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36. nebulæ] "scum," which settles | gate.”* The Roman gates had a bust on the surface of new wine, when set of Janus on either side the arch, with to clear itself. The Greeks call it the a pathway ou either side, the one for ävdos olvov, whence Ovid perhaps egress, the other for ingress. borrowed its fanciful connection with 13. tetigere] “ reached.” the goddess of flowers.

15. loco] “ at a convenient spot." *Locus' sometimes has a pregnant sense,

equivalent to kaipós, or locus oppor26. THE FABII. Cf. Livy II. 48-50.

tunus,' as in Hor. Epist. I. 7, 57 : “ pro1. Idibus] The · Faunalia,' or fes- perare loco.” tival of Faunus, was celebrated on the 22. arma

parant] Ides of February, and also on the Nones “they," i. e. the Tuscans, of December, Hor. Od. III. 18. surprise." Compare 'cæcum vallum,'

2. insula] The island in the Tiber Cæs. B. C. I. 28, “ a covered palisade;" contained the temple of Faunus, which cæcum vulnus,' Lucret. IV. 1116, was built by the Ædiles with the funds a concealed wound:” also “ a wound arising from fires, and consecrated in the back," because such wounds A.U.C. 509. By adding ubi rumpit are concealed, Virg. Æn. IX. 733; aquas,' the poet shows that the end of cæca domus,' Cic. Orat. 67, “ a house the island is meant, where it first without windows,” cæcum crimen,' meets the rrent. Paley.

Liv. 45, 31," an uncertain charge.” 3,4. Niebuhr (R. H. II. 192) thinks 23. ultima] sub. spatia. that the Fabian clan, disgusted by the 27. Compare Virg. Æn. II. 304, obstinate refusal of their brother where the same image is employed. Patricians to grant the just claims of 32. alter] i. e. they had no fear the commonalty, retired with their of ambush. clients, and a part of the Commons, and 37. Construe' pauci' with “fortes:' founded a colony on the bariks of the with ‘millia'sub. • hoininum.' Creměra, in Etruria. They left Rome 39. Laurentum

town of on the Ides of February, A.U.c. 275, Latium, famous for wild boars; whence and were cut off by the Tuscans on the Bentley reads 'Laurens aper,' in Hor. 18th of the following Quinctilis (July 1. Ep. V. 28, for the commonplace .curOvid poetically blends the two dates in rens aper.'

45. Herculeæ] The Fabian clan The number of the Fabii is always claimed descent from Hercules through given, as in the text, as 306.

Evander. 5. One clan had taken upon itself 46. consuluisse ut] “ provided to represent the resources and respon- that." sibilities of the whole State. So Livy 48. Niebuhr, ut supra, shows that says: "familia una subiit civitatis onus.” | the Fabius who remained at Rome

6. gentiles manus] “the hands must have been a grown man at this of a single clan.” The gens Fabia was time. He thinks he stayed belind, one of the clans [gentes), of which because he differed from his family in the Patrician order at Rome was com- politics. posed.

professa] "volunteered : " line 5 * The translator in “ Bohn” absurdly explains this epithet.

renders this line: “The nearest path is by 7. miles generosus] “the high- gate ;” as if it could make any difference,

the right hand postal of the Carmental born soldiery.”

as to the contiguity of a spot several miles 9. “ There is a pathway close to

from Rome, whether the Fabii passed the right-hand Janus of the Carmental through the right or the left passage of the



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49. The celebrated Fabius Maximus speaks of the oxen as “caudâ in spelunCunctātor. Cf. Virg. Æn. VI. 846. cam tractos, versisque viarum Indiciis Both Ovid and Virgil have borrowed raptos.” Æn. VIII. 210. Cf. Propert. almost literally from the well-known v. 9, 12. lines of Ennius, preserved by Cicero, 15. pro corpore]." in proportion Off. I. 24: Unus homo nobis cunc- to his bulk,” κατά το σώμα. tando restituit rem.'

19. oras“ human faces."

