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39. “ This was the only point on

which they did not agree.” The friendship of Orestes and Py-- 40. par] lades was proverbial. - Orestes con- cetera] “in other respects : sulted Apollo, how he could be de- accusative of reference. See L. E. p. 27, livered from the madness caused by the Rule XI. 3. murder of his mother. The god advised

42. Iphigenia writes a note to her him to go to Tauris in Scythia, and brother Orestes, supposing him to be thence to fetch the image of Artěinis

at Mycenæ, and ignorant that he was [Diana], and to carry it to Athens. actually in her presence. He and Pylades accordingly went to Tauris, where Thoas was king: on their arrival they were seized by the

32. THE RAPE OF PROSERPINE. natives, in order to be sacrificed to


rape of Proserpine, the daughter Artěmis, according to the custom of of Ceres, by Pluto, is narrated at the country:

But Iphigenia, the length by Ovid, Met. V. It formed priestess of Artěmis, was the sister of the subject of a poem by Claudian : Orestes: they recognised each other, and of the Homeridian hymn to Demeand all three escaped with the statue ter [Ceres]. of the goddess.

1, 2. tribus scopulis] the three 3, 4. signum] “the image” of rocky promontories were called PachyArtěmis.

num, Pelõrum, and Lilybæum. Sicily basis] “the pedestal without the was hence styled Trinăcris: a term image”—which Orestes carried off. compounded of τρείς άκραι.

5. naturâ, etc.] i. e. built of white 3, 4. domus] the whole island is marble.

ineant: Cicero calls Sicily, Sardinia, 7. tædæ] “strange to the nuptial and Corsica, the “ tria frumentaria torch:" i.e. unmarried.

subsidia reipublicæ.” Henna was an 14. Iphigeniăn] the Greek accu- | elevated plain, nearly in the centre of sative, used for the metre's sake. Iphi- the island. See Cic. Verr. IV. 48. genia, when on the point of being sacri- 5, 6. cælestum matres] Paley ficed at Aulis, was snatched away by says : “ The nymph Arethusa [who Diana, and transported to Tauris. To gave her name to the so-called fountain this Ovid alludes in the next couplet: at Syracuse] had invited the elder godwhere • Phæbe'=Diana.

desses—the matrons—to a banquet, 23. Triviæ] Diana was so called, and thus it happened that Proserpine because her temples were often erected was left in the care of none but her at a spot where three ways met.

younger friends."

'Dea Alava of 24. manus] the accusative of re- course refers to Ceres: ‘filia,' v. 7, to ference. “Both their hands bound.” | Proserpine. See note on Ovid, 21, 29.

15. inanis] seems to mean" pe30. suo... loco] i. e. Tauris: Iphi- rishable:" because flowers have so frail genia describes the sacred rites as more barbarous than even the country which 16, 17. They were too busy to feel is the scene of them.

the labour. 35, 36. `Hostia' is in apposition lento] "pliant." Cf. the often with alter:' “ let one of you fall a quoted line: “Molliter austerum studio victim;” “patrias sedes' refers to My- fallente laborem," Hor. Sat. II. ii. 12.

18. gremium] “ the lap," a term 37. periturus] “anxious to die:” applied to the receptacle formed by scil. to save Orestes.

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clasping the arins ayainst the breast,


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as an infant is held " in gremio ma- follows: 'accipe, Posteritas, ut noris, tris,” Juv. III. 176. Sinus denotes the qui ego fuerim, ille lusor tenerorum loose folds of the tunic or toga, accord- amorum, quem legis. ing to the sex alluded to.” Paley. 3, 4. See notes on Ovid 20, above.

20. ungae] Cf. Propert. I. 20,38; 5. He alludes to the death of the Catull. LXII. 43.

Consuls, Hirtius and Pansa, before 21. On the Hyacinth, see note on Mutỉna, B. C. 43. Ovid, 25, 21.

7, 8. ordinis ] scil. equestris. Amarante] "immortelle:” a red fortunæ ] A fortune of 4,000 sesflower, as is clear from Tibull. III. 4, terces entitled its owner to the eques33.

trian diguity. 22. rorem] rosemary:”

11, 12. Ovid and his brother, who marinus,' so called from the mealy was his senior by twelve months, were whiteness, like dried sea-foam, under both born on the same day of the year: the leaves. Paley.

two birthday cakes celebrated the event 23. sunt] sub. sunt alii quos on the same day. See Juv. XVL 38. legunt.'

