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que urbem, condidere,' " midway be- 21. ON THE DEATH OF A PARROT. tween Corinth and Athens.”

19. premerem) scil. pede. This line 2. occidit] present perfect : " is is quoted in proof of the slight regard dead.” evinced by the Romans for the magnifi. exsequias] in prose we should cent sceneryof “ those palaces of Nature," have had ' ad exsequias.' the Alps. Humboldt says :

“ No de

frequenter) "in flocks.” scription of the eternal snows of the 5. horrida] “ stiff," i. e. neglected Alps, when tinged in the morning or through grief. evening with a rosy hue, of the beauty pro] " instead of mourning locks :" of the blue glacier ice, or of any part of which it was customary for women to the grandeur of the scenery of Switzer. cut off, and throw on the funeral pile. land, have reached us from the ancients, lanietur]

The third person altho'statesmen and generals, with singular and plural and first plural men of letters in their train, were con- of the present subjunctive are given in stantly passing through Helvetia into the grammars as parts of the imperaGaul. All these travellers think only tive mood. They belong only to the of complaining of the difficulties of the subjunctive. The use of this mood as way ; the romantic character of the an imperative is due to an ellipsis of scenery never seems to have engaged another verb." Key's Lat. Gram. their attention.

Silius § 1167. • Lanietur' is equivalent to Italicus, who lived under Trajan, when jubeo lanietur,' "I bid that it be Switzerland was already in a great torn." measure cultivated, describes the dis- 6. tuba] This instrument was used trict of the Alps merely as an awful at Roman funerals. and barren wilderness ; altho' he else- 7. Ismarii) i. e. Thracian, from where loves to dwell in verse on the Mt. Ismărus in Thrace. See note on rocky ravines of Italy, and the wood- Ovid, 2, 5. fringed banks of the Liris.” Cosmos, tyranni] scil. Tereus. vol. II. p. 24.

8. “That complaint of yours has 25. Draining and artificial irrigation filled up the measure of its years:" were well understood in ancient Italy. i. e. Philomela has complained long See Sieb. R. H. vol. I. p. 131. enough of the crime of Tereus, and

29. virides] Because they paint should now go and mourn at the parrot's ed themselves with woad, as Cæsar funeral. 'Iste' is compounded of 'is' (Bell. G. v. 14) says : ' Omnes se Brit. and 'tu,' and means “ that of yours:" anni vitro inficiunt, quod cæruleum it is the demonstrative pronoun of the efficit colorem, atque boc horridiore 2nd person. Macleane. sunt in pugnâ adspectu. Propert. 10. antiqui] " antiquated,” “ob(Eleg. II. 14) calls them 'infecti, in solete.” Divertite' is addressed to allusion to this custom.

Procne and Philomela, the swallow and 30. The rocks of Caucasus, where the nightingale. the eagle feasted on the liver of 12. The turtle dove has been reared Prometheus.

with the parrot. 31. The vine was often trained to 15. Phocë us] Pylădes, the son the elm, as its support. Catullus (62, of Strophius, king of Phocis. 49) draws a pretty comparison between 17. quid] sub. juvit? the rine,without the elm's support, and rari coloris] is the descriptive a maiden, without a husband's support. genitive, or genitive of quality.

40. admissas] See note on Ovid, 19. ut datus es] 10, 2.

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puellæ] Corinna, Ovid's mistress. 41. Phylacidæ] Protesilaus, of 21. smaragdos) The final e in Phylăce, in Thessaly. • hebetare' is shortened by poetic 45. septima] the seventh day license; this license is more tolerable in since the parrot fell sick. a Greek word, like 'smaragdus,' or a 46. vacuâ] All the thread of the proper name, as in Virgil's 'nemorosa parrot's life had been spun out. Zacynthus. Ovid perpetrates a more 51. si qua fides dubiis] " if we daring license in the line, Her. V. 26, may trust such doubtful tales.” 'Est in quâ nostri literă scripta memor.'

52. obscenæ] “of ill-omen.” Cf.

Virg. Æn. III. 241, 262. 24. bene] "prettily:" in a more 55. Junonia] the peacock. literal sense, bene' would contradict 58. “ Attracts the birds to its own blæso sono,' “ lisping accents." accents:" i. e. causes them to admire

25. invidiâ] through envy” of itself. your happy lot.