21. servatâ male] “having been 27. Cacus.

ill-kept: ”i. e. lost. Paley says: “ the At the period when Hercules, as he sense is, Hercules was going away minus was driving the oxen of Geryon from his two bulls, when the bellowing of the the isle of Erytheia, visited Italy, lost animals to the herd as it passed Evander, an exile from Arcadia, ruled the cave aroused his attention. Accipio over a part of the country. The neigh- revocamen, like the Greek Séxoual bourhood in which he lived had long been tov oiwvdv, said when any one acts on devastated by Cacus, whom Ovid here a hint dropped or an expression used, describes as a fearful giant, who made which can be interpreted as an omen.' himself the terror of the land by his 22. furta] “the stolen robberies and murders. In the eighth 25. ille] i. e. Cacus. Æneid, 190 seqq., Evander tells Æneas 26. juga bis quinque] ten much the same story about Cacus as that pair of oxen.” related here by Ovid, who probably had 27. hic] scil. Hercules. Virgil's lines in view, and also the ninth cælum, etc.] Hercules was fabled to elegy of the fifth book of Propertius. have taken for a while the place of

1, 2. exsul] Evander. The next | Atlas, who supported heaven on his line was probably suggested to Ovid by shoulders: Ovid, Her. IX. 17. the horrors of his own place of exile. 31. collata] “ conflicting.”

4. Arcade] “the Arcadian:" i. e. 33. patrias] Vulcan the Evander.

father of Cacus. 5. Erytheïdas] “of Erytheia.” male fortis] “brave to little purThe tenth task of Hercules was to pose.” bring the oxen of Geryon from the isle 35. Typhoë a] Typhæus, a giant, of Erytheia to Eurystheus. Erytheia imprisoned under Mount Ætna in Sicily. was on the south-west coast of Spain. 37. occupat] “closes with him,"

applicat] “lands." 'Applico' is i. e. anticipates the blow before harm properly used of bringing a ship to land: can be inflicted. Cf. Propert. V. 4, 84. as in Propert. I. 20, 20:

“ Nec mora : vocales occupat ense “Mysorum scopulis applicuisse ratem." canes.” It is nearly the Greek poávelv,

7. domus Tegeæa] i.e. the house or kryxávelv. Paley. of Evander, who came from Tegea, in Alcides] A name of Hercules, Arcadia, * Huic, in this line, and from his paternal grandfather Alceus. 'heros,' line 5, of course refer to Her- adducta] “drawn towards him: ” cules.

as in the act of striking. In'trinodis 'we 9. Tirynthius] Tiryns was a have a poetical definite for an indefinite. town of Argolis, in which Hercules was 39. ter quater] "three or four educated.

times." 12. aversos] Cacus had dragged them “by the tail” into the cavern, in

28. THE IMMORTAL GLORY OF order that it might seem,

Poetry. marks of their hoofs, that they had 3. The construction is [quid objicis] come out of the cavern. Virgil also me non sequi, etc.

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1, 58.

6. Ovid was desired by his father 31. 'Quum,' when used adversatively, in early life to attach himself to the i. e. to express a kind of comparison calling of a lawyer, but his poetical between two propositions, takes a subtastes revolted against the profession. junctive.

7. mortale, etc.) Ovid here ad- patientis] “enduring." dresses his slanderer, telling him that 37. myrtum] the myrtle was sahis work is perishable.

cred to Venus: and amorous subjects 9, 11. Mæonides] Homer: so called are Orid's favourite theme. from Mæonia, reputed by some to have been bis native country.

29. THE SAME SUBJECT, TREATED Ascræus] Hesiod, the Greek poet

BY PROPERTIUS. of agriculture, born at Ascra in Baotia. 1, 2. Propertius, representing him

13. Battiades] Callimăchus, the self as a priest of the Muses ["MusaAlexandrine poet, who belonged to the rum sacerdos,' Hor. Od. III. 1, 3] celebrated family of the Battiadæ of invokes the shades of Callimachus (see Cyrēne. He flourished about 260 B.C. Ovid 28, note 13], and the sacred rites Ovid's opinion that he showed more art of Philētas of Cos, an elegiac poet of than genius can only be justified as a celebrity, whom Propertius elsewhere criticism of his hymns: his epigrams says he imitated in preference even to are among the cleverest in the Greek Callimachus. Anthology, and his elegies were much 3, 4. Paley thinks ingredior' refers admired, as we know from Quintil. X. to nemus:' and that "ferre' is one of

those final infinitives, which are more 15. cothurno] See note on Ovid Greek than Latin. Dr. Kennedy, with 9, 3.

