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11. Nullus erat] "he was not 71, 72. tecto recurvo] refers to there."

the Labyrinth.* 15. adductis... palmis ] “ with Quæ regerent] “to guide :" see the beating of my hands:" lit.“ with note on Phædr. II. 12. Cf. 84, below, my hands drawn violently against qui lanient,'" to tear.”

77, 78. fratrem) sub. mactâsti. 16. rupta] is Burmann's emen- morte] "by my death your vow dation for "rapta.' “And I tore my would have been cancelled.” hair, dishevelled as it was from sleep." 85. ista] used contemptuously in

18. quod videant] “to behold:” stead of 'hæc:' " this wretched land.” see note on Ovid, 1, 8.

86. habet] this indicative, in a 19. utroque] “in both direc- dependent interrogative proposition, tions:" i. e. et huc et illuc.

would be quite inadmissible in prose. 25. Mons fuit] “Dryon signi- In Plautus and Terence it sometimes ficat, in quem delata a Baccho Ariadne.” occurs, as in Ter. Hec. III. 5, 21: Amar. Catullus' lines (64, 126) pro- but it is very rare in the later poets, gested this incident to Ovid.

such as Horace and Virgil. Madvig, “ Ac tum præruptos tristem conscen

Lat. Gram. § 256, Obs. 3. Heinsius, on dere montes,

the Epistle of Laodamia to Protesilaus, Unde aciem in pelagi vastos protende- v. 137, finds in an ancient codex the ret astus," etc.

following reading, which, if adopted, 27. animus]“ my passion.”

would remove the difficulty as to mood: 29. usa sum] “ I found.”

Quis scit an et sævis tigrisin illa 33. illo] scil. dolore.

vacet ? " 37. plangore replebam] "I 89. Tantum ne religer] “ only made up by blows."

let me not be bound.” 45. The order of the words is : 95. “Heaven," says Ariadne,“ alone Quid potius mea lumina facerent, remained to comfort me: but I fear quam me flerent ?'

the forms into which the Gods trans48. Ogygio] Theban: from Ogy- form themselves.” Burmann suspects ges, an ancient king of Thebes, a city thi ; verse to be an interpolation, sugin which the worship of Bacchus pre- gested by the two preceding lines. vailed.

The genuine verse, he thinks, must 50. “I myself was as much a stone, have corresponded in sense to the as my seat was a stone." Ovid has succeeding distich: so that lines 95, here frittered away in an antithetical 96, 97, 98, might be paraphrased as conceit the fine image of Catullus, follows: “sive deserta est hæc terra who paints Ariadne,

et incolis vacua, destituor præda feris: “Saxea ut effigies bacchantis-Euæ.” sive colunt viri, diffidimus illis.”

56. duos] is used instead of duo,' 99. Androgeos was a son of Minos, to prevent alliteration with the pre- treacherously slain by the Athenians : ceding • duo,' and with “ambo' in the whom Minos compelled, in revenge, to next line.

send every year seven young men and 60. facta]" the works:" Tà épya, as many maids to be devoured by the Græcè.

Minotaur. 63. finge] “suppose.” “Esto,'

* Burmann remarks that there were • fac," "pone,' are used in the same sense.

four celebrated labyrinths in ancient

times: one in Egypt, a second in Crete, a 64. ut] " although.”

third in Lemnos, a fourth in Italy. He 68. puero] “ when a boy.”

thinks that the so-called labyrinth in 69. justo] alludes to the judicial Crete was only a natural cavern, near

Cnossus, approached by subterranean office of Minos in the lower world.

passages.

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102. ardua) “ uplifted,” in the act 147. qui superant] Verse 16, of striking.

above, represents her as tearing her parte viram, parte bovem]= hair. Burmann thinks obtendo' the Minotaurom.

true reading for ostendo:' as The103. quæ] See note on verse 72, seus was far away. above. 104. adductas] lit.“drawn back,"

38. LAODAMIA TO PROTESILAUS. as in the act of pulling out the threads: the meaning probably is, “ toiling.” Protesilaus was a son of Iphiclus Burmann suspects relecta' to be the and Astyoche, celebrated in ancient true reading, in place of recepta,' tiines for the strong affection subsist“ taken up."