Martial (X. 28) speaks of the “ quin27. Patruus] Pluto, the brother quagesima liba,” the cakes offered to of Jupiter and Ceres.

the gods on one's fiftieth birthday. 30. i. e. she tore off in despair the 13, 14. This is one of the five festal fold of her tunic which held the flowers. days of Minerva—the first day which

32. inassueti] because they were witnesses gladiatorial combats : that accustomed to the infernal world. is, the second day of the festival: for

33, 34. chorus æqualis] "the on the first there was no such exhibi. train of youthful maids," duħalkes, tion. Burmann. Ovid's birthday, acwho attended Proserpine. Cf. Virg. G. cording to this computation, was the IV. 460.

21st of March.* Persephone] the Greek form of 16. ab arte] follows 'insignes.' Proserpine.

“The poets,” says Madvig, Lat. Gram. tua dona] “the presents offered to $ 254, Obs. 2, "use ab where the ablayou."

tivus instrumenti would usually stand 35. ut clamata] “ when she, in prose: e. g. turbinem assuetâ versat though summoned.”

ab arte puer,'' by the help of his 37. modo] only just:" i. e. on wonted art,' Tib. I. 5, 4.” An exact her return from the banquet.

parallel occurs in Virgil, 'torrida sem40. Mænadas] from Mænas, a per ab igni,' G. I. 234. See note on raving Bacchanal:” from Malvouai, Propert

. 29, 51, above; and compare I rave.

Ovid, 38, 116, below, 'solvar a lætitiâ.? 41. sna) is scarcely correct : ejus urbis] 'Urbs 'constantly desigbeing required. Paley says : “ This nates Rome, kat' èxoxhv. use of suus appears to depend on a 28. “ Togam virilem designat, quam mental confusion between the subject nobiles adolescentes apud Romanos and the object, as if the poet had sumebant in festo Liberi patris, 16 meant ut vitulus desideratur a suâ Kal. April., depositâ prætextâ.” Bur.

mann. 45. puellaris plantæ] “ of the 29. Augustus allowed the use of maiden's tread."

the latus clavus' even to the children

* The writer of the article. Ovidius' in

Dr. Smith's Biog. Dict. has evidently 33. OVID RELATES HIS OWN LIFE. mistaken the sense of prima' in this line,

when he makes the 20th of March Oviu's 1, 2. The order of the words is as birihday.

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of senators: but if, on reaching the to Ovid's computation : which, how. senatorial age, they were either unable ever, is erroneous, as the interval be. or unwilling to assume that dignity, tween the celebration of the games was they were obliged to wear the narrow four years, not five.

clavus'- '-a purple stripe running 97, 98. Tomitas ] “ the people of down the centre of the "toga'—to Tomi," now Tomisvar, the place of which Ovid alludes below, in the Ovid's banishment, a town of Lower words, 'clavi mensura coacta est.' Mosia, on the Euxine. Burinann.

106. temporis arma] cæpi 34. tribus...viris] Triumviri,' | tempori cedere, et necessitati parere, or boards of three commissioners, were ut virum fortem decet." Burmann. frequently appointed at Rome to dis- 108. occultum... polum] per charge various public offices.

occultum polum, Australem, per con39. Aoniæ Sorores) the Muses: spicuum vero, Septentrionalem intelligit, so called because they haunted Mount | Virgilius, G. I. 212: Helicon, in Baotia, one of the most

“Hic vertex nobis semper sublimis: at ancient tribes of which were the Aones.

illum 43, 44.“ Æmilius Macer, Veronen: Sub pedibus Styx atra videt, Manesque sis poeta, de herbis scripsit, et Orni.

profundi.” Burmann. thogoniam sive de avibus, item Theriaca." Harles.

113. quod] scil. carmen. 47. Ponticus wrote an heroic poem

119. Istroj alluding to the place on the Theban war. Bassus is not

of his exile, near the mouth of the mentioned by any other Roman autho- Danube. rity, unless he be the person familiarly

129. quum] is here adversative; addressed by Propertius, I. 4.

it means

although,” “ while.” 51, 52. The order of the words is :

130. ut moriar] “ though I were nec avara fata dedere Tibullo tempus

to die." amicitiæ meæ,” “time to form my friendship."

