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6. Ovid was desired by his father in early life to attach himself to the calling of a lawyer, but his poetical tastes revolted against the profession.
7. mortale, etc.] Ovid here addresses his slanderer, telling him that his work is perishable.
9, 11. Mæonides] Homer: so called from Mæonia, reputed by some to have been his native country.
Ascræus] Hesiod, the Greek poet of agriculture, born at Ascra in Boeotia. 13. Battiades] Callimachus, the Alexandrine poet, who belonged to the celebrated family of the Battiada of Cyrene. He flourished about 260 B.C. Ovid's opinion that he showed more art than genius can only be justified as a criticism of his hymns: his epigrams are among the cleverest in the Greek Anthology, and his elegies were much admired, as we know from Quintil. X. 1, 58.
15. cothurno] See note on Ovid 9, 3.
31. 'Quum,' when used adversatively, i. e. to express a kind of comparison between two propositions, takes a subjunctive.
37. myrtum] the myrtle was sacred to Venus: and amorous subjects are Ovid's favourite theme.
29. THE SAME SUBJECT, TREATED BY PROPERTIUS.
1, 2. Propertius, representing himself as a priest of the Muses [Musarum sacerdos,' Hor. Od. III. 1, 3] invokes the shades of Callimachus [see Ovid 28, note 13], and the sacred rites of Philētas of Cos, an elegiac poet of celebrity, whom Propertius elsewhere says he imitated in preference even to Callimachus.
3, 4. Paley thinks' ingredior' refers to nemus:' and that 'ferre' is one of those final infinitives, which are more Greek than Latin. Dr. Kennedy, with Hertzberg, refers 'per,' which is elsewhere also used by Propertius for
construe thus: ferre Graios choros per Itala orgia,'" to introduce Greek choirs into Italian festivals," i. e. to represent Greek poetry in Latin measures. The metaphor commenced in sacra' is evidently sustained in 'orgia' and 'choros.'
1-19. Aratus was a Greek poet, of Soli, in Cilicia, author of an astro-inter,' to 'Itala:' so that the line would nomical poem, which Cicero translated into Latin verse. Alexander was an eminent poet of the new Attic comedy, copied by Plautus and Terence in Latin; Ennius and Accius, old Roman poets: 'animosi oris' is the descriptive genitive [genitivus qualitatis]. See Kenn. L. G. p. 99, § 132.
21, 22. P. Terentius Varro, surnamed Atacīnus, from the river Atax, in Gallia Narbonensis, his native country, born B.C. 82, author of the Argonautics.
primam ratem] the Argo. Esonio duci] Jason, son of Æson. See Myth. Dict.
5-9. The poet says "there will be many bards to sing the military glories of Rome; I therefore prefer to follow a new track, and to write for the amusement of my countrymen in times of peace:" tuas laudes,' i. e. 'bellicas virtutes,' is opposed to 'pace,' and 'multi' to intactâ viâ.' In the words 'Bactra futura' Propertius alludes to the expedition against the Parthians undertaken B.C. 20. Paley.
9. Propertius, III. 26, 44, similarly opposes 'mollis,' as representing elegiac or amatory poetry, to 'durus,' as representing heroic lays.
Pegasides] Musæ, from their steed Pegasus. 'Non faciet' corresponds to the English idiom, "will not do for. "
11, 12. An ellipse must be mentally supplied. [It is true that detractors are never wanting, when a poet attempts a new and unbeaten track;] yet,' etc. Paley.
13. The meaning is: When poems become old, they are always more valued than when new.' Paley.
15, 16. pulsas] "stormed." Hæmonio viro] Achilles, against whom the rivers Scamander and Simois fight in Homer's Iliad.
17. Propertius here confounds the Mount Ida of Crete, fabled as the birthplace of Jove, with the Ida of Troas.
22. bis capta] "primum ab Hercule ipso, sub Laomedonte, qui ei equos promissos denegârat, deinde sub Priamo, ope sagittarum Herculis, quæ Philoctetæ obtigerant." Kuinoel.
Etæi dei refers to Hercules, whose funeral pyre was lit on Mount Eta. 28. Lycio deo] Apollo, "qui Lyciæ tenet Dumeta natalemque silvam," Hor. Od. III. 4, 62. In 'vota probante,' Barth detects an allusion to the recent admission of the poems of Propertius into the Palatine Library. 30. sustinuisse] "to have arrested." Cf. Ovid, F. V. 660.
31. See Note on Ovid, 7, 10. Thebas agitata] 'driven to Thebes.'
per artem] is opposed to 'per vim.' 34. rorantes] i. e. dripping from the sea. Cf. Virg. B. VII. 37. Galatea was a Nereid: she appears in the 6th and 11th Idyls of Theocritus as the love of Polyphemus.
46. Elei] at Elis, in Peloponnese. 47. Mausolei] The tomb of Mausōlus, king of Caria, erected by his surviving queen, Artemisia, at Halicarnassus, B.C. 353, was celebrated as one of the seven wonders of the world.' Paley.