The allusion is to the ing between him and his wife Laoda. trouble Ariadne had taken in weaving mia, the daughter of Acastus. He the thread which guided Theseus. belonged to Phylăce in Thessaly: and

107, 108. cornu] the horn of the led many of the Thessalian warriors Minotaur.

against Troy. This letter is addressed ut) " although."

to him by Laodamia, during the de109. illic) i. e. pectore, “in your tention of the Grecian fleet by con. heart.”

trary winds at Aulis. He was the first 117. jurarunt] Cf. Virg. G. II. | Greek who landed on the Trojan coast, 497.

where he was immediately killed.

1. The order of the words is: 'Lao“ Aut conjurato descendens Dacus ab damia Æmonis mittit salutem Æinonio Istro."

viro, et amans optat ire [co] quo 120. qui...condat] “to close : [salus] mittitur.' Æmonis,'.

Æmonio' qui' is used in a consecutive sense: =Thessala, Thessalo: "Æmonia enim see r.ote on Ovid, I. 8.

dicebatur Thessalia ab Æmonia, una e 126. steteris] The last svllable is Deucalionis filiabus, quæ nomen suurn

See note on Ovid, 38, 67. parti cuidam regionis hujus indiderat." 128. Saxea tecta] the Labyrinth: Burmann. See note on verse 71, above.

4. The meaning is : the wind 130. “ I am not to be banished from should have detained you when you your titles to honour!” i. e. let it be sailed from home : not now. known how grateful you have been! 5. d e bu eran t...obsistere]

131. Pittheïdos] Greek genitive“ ought to have opposed.” This differof Pittheïs, daughter of Pittheus. ence between the Latin and English

132. auctores, etc.] Ovid pro- idioms should be noted. The English bably borrowed this idea from Catul idiom expresses past time by the lus, 64, 154, where Ariadne thus Perfect Infinitive after the auxiliary reproaches Theseus:

verbs could, might, ought : but the Quænam te genuit solâ sub rupe sufficient to express the past time in

Latin writers generally consider it leæna ?

the main verb, and to use with it the Quod mare conceptum spumantibus simple Infinitive : e. fi · Licuit in exspuit undis!"

Hispanianı ire," Liv. XXI. 41. “I Or from Virgil, Æn. IV.365, where Dilo might have gone to Spain.” Cf. Ovid inveighs against Æneas in a similar 24, 28, above, potuit decere "might strain.

have graced.135. mente) “ in imagination." 6. " That was the proper season for

144. Non tamen est] “ Yet there boisterous seas." is no reason."

9. qui tua ... vocaret] “ to awake

common.

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your sails.” See note on Ovid, 1, 8, | asks herself whether she is to rerel above.

in luxury, while Protesilaus endures 11. mandantis] scil. mei : my he hardships of war ? Comas pectongue as I enjoined you."

tar' and 'caput premetur ' are accusa16. ja m que] “and presently." tives of reference, like Corpora tegi,'

23, 24. This idea may have been verse 32, above. suggested to Ovid by the following 43. Dyspari] Hubertin's reading stanzas—the translation is the work of for 'Dux Pari :' latinised from the poet Ambrose Phillips—of Sappho's Homer's Abonapi eloos á plote, Il. Ode, celebrated for its portraiture of III. 39: “ Paris, thou evil genius, the workings of passion on the human beautiful in form !” a compound of dùs frame:

+ nápis. Burmann prefers · Dux Pari.' My bosom glow'd ; the subtle flame ... damno tuorum] “to the ruin

of Ran quick through all my vital frame ; your family." O'er my

dim eyes a darkness lung; 44. hos pes] “guest:" alluding My ears with hollow murmurs rung.

to his violation of the hospitalities of In dewy damps my limbs were chilld; Menelaus, whose wife he carried off. My blood with gentle horrors thrill'd;

45. Tænariæ]

Spartan, from My feeble pulse forgot to play ;

Tænărus, a pronontory of Laconia. I fainted, sunk, and dy'd away.”

Of cour-e it means Helen.