34. THE BANISHMENT OF OVID. 55, 56. majores] “my predeces

Ovid in this passage pathetically mea Thaleia] a poetical varia- describes the scene at his home, when tion of "

the decree for his exile arrived. 63. placitura] “which would 1. imago] “the remembrance." bave pleased."

7. spatium] sub. temporis : “I 68. fabula] “scandal.”

had neither heart nor leisure,” etc. 80. matri, etc.] The meaning is: 8. m orâ] Ovid bad petitioned " I buried my mother next:” • Matri Augustus to pardon him, and bad long justa [funebria) tuli proxima.' been kept in suspense, when he was

88. foro] alluding to the fabulous suddenly ordered to quit Italy without tribunals of Minos, Æacus and Rhada- a day's delay. manthus. In the two following lines, 9. The construction is : non fuit the construction is errorem, non scelus, (cura legendæ] vestis aptæ profugo, caussam esse jussæ fugæ’[exile). opisve,' resources for the journey.”

94. miscuerat) i. e. had mingled In the preceding line, 'legendorum' is grey with black hair.

understood with 'servorum.' 95, 96. Pisæâ] The victors in the 16. unus et alter] one or two." Olympic games at Pisæ, in Elis, were Elsewhere he mentions Carus, Celsus, crowned with chaplets of wild olive. and Maximus among his loyal friends. Ten Olympiads=50 years, according 10. diversa] “at a distance."

17 sors.'

'my Muse."

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Compare Virg. Æn. V. 166: "quo towards the East; a sign that the diversas abis ?" Ovid's daughter, Pe- dawn was at hand. Callisto, a nymph, rilla, had gone to Africa with her hus- daughter of Lycaon, king of Arcadia, band. "Certior esse,'• certior fieri,' are whose capital was Parrhasia, was coinmon phrases for being informed.” | transformed into a bear by Juno, and

23. femina virque] poetical sin- changed into a constellation by Jupiter. gulars for plurals.

53. “He often pretended, when they pueri] “servants."

would have hiin make haste, that he 25. in parvo] “in a little matter." had fixed in his own mind upon a par29. ab hâc] “ by her light.” ticular hour, as being most propitious

30). frustra) is thus explained by for departure. But this was only an Burmann: " quia mihi non profu- excnse for delay.” Macleane. erunt, quum (though) præsentia numi- 57. Vale dicto] “after saying, num, templa habitantium, vicinos Farewell.” quoque tueri debuisset."

59. me fefelli] i. e. mei ipsius 31. Compare Manlius' invocation of oblitus sum. Harles. the Gods on the Capitoline hill : “ Ju- 62. utraque... mora] i. e. reluctpiter Optime Maxiine, Junoque Re- ance either to leave Rome, or to go to gina, ac Minerva, ceterique Dii, Deæ- Scythia. que, qui Capitolium arcemque inco- 66. These â fide] alluding to the litis : " Liv. VI, 10.

strong friendship of Theseus for Piri32. jam] “henceforth,” like the thous. Greek 18n. 35. clipeum sumo] a proverb

35. THE IONIAN SEA. for taking precautions too late. Description of a storm encountered by

37. cælesti viro] as well as Ovid on his voyage to Tomi. deo,' 40, refers to Augustus. He 1. custos Erymanthidos distinguishes 'culpa,' an error,” from Ursæ] There was a mountain in 'scelus,' “a crime.”

Arcadia named Erymanthus, and 42. medios sonos] "half-uttered ' Erymanthis, Ursa' equivalent to words:” an expression similar to " the Arcadian Bear :" so called in 'verba imperfecta,' verse 69, below. allusion to the conversion of Callisto,

43, 44. Perilla—Ovid's wife- pros- daughter of an Arcadian king, into a trates herself before the images of the bear. The “guardian” is the Little Lares, and prays to them, kissing the Bear, called Arctophylax and Arcturus fireplace, in which the fire was now by the Greeks. Arcturus, who sets extinguished, because the master of on the 11th of December, says of himthe house was leaving it.