Hertzberg, refers “per,' which is else1-19. Aratus was a Greek poet, where also used by Propertius for of Soli, in Cilicia, author of an astro-inter,' to Itala:' so that the line would nomical poem, which Cicero translated construe thus: “ferre Graios choros per into Latin verse. Alexander was an Itala orgia,' “ to introduce Greek choirs eminent poet of the new Attic comedy, into Italian festivals," i. e. to represent copied by Plautus and Terence in Latin; Greek poetry in Latin measures. The Ennius and Accius, old Roman poets: metaphor commenced in sacra' is evi'animosi oris' is the descriptive geni- dently sustained in 'orgia’and 'choros.' tive (genitivus qualitatis]. See Kenn. 5-9. The poet says

there will be L. G. p. 99, § 132.

many bards to sing the military glories 21, 22. P. Terentius Varro, sur- of Rome; I therefore prefer to follow named Atacīnus, from the river Atax, a new track, and to write for the amusein Gallia Narbonensis, his native coun- ment of my countrymen in times of try, born B.C. 82, author of the Argo- peace:" 'tuas laudes,’i. e. 'bellicas virnautics.

tutes,' is opposed to‘pace,' and 'multi' primam ratem] the Argo. to intactâ viâ. In the words ‘Bactra

Æsonio duci] Jason, son of Æson. futura’ Propertius alludes to the expe. See Myth. Dict.

dition against the Parthians undertaken 25. “Tityrus' refers to Virgil's Bu- B.C. 20. Paley. colics: •fruges' to his Georgics.

9. Propertius, III. 26, 44, similarly 29. Gallus, a Roinan poet, addressed opposes “mollis,’ as representing elegiac by Virgil in his tenth Eclogue, author or amatory poetry, to *durus,' as repreof four books of elegies, in honour of bis senting heroic lays. mistress Lycoris. He was afterwards Pegasides ]=Musæ, from their prefect of Egypt, to which there is, steed Pegasus. “Non faciet' corresponds perhaps, a covert allusion in • Eoïs.' to the English idiom,“ will not do for, "

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11, 12. An ellipse must be men- 46. Elei] at Elis, in Peloponnese. tally supplied. '[It is true that de- 47. Mausolei] The tomb of tractors are never wanting, when a poet Mausālus, king of Caria, erected by his attempts a new and unbeaten track ;] surviving queen, Artemisia, at Halicaryet,' etc. Paley.

nassus, B.C. 353, was celebrated as one of 13. The meaning is: 'When poems the seven wonders of the world.' Paley. become old, they are always more valued 51. ab ævo] “The preposition is than when new. Paley.

added because "excidet" is equivalent to 15, 16. pulsas] “stormed.” “exstinguetur," and "ævum” is regarded

Hæmonio viro] Achilles, against as the agent rather than the instrument.' whom the rivers Scamander and Simois Paley. See L. E. p. 70. Rule II. fight in Homer's Iliad.

17. Propertius here confounds the Mount Ida of Crete, fabled as the 30. ON THE DEATH OF TIBULLUS. birthplace of Jove, with the Ida of Troas. 1. mater] Aurora. The dew

22. bis capta) primum ab drops of the morn were poetically Hercule ipso, sub Laomedonte, qui ei fabled to be the tears of Aurora for equos promissos denegârat, deinde sub | Memnon. Ovid, Met. XIII. 622.Priamo, ope sagittarum Herculis, quæ Tbetis was the mother of Achilles. Philoctetæ obtigerant.” Kuinoel. 3. indignos] “innocent,” lit. un

Etæi dei.] refers to Hercules, worthy to mourn : becanse the death whose funeral pyre was lit on Mount Eta. of Tibullus was premature.

28. Lycio deo] Apollo, “qui 4. ex vero] He alludes to the Lyciæ tenet Dumeta natalemque sil- derivation of Elegeïa from éreyos, vam,” Hor. Od. III. 4, 62. In vota “lamentation.” probante,' Barth detects an allusion to 5. tui vates operis] Id est the recent admission of the poems of Sacrorum tuorum antistes. [priest of Propertius into the Palatine Library. your rites]; ut opus' et operari'

30. sustinuisse) “to have arrest- proprie de sacris. Burmann, ed.” Cf. Orid, F. V. 660.

tua fama] “ the source of your 31. See Note on Ovid, 7, 10.

fame." Thebas agitata] driven 6. Tibullus wrote love-poetry: hence Thebes.

the son of Venus is represented as atper artem is opposed to per vim.' | tending his funeral with all the insig

34. rorantes] i. e. dripping from nia of mourning. the sea. Cf. Virg. B. VII. 37. Galatea 12. concutiente]