48. How many tears will your ven29. rediit] This is an instance of

geance cost ? the lengthening of a final syilable,

49. The omen sinistrum' was the naturally short, because it is cæsural ; expression multis flebilis:' which Compare Virgil's line,

Laodamia fears may include Protesilaus. “Pectorisbūs inbilans spirantia consulit 50. “ Let my husband consecrate his exta."

arms to Jupiter, the author of his ... animus] “my senses."

return.' • Reduci' is here active in 32. corpora] the plural, poeti- sense, equivalent to é reductori,' as in cally, for the singular. Corpora' is Murtial, VIII. 45, “redux Fortuna." the accusative of reference, gram

On the conclusion of a war, it was matically: see note on Ovid, 21, 29, usual to hang up one's arms in the above.

temple of the tutelar God. Thus pampine à hastâ] the thyrsus: Hector vows he will suspend the arms a pole covered with vine- or ivy-leaves, of Ajax, if he conquers him, in the carried by Bacchus, and by Satyrs, temple of Apollo; Il. VII. 82: and Mänades, and others engaged in Horace, speaking of a retired gladiaBacchic festivities. Those who were tor, says: “Veianius, armis Herculis touched with it were supposed to be ad postem fixis, latet abditus agro:” seized with frenzy. See Horace, Od Epist. I. 1, 4 II. 19, 8. Ovid, Amor. III. 1, 23. 51. subit] sub, mentem. • Bicorniger' is an epithet of Bacchus. 56. hospes] i. e. Paris. After

35. Phylaceïdes] Phylaceïs, a ' rapere,' sub. Helenam. derivative from Phylăce, a Thessalian 58. Quique] 'Qui' is here foltown. Burmann reads "Phylleïdes,' lowed by a subjunctive mood, because froin Phyllus, another Thessalian town, it is equivalent to 'talis ut:' the without apparent reason.

sense being, “as one who represented 36. sinus] a poetical equivalent to

in his

own person the wealth of vestes.'

Phrygia.” See L. E. p. 142, Rule 37-41. In these four lines a pirit. XV. (b). ed contrast is maintained. Laodamia 59. potens] sub. venerat.

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60. How small a portion of his ple verb, “ rapiat,' which would require forces attended him?

à preposition. After ante'sub. rapuit. 61. His] sub. classe virisque. 75. causâ] “ in the justice of his consors] “ sister."

cause. Ledæa] i. e. Helen, daughter of 77. vivere] A Græcism for 'ut Leda.

vivas:' the final infinitive is a Greek, Gemellis) i. e. Castor and Pollux, but not a Latin, usage. her twin brothers.

80. meus] for in him I live. 63. Hectora] Greek accus.

81. deceat] The subjunctive is nescio quem] Anglicè : "who- used, because 'non est quem deceat' is ever he is.” Madvig, Lat. Gram. § 356, equivalent to non est talis ut eum Obs. 3, remarks : “ The expression deceat.' See L. E. p. 142, Rule XV.(e). nescio quis is often inserted in a pro- See note on verse 58, abore. position that is not interrogative, by 83. After multo' sub. pugnare. way of parenthesis, or as a remark 85. nunc] before I dared not. applying exclusively to a single word; revocare] scil. te. e. g. Minime assentior iis, qui istam ferebat] “ prompted me.” nescio quam indolentiam magnopere 92. Fac... eat] See note on facito laudant," "that-how shall I term it? dicas,' v. 69, above. -insensibility to pain:” Cic. Tusc. 93. Sors] “ the oracle.” Protesilaus III. 6.

proved to be the person thus indicated. 67. ubi vitâris] On this idioma- 101. cum venies] “When you tic use of the future, see L. E. p. 178, are returning." See note on Ovid, 14, Rule III. Madvig's Lat. Gram. § 339, 8, above. Obs. 1. Cf. the notes on Ovid, 14, 8; 109. pallens] in the 'paleness' of and 24, 32, above.— The last syllable his face, Laodamia read a presage of invitaris' is common in Prosody: see his death. Compare the “ Adrasti palKennedy's Lat. Gram. p. 133, § 214. lentis imago," Æn. VI. 480, which W.'s Lat. Gram. p. 194. Prof. Ramsay, Æneas meets in the infernal world. “ Latin Prosody," p. 76, says: “ We Similarly Virgil describes Cleopatra, must consider the quantity of the ter- after the Actian defeat, "pallentem mination ris in the indicative future morte futurâ,” Æn. VIII. 709. perfect and subjunctive perfect, as 116. solvar ab.ipsâ lætitiâ] common."

“shall actually faint from joy.” See 68. Hectoras] Burmann remarks note on Ovid, 33, 16, above. that Cicero uses the term “Thucydidas' 121. Amid these [i. e. osculis] the similarly. Suet. Cæs. cap. I. says that narrative is pleasantly interrupted ; and Sylla, when asked to spare Cæsar, re- the more fluent is the tongue, when plied, “ Cæsari multi insunt Marii.” checked by amorous delay.

