retiring from the conflict, arrayed himself in the armour of that hero [falsis armis], and was killed by Heetor.

18. dolos] for which Ulysses was famous. The term refers to 'falsis.'

20. Tlepolemus was slain by Sarpedon, king of Lycia, who in his turn fell before Patroclus.

23. bene consuluit, etc.] "favoured my chaste affection."

161, 2. perque caput, quod [oro] ut videam, etc.: quod [oro] ut ipse possis referre. Burmann remarks: "Tò ise non vacat [is not an idle expression] hic; quia virorum, qui bello ceciderant, cadavera in patriam ab aliis solebant referri, ut notissimum; Laodamia vero vovet, ut ipse salvus referat 26. ad] "before."--In early times, caput." the Phrygians [Trojans] were con164. quod heu timeo!] "'ATO-sidered Báp6upoi by the Greeks. σinσis aptissima, ne ex mortis men.. tione infaustum omen fiat." Burmann.

39. PENELOPE TO ULYSSES. Ulysses, having offended Minerva during the siege of Troy, was driven over the ocean for ten years on his

27. nymphæ] used in the Greek sense, meaning "brides." Cf. Tibull. III. 1, 21: but Dissen reads 'meritam' for 'nympham.'

pro salvis maritis] "for the safety of their husbands." 28. suis] sub. fatis.

30. This expression was probably

borrowed from Virgil, En. IV. 79: equis' the horses of Rhesus are alluded

"Iliacosque iterum demens audire


to: Ismărus was a mountain in Thrace.

la-Amicum agmen' denotes "the allied ranks" of the Grecian army.

Exposcit, pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore."

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32. The same idea recurs in the Epistle of Helen to Paris, 88, where the lover signifies his passion by tracing the word 'amo' on the table with wine.

35. Eacides] Achilles, grandson of Eăcus.

tendebat] "pitched his tent." Cf. Virg. Æn. II. 29,-"hic sævus tendebat Achilles."

36. admissos] See note on Ovid, 10, 2, above. Achilles bound Hector to his chariot, and dragged him round the walls of Troy.

37, 38. These two lines are inserted to explain Penelope's knowledge of the incidents of the Trojan war. Telemachus, warned by Minerva, left Ithaca to enquire of Nestor at Pylos, and Menelaus at Sparta, the cause of his father's detention.

39, 40. Contrary to general usage, 'hic' refers to Rhesus [the former of the two], 'ille' to Dolon. Dolon had been sent by Hector as a spy into the Grecian camp: he was met by Ulysses and Diomede, who promised him his life in return for information as to the Trojan movements; but, notwithstanding, treacherously killed him. Rhesus, king of Thrace, arriving by night to succour Priam, encamped outside the walls of Troy; in which position he was surprised and slain, while asleep, by Diomede and Ulysses. See Virg. Æn. I. 466. In the following couplet, 'Thracia castra' refers to Rhesus: 'uno' to Diomede.

44. at]"but, no doubt:" ironically. It may be meant seriously: as a reminder to Ulysses that he had formerly [ante] been more cautious, when he feigned madness to escape going to Troy.

45. dum] "until." In Isinariis

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47. Ilios disjecta] "the overthrow of Troy:" the perfect passive participle, in agreement with a substantive, is largely used in Latin where the English idiom commonly prefers the abstract noun: e. g. Major ex civibus amissis dolor quam lætitia fusis hostibus fuit:" Liv. IV. 17: "there was more grief for the loss of fellow citizens than joy for the rout of foes." See Madvig, Lat. Gram. § 426.

50. demto fine] i. e. for ever. carendus] 'careo' is found in Plautus and other old writers with an accusative; 'carendus' can only be correct as a remnant of this usage. The regular construction would be 'quo inihi carendum est.' See L. E. p. 164, Rule II. 2.

51, 52. aliis] "for others:" the ' dativus commodi.'

Incola] the Greek settlers in the land after the conquest of Troy.

60. mihi] "by me," governed by 'rogatus.' See L. E. Rule VII. p. 20, and the Rule, p. 39.

61. quam tibi reddat] "to give to you:" see note on Ovid, 1, 9, above. 67. Phœbi] Apollo was said to have built the walls of Troy.

70. She means that the sympathy of fellow-sufferers would relieve her grief.

75. quæ vestra libido est] "such is the inconstancy of husbands!" equivalent to 'pro vestrâ libidine.'

78. sinat] the subjunctive is used, according to the rules of the Oratio Obliqua: because the clause is part of the sentiment attributed to Ulysses. See L. E. Rule I. p. 103.

80. revertendi] "free to return," a Græcism: like "famulis operum solutis," in Horace.

83. dicar oportet] 'ut' is generally omitted in such phrases. See note on Ovid, 38, 69, above.

85. pietate] Ulysses.

"affection" for Mount Hymettus, as one of the rarely occurring instances [in classic poetry] of individual pictures relating to a terminate locality."

87. Samii] some of the suitors came from Saine, an islet near Ithaca, now called Cephallenia. On altă ' before Zacynthos.' See note on Ovid, 21, 22.

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90. Viscera] "Vitals."

92 Eurymachus and Antinous were the chief in rank among the suitors.

95. pecoris... edendi] i. e. Melanthius, who drives the cattle for my suitors to banquet on. He was Ulysses' goatherd: and joined the suitors in consuming his master's substance. 96 "are added, as a last disgrace, to crown your woes."

100. On this use of 'dum' with a present verb, see note on Phædrus, X. 9. The suitors feared Telemachus was going to summon succours against them.

103. faciunt] i. e. pray for this. 104. cura] abstract for concrete; Eumæus is meant.


105. ut qui] i. e. "since he." 116. ut] though."


one who:"


Procris, the eldest daughter of Erechtheus, married Cephalus, who is here called the son of Mercury [Cyllenia proles, 29]. They lived at Thoricos in Attica. Cephalus went constantly to the chase; and Procris, suspicious, fancied that he was in love. She questioned the slave who attended him; and he told her, that his master frequently ascended the summit of a hill, and cried, "Come, Nephela ['Aura 'in the text], come!" Procris repaired to the spot, and concealed herself in a thicket; on Cephalus repeating his usual cry, she rushed forward to her husband, who in his confusion hurled his dart and killed her.

1. Humboldt, Cosmos, vol. II. note 30, says: "Ross has remarked this pleasing description of a fountain on



13. male sedulus] too offi

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Narcissus, the son of the Nymph Liriope and the river-god Cephīsus, slighted, among others, the nymph Echo, who was enamoured of him, and who pined away till nothing remained but her voice. He afterwards suffe.ed the penalty of his hard-heartedness; for seeing his own figure in a clear spring, he became enamoured of it, and pined away till he was converted into the flower which bears his name.

1. The fountain was near Thespiæ, and still bore the name of Narcissus in the days of Pausanias. Its crystalline clearness is here insisted on, says Burmann: "quia sic tanto magis formam Narcissi reddere poterat."

6. passura]" which would allow." 8. secutus] admiring." Cic. de Legg. II. 1: "Hanc amoenitatem loci sequor."

faciem loci] "the beauty of the

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