51. ab ævo] The preposition is added because "excidet" is equivalent to "exstinguetur," and "ævum" is regarded as the agent rather than the instrument.' Paley. See L. E. p. 70. Rule II.
30. ON THE DEATH OF TIBULLUS.
1. mater] Aurora. The dewdrops of the morn were poetically fabled to be the tears of Aurora for Memnon. Ovid, Met. XIII. 622.Thetis was the mother of Achilles.
3. indignos] "innocent," lit. unworthy to mourn: because the death of Tibullus was premature.
4. ex vero] He alludes to the derivation of Elegeïa from eλeyos, "lamentation."
5. tui vates operis] Id est Sacrorum tuorum antistes. [priest of your rites]; utopus' et 'operari' proprie de sacris. Burmann.
tua fama] "the source of your fame."
6. Tibullus wrote love-poetry: hence the son of Venus is represented as attending his funeral with all the insignia of mourning.
12. concutiente] "convulsive." 13. fratris] Eneas was the brother of Cupid, as he was a son of Venus. sic]i.e. with these signs of mourning. 16. juveni inguen] "the youth's thigh." Adonis is alluded to. It is remarkable that, when an action is done to part of the body, the party suffering is signified by the dative, in Latin, whereas the English language prefers a possessive pronoun or a possessive case; e. g. tuo viro oculi dolent," Ter., " your husband's eyes are weak."
17. At] is used in stating an objection: "yet," "nevertheless."
18. qui... putent] The subjunctive | patron Messala to that island, which Ovid styles 'Phæacia tellus,' from its old settlers having been reputed to be Phæacians, and had been very ill while there.
is used because' qui' is here equivalent
Ismario] equivalent to "Thracian.”
23. Elinon] i. e. "Ah, Linus!" Linus, the brother of Orpheus, was killed by Hercules.
invita] signifies the harp's reluctance to play, through sorrow for its master's death.
26. "Pierian streams" is an equivalent for "poetical inspiration;" Pieria, a tract of country between Macedonia and Thessaly, was the fabled land of the Muses.
29. "The legend of Trojan suffering, the theme of bards, lives."
30. retexta] "unwoven :" alluding to the stratagem by which Penelope deceived her suitors.
31. Nemesis and Delia were mistresses of Tibullus.
34. Nemesis and Delia had been wont to sacrifice to Isis, an Egyptian goddess, popular at Rome. The 'sistra' were instruments which were shaken in her rites: Tibull. I. 3, 23 seqq. 35. ignoscite fasso]
49. hinc] from Rome: consistently with the prayer uttered by Tibullus, when ill at Corcyra:
'Abstineas, Mors atra, manus; non hic mihi mater,
Quæ legat in teneros ossa perusta sinus." I. 3, 5.
50. It was usual for the mourners to throw flowers and locks of hair on the body while burning.
51. in partem doloris] 66 share her sorrow."
53. prior] scil. Delia.
57. Delia had said, that Tibullus' love for herself was happier than his love for Nemesis: because, as long as he loved her, he lived: whereas, during his liaison with Nemesis, he died. Nemesis replies: "What do you say? My loss ought to grieve you." She means the "loss" sustained by her in Tibullus' death: his affection for herself she goes on to prove by citing one of his most pathetic lines, which she describes as addressed to her:*
"Te teneam moriens deficiente manu."
'Dolori' is the dative "of the pur pose:" see note on Phædr. VIII. 2.
61. Ivy was sacred to Bacchus : whose worship is often associated with that of Apollo. See Paley on Propert. IV. 2, 7.
64. Gallus- -a distinguished poet, about whom see Ovid, 28, 29, abovewas at one time high in favour with his patron, the nature whereof is not Augustus; but for some offence against known, he was banished from Rome, and in his grief he destroyed himself. Ovid here says: if the charge of having wronged his friend was false, he was too lavish of his blood and life.
*They occur in Tibull. I. 1, 60, where they are addressed to Delia.
31. ORESTES AND PYLADES.
The friendship of Orestes and Pylades was proverbial.-Orestes consulted Apollo, how he could be delivered from the madness caused by the murder of his mother. The god advised him to go to Tauris in Scythia, and thence to fetch the image of Artemis [Diana], and to carry it to Athens. He and Pylades accordingly went to Tauris, where Thoas was king: on their arrival they were seized by the natives, in order to be sacrificed to Artemis, according to the custom of the country. But Iphigenia, the priestess of Artemis, was the sister of Orestes: they recognised each other, and all three escaped with the statue of the goddess.
3, 4. signum] "the image" of Artemis.
basis] "the pedestal without the image" which Orestes carried off.
5. naturâ, etc.] i. e. built of white marble.
7. tædæ] "strange to the nuptial torch:" i. e. unmarried.
14. Iphigenian] the Greek accusative, used for the metre's sake. Iphigenia, when on the point of being sacrificed at Aulis, was snatched away by Diana, and transported to Tauris. To this Ovid alludes in the next couplet: where Phoebe'=Diana.