69. facito dicas] “take care to 123. subit] sub. mentem. say to yourself.” In such phrases, 'ut' 126. Cf. the parallel passage in is often omitted: e. g. Quid vis fa- | Æn. IV. 309 : ciam?” “What do you wish me to do?” Ter. Eun. V. 9, 24. - Scribas

“Quinetiam hiberno moliris sidere velim,” “I wish you would write."

classem, Cic. ad Fam. VII. 13.

Et mediis properas Aquilonibus ire 70. sibi] scil. to spare her by preserving my own lite

129. suam] Servius on Virg. Æn. 71. si fas est] “if it is ordained.” | 11. 610, reminds us that the walls of

74. Paridi] In prose this dative Troy were originally built by Neptune could only follow . eripiat,' not the sim- and A pollo. In that passage, Virgil re

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presents Neptune as the destroyer, as return home. His wife Penelope, ignowell as the creator [“ Neptunia Troja"] rant of the cause of his absence, is of the city.

supposed to address this letter to her 130. quisque] takes a plural husband, entreating him to return to verb, as a distributive word. See L. E. his home and family, and informing p. 7.

him of the anxieties she endured from 134. Inachiæ] a variation of the solicitations of a band of suitors for Græcæ,' from Inăchus, first king of her hand. Argos,

1. Hanc) sub. epistolam. 135. omen] Cf. v. 85, above. lento] “slow to return.'

137–144. Laodamia, ready to think 4. Vix tanti fuit] was hardly any condition preferable to her own, worth so much trouble.” “Tanti' is contrasts her fate with that of the the genitive of price. Trojan ladies; who, she says, if imme- 6. adulter] Paris. diate spectators of the danger of their 8. The term • pendula' is used, behusbands, can still employ themselves cause the warp stood upright in the in many pleasing offices of affection, loom, instead of lying horizontally, as buckling on their armour, etc., with fond

at present. injunctions to return.

9. fallere] "to beguile.” Cf. Hor. 144. Jovi] See note on v. 50, Sat. II. 7, 114: “jam vino quærens, above.

jam somno fallere curam." 147, 8. reduci] “ on his return.” 13. Troas] the Greek accusative pectora] a poetical plural, like of Tpwes. corpora,' above.

15. quis] indefinite: "any one:” 152. Cf. Eurip. Alc. 348, seqq. ='aliquis,' only it is more indefinite 156. sonum]

4 voice."

Cf. Ana- and less emphatic. Madrig, Lat. Gram. crevn, Od. XXVIII. XXIX.

§ 493, a. In the Iliad, Antilochus is 160. faces] the bride, in a Roman slain by Memnon, not by Hector. wedding, was accompanied, during the 17. Menetiadem] Patroclus, ceremony, by three boys, whose fathers the son of Menætius, who, on Achilles and inothers were living, one of whom retiring from the conflict, arrayed himcarried before her a torch of white self in the armour of that hero [falsis thorn, or, as some say, of pine wood. arinis], and was killed by Hector.

161, 2. perque caput, quod 18. dolos] for which Ulysses was [oro] ut videain, etc.: quod (oro) ut ipse famous. The terin refers to ' falsis.' possis referre. Burmann remarks: “TÒ 20. Tlepolemns was slain by Sarij.se non vacat [is not an idle expēlon, king of Lycia, who in his turn pression] hic; quia virorum, qui bello fell before Patrolus. ceciderant, cadavera in patriam ab aliis 23. bene consuluit, etc.] "fasolebant referri, ut notissimum ; Lao- voured my chaste affection.” damia vero vovet, ut ipse salvus referat 26. a d] “ before."--In early times, caput."

the Phrygians [Trojans] were con164. quod heu timeo!) “ 'ATTO- sidered Báp6upo, by the Greeks. GIÁMors aptissima, ne ex mortis men.. 27. nymphæ] used in the Greek tione infaustum omen fiat.” Burmann. sense, meaning "brides.” Cf. Tibull.

III. 1, 21: but Dissen reads 'meritam' 39. PENELOPE TO ULYSSES.

for nympham.

pro salvis maritis] “ for the Ulysses, having offended Minerva safety of their husbands." during the siege of Troy, was driven 28. suis sub. fatis. over the ocean for ten years on his 30. This expression was probally

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