" convulsive." was a Nereid: she appears in the 6th and 13. fratris] Æneas was the bro11th Idyls of Theocritus as the love of ther of Cupid, as he was a son of Venus. Polyphemus.

sic]i.e. with these signs of mourning. 35. miremur] ought we to 16. juveni inguen]“ the youth's wonder ?'

thigh." Adonis is alluded to. It is 37. Quod] “As for the fact that,” etc. remarkable that, when an action is

39, 40. Phæacas] Alluding to the done to part of the body, the party sufgardens of Alcinous, the happy ruler tering is signified by the dative, in of the Phæacians, in the isle of Scheria, Latin, whereas the English language as described by Homer, Od. VI.: “ Nor prefers a possessive pronoun or a posdoes the stream of the Marcian aqnæsessive case ; e. g. "tuo viro oculi duct water artificial grottoes.” The dolent,” Ter.," your husband's eyes are water of this aqræduct, constructed | weak.” B.C. 144, was highly esteemed for 17. At] is used in stating an its clearness.

ohjection : " yet," " nevertheless."

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18.qui...putent] The subjunctive patron Messāla to that island, which is used because 'qui' is here equivalent Ovid styles 'Phæacia tellus,' from its to 'tales ut :' "so constituted as to old settlers having been reputed to be think.” If putant' had been used, Pbæacians, and had been very ill while sunt qui' must have been taken as there. equivalent to 'nonnulli,' as in Hor. Od. 49. hinc] from Rome: consistently I. 1, 1 ; and in verse 44, below. See with the prayer uttered by Tibullus, Donaldson's Lat. Gram. p. 353. Key's when ill at Corcyra: Lat. Gram. S$ 1190, 1191.

Abstineas, Mors atra, manus ; non 21. pater] Apollo.

hic mihi mater, Ismario] equivalent to “Thracian."

Quæ legat in teneros ossa perusta mater] Calliope.

sinus." I. 3, 5. 23. Ælinon) i. e. “Ab, Linus!” Linus, the brother of Orpheus, was

50. It was usual for the mourners killed by Hercules.

to throw flowers and locks of hair on invita] signifies the harp's re- the body while burning. luctance to play, through sorrow for 51. in partem doloris] to its master's death.

share her sorrow." 26. “ Pierian streams” is an equiva- 53. prior] scil. Delia. lent for "poetical inspiration;" Pieria, 57. Delia had said, that Tibullus' a tract of country between Macedonia love for herself was happier than his and Thessaly, was the fabled land of love for Nemesis : because, as long as he the Muses.

loved her, he lived: whereas, during his 29. “ The legend of Trojan suffer- liaison with Nemesis, he died. Nemesis ing, the theme of bards, lives.” replies : “ What do you say? My loss

30. retexta] “unwoven:" alluding ought to grieve you.” She means the to the stratagem by which Penelope “ loss” sustained by her in Tibullus' deceived her suitors.

death; his affection for herself she goes 31. Nemesis and Delia were mis-on to prove by citing one of his most tresses of Tibullus.

pathetic lines, which she describes as 34. Nemesis and Delia had been addressed to her: * wont to sacrifice to Isis, an Egyptian “ Te teneam moriens deficiente manu.goddess, popular at Roine. The sistra'

Dolori' is the dative “ of the purwere instruments which were shaken in her rites: Tibull. I. 3, 23 seqq.

pose:” see note on Phædr. VIII. 2. 35. ignoscite fasso]

61. Ivy was sacred to Bacchus :

forgive whose worship is often associated with the confession." 37. Vive...pius]." live religi; IV. 2, 7.

that of Apollo. See Paley on Propert. ously: yet, though religious, you will

64. Gallus — a distinguished poet, die."

about whom see Ovid, 28, 29, above 44. potuissent] sub. 'flammæ

was at one tiine high in favour with rogales.' 45. Eryx] A mountain in Sicily, his patron, the nature whereof is not

Augustus; but for some offence against now called Monte S. Giuliano, on whose known, he was banished from Rome, summit stood a celebrated temple of and in his grief he destroyed himself. Venus, hence called Erycīna: Hor. Ovið here says: if the charge of having Od. I. 2, 33.

wronged his friend was false, he was 46. See note on verse 18, above.

too lavish of bis blood and life. 47. The sense is: It is some comfort that he died at Rome, not at Cor.

* They occur in Tibull. I. 1, 60, where cyra. Tibullus had accompanied his they are addressed to Delia.

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