self in Plautus, Rud. Prol. 71, “Vehe45. a versos] Compare Hor. Od. mens sum exoriens; cum occido, veheIII. 23:“ Mollibit aversos Penates." mentior." præcipitata]

4. metu] he was obliged to brave setting of night." “ This means that the storm for fear of the wrath of the night was coming to an end. Augustus. Night falling with us means night 5. ine miser um !] “ wretched coming on, because the shadows appear man that I am!” This is elliptical, to fall upon the earth. The ancient as all exclamations are, because they poets represented night as declining represent sudden emotions. down the western sky as the light me miserum," " look at me, poor came up from the eastern." Macleane. wretch,” would be a complete sentence.

" the

48. The constellation of the Bear Macleane. was turned away from the pule, 8. pictos deos] Images of the

47. nox

- Ecce

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weary life.”

gods were placed at the stern of the merely a new form of the elegy. It is ship: Statius speaks of the “ingentes a passionate soliloquy, in which the in puppe dei,” and Æschylus alludes mind gives vent to the distresses and to them, S.c. T. 204.

emotions under which it labours; but 9. texta] "timbers.”

the epistolary form gives it a propriety, 10. adgemit] groans in sym- interest, and animation, of which the pathy with."

elegy, or even a well-conducted solilo15. cervicis rigidæ fræna] quy in tragedy, is scarcely susceptible.” " the reins of its stubborn neck," Ariadne was a daughter of Minos means, the reins which should turn its and Pasiphaë. When Theseus was sent neck, which however is too stubborn to by his father to convey the tribute of be turned. Macleane.

the Athenians to Minotaurus, Ariadne 16. In the word 'aurigam,' used in fell in love with him, and gave him the the sense of captain,' the metaphor string by means of which he found his commenced in the preceding lines is way out of the labyrinth, and which she sustained.

herself had received from Hephæstus. 18. jam] “ henceforward.”

Theseus in return promised to marry 22. deo) the poet means Augustus, her, and she accordingly left Crete with to whom ‘Jovem,' verse 26, below, also him; but when they arrived at the Isle applies.

of Dia (Naxos], he faithlessly deserted 27. 28. “ Steal from death my her, at the command of Bacchus.

“ The story of Ariadne seems to periit] “is dead," i.e. politically, have been a favorite with Ovid. It is as an exile.

beautifully related in the first book

of the Art of Love; in the third of 36. A COMPARISON BETWEEN

the Fasti, where the heroine deplores

the double desertion of Theseus and ULYSSES AND OVID.

Bacchus ; and in the eighth of the 1. Pro duce Neritio] " instead Metamorphoses, where the melancholy of the Ithacan chief:" i. e. Ulysses, so part of the story is recalled to notice, called froin Neritus, a mountain in in order to introduce the transformation Ithaca, thus alluded to by Virgil, of her Crown into a star.” Dunlop, “Neritos ardua saxis,” Æn. III. 271. vol. III.


385. 4. Dulichium is reckoned by Strabo 2. "I could not have been entrusted among the Echinădes: and is frequent to any wild beast less safely than to ly mentioned in the Odyssey as one of you.” The indicative, eram,' is often the group of isles subject to Ulysses; used in conditional expressions, where as in Od. I. 225; IX. 24.

the subjunctive might have been ex20. diva] i. e. Minerva.

pected, to give liveliness or brevity to 22. Jovis refers to Augustus: so the style; e. g. Liv. II. 10: ‘pons subalso · læsi Dei,' verse 28.

licius iter pæne hostibus dedit, ni unus

vir fuisset.' Hor. Od. II. 17, 27: 37. ARIADNE TO THESEUS.

“Me truncus illapsus cerebro Sustu

lerat, nisi Faunus ictum Dextrâ leDunlop, History of Roman Lit. vol. vâsset.” See Macleane ad l. c. and III. p. 380, speaking of the Epistles Prof. Conington on Virg. G. II. 133: of Ovid, remarks: “Ovid* claims for “et si non alium late jactaret odorem, himself the invention of this species Laurus erat." of composition, though it is, in fact, 3. litore] i.e. the shore of Naxos. * Ars Am. III. 346 :

9. Incertum vigilans]


“ Ignotum hoc aliis ille novavit opus."


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