23. Trivia] Diana was so called, because her temples were often erected at a spot where three ways met.
24. manus] the accusative of reference. "Both their hands bound." See note on Ovid, 21, 29.
32. THE RAPE OF PROSERPINE.
The rape of Proserpine, the daughter of Ceres, by Pluto, is narrated at length by Ovid, Met. V. It formed the subject of a poem by Claudian : and of the Homeridian hymn to Demeter [Ceres].
1, 2. tribus scopulis] the three rocky promontories were called Pachynum, Pelōrum, and Lilybæum. Sicily was hence styled Trinacris: a term compounded of τρεῖς ἄκραι.
3, 4. domus] the whole island is ineant: Cicero calls Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica, the "tria frumentaria subsidia reipublicæ." Henna was an elevated plain, nearly in the centre of the island. See Cic. Verr. IV. 48.
5, 6. cælestum matres] Paley says: "The nymph Arethusa [who gave her name to the so-called fountain at Syracuse] had invited the elder goddesses the matrons-to a banquet, and thus it happened that Proserpine was left in the care of none but her younger friends." 'Dea flava of course refers to Ceres: 'filia,' v. 7, to Proserpine.
15. inanis] seems to mean 30. suo... loco] i. e. Tauris: Iphi- rishable:" because flowers have so frail genia describes the sacred rites as more a life. barbarous than even the country which is the scene of them.
16, 17. They were too busy to feel the labour.
lento] "pliant." Cf. the often quoted line: "Molliter austerum studio fallente laborem," Hor. Sat. II. ii. 12.
18. gremium] "the lap," a term applied to the receptacle formed by clasping the arms against the breast,
as an infant is held" in gremio matris," Juv. III. 176. Sinus denotes the loose folds of the tunic or toga, according to the sex alluded to." Paley. 20. ungue] Cf. Propert. I. 20, 38; Catull. LXII. 43.
21. On the Hyacinth, see note on Ovid, 25, 21.
Amarante] "immortelle: a red
follows: 'accipe, Posteritas, ut noris, qui ego fuerim, ille lusor tenerorum amorum, quem legis.
3, 4. See notes on Ovid 20, above. 5. He alludes to the death of the Consuls, Hirtius and Pansa, before Mutina, B. C. 43.
7, 8. ordinis] scil. equestris. fortunæ] A fortune of 4,000 sesflower, as is clear from Tibull. III. 4, terces entitled its owner to the equestrian dignity.
22. rorem] "rosemary:" ros marinus,' so called from the mealy whiteness, like dried sea-foam, under the leaves. Paley.
23. sunt] sub. 'sunt alii quos legunt.'
27. Patruus] Pluto, the brother of Jupiter and Ceres.
30. i. e. she tore off in despair the fold of her tunic which held the flowers. 32. inassueti] because they were accustomed to the infernal world.
33, 34. chorus æqualis] "the train of youthful maids," duhλikes, who attended Proserpine. Cf. Virg. G. IV. 460.
Persephone] the Greek form of Proserpine.
tua dona] "the presents offered to you."
35. ut clamata] "when she, though summoned."
37. modo] "only just:" i. e. her return from the banquet.
40. Mænadas] from Mænas, " raving Bacchanal:" from uaivoual,
41. sua] is scarcely correct: ejus being required. Paley says: "This use of suus appears to depend on a mental confusion between the subject and the object, as if the poet had meant 'ut vitulus desideratur a suâ| matre.'"
45. puellaris plantæ] "of the maiden's tread."
33. OVID RELATES HIS OWN LIFE.
1, 2. The order of the words is as
11, 12. Ovid and his brother, who was his senior by twelve months, were both born on the same day of the year: two birthday cakes celebrated the event on the same day. See Juv. XVL 38. Martial (X. 28) speaks of the "quinquagesima liba," the cakes offered to the gods on one's fiftieth birthday.
13, 14. This is one of the five festal days of Minerva-the first day which witnesses gladiatorial combats: that is, the second day of the festival: for on the first there was no such exhibition. Burmann. Ovid's birthday, according to this computation, was the 21st of March.*
16. ab arte] follows 'insignes.' "The poets," says Madvig, Lat. Gram. § 254, Obs. 2, "use ab where the ablativus instrumenti would usually stand in prose: e. g. ' turbinem assuetâ versat ab arte puer,'' by the help of his wonted art,' Tib. I. 5, 4." An exact parallel occurs in Virgil, 'torrida semper ab igni,' G. I. 234. See note on Propert. 29, 51, above; and compare Ovid, 38, 116, below, 'solvar a lætitiâ.'
urbis] 'Urbs' constantly designates Rome, kaт' ¿¿oxhν.
28. "Togam virilem designat, quam nobiles adolescentes apud Romanos sumebant in festo Liberi patris, 16 Kal. April., depositâ prætextâ." Bur.