59. pro corpore] “ in proportion 28. inde] “for that reason : i.e. to his body." from their very pugnaciousness. 60. par sibi] “as short as it

29. Ora] is the accusative of refe- self;” i. e. as the stone. rence after 'vacare:' lit. it means, “to 62. plus ave] “ beyond a bird.” have leisure as to your palate :" idio. The usual prose construction is ‘plus matically: "nor could your mouth find quam avis.' leisure for much food, owing to your love of talking.” See L. E. p. 26, Rule

22. THE CAPTURE OF GABII BY XI.; Kenn. Lat. Gram. p. 93, § 117.

TREACHERY. 33. aëra] the Greek accusative, “ This story of Sextus Tarquinius αέρα.

and the people of Gabii, a city twelve 34. auctor]=nuntius, “ the he- miles from Rome, with whom it had rald:" Burmann. Compare “lucis long been engaged in war," says Nieprænuntius ales," Fast. II. 767. Horace buhr, Vol. I. p. 512, " is patched up calls the crow “Imbrium divina avis from two well-known ones in Herodotus, imıninentům," Od. III. 17, 12; and III. 154, V. 92, without any novel in“aquæ augur," III. 27, 10.

vention.” It is also related by Livy, 35. cornix invisa Minerva] I. 53. The crow forfeited Minerva's favour in 1. gentis] depends on 'regna:' the following manner: the goddess had “ Tarquin was enjoying the last reign sbut up Erichthonius, a son of Vulcan, over the Roman peuple.” in a chest, and delivered it to the three namque] This explains the 'turdaughters of Cecrops to keep, with orders pis ars. Sextus, the youngest son of not to open it. This, however, they did : L. Tarquinius Superbus, is called and the crow, who saw them, told proles manifesta,' because he showed Minerva: when the goddess, instead of by his deeds, viz. by this affair of the rewarding the bird, cast her off for her capture of Gabii, and the subsequent officiousness. Ovid, Met. II. 551, seqq. tragedy of Lucretia, that he was one Macleane.

‘nomine quem simili vita superba notat,' 37. imago] the echo:" as in himself a second Superbus. Paley. Horace, Od. I. 20: redderet laudes 7. nud â rant] "had drawn." tibi Vaticani Montis imago," “ the 8. hoc cupiant] Virgil (Æn. II. sportive echo of the Vatican hill.” 104) puts a parallel expression into the

40. “Inferior things fill up the num- mouth of Sinon, who facilitates the ber of their days;" i. e. live out their capture of Troy by the Greeks through full time.

a similar piece of treachery: “Hoc Ith




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acus velit et magno mercentur Atridæ.” | The cradle in which the children were

13. tueatur] " that he would un- came ashore, when she-wolf carried dertake the war in concert with them." them into her den and suckled them, Paley.

and the woodpecker (picus), a bird 14. ignaris] “ignorant” of his sacred to Mars, brought them food. treachery.

1. inde moveri] “ to start from 15. potens] when invested with this point.” power. Livy (I. 54) says: “tantâ ca- 2. sacra] "the sacred vessels," ritate erat, ut non pater Tarquinius which it was the duty of the Vestals potentior Romæ, quam filius Gabiis to cleanse in the river Numicus.

3. molli] "easy." Cf. Virgil's 16. He asks what plan for betraying mollia crara reponit,' said of a horse Gabii his father has to propose to him. which steps with ease and grace. G.

17. suberat] “was close by.” III. 75.

18. sectas humum] the accus. 4. Then, as now, women carried of reference: see note on 21, 29 : their earthen pitchers (fictiles urnæ] “having the ground divided."

on their heads. Speaking of Amymone, 19. latentia] conveyed by the Ovid uses the expression, “ Cum prefriend without his being aware of their meret summi verticis urna coinas," true import. Paley.

Amor. I. 10, 6. 20. lilia summa] "the tops of 12. fefellit] “concealed.” the lilies:" intending under this image 13. gravis] “ pregnant." the leading men of Gabii.

14. viscera] "her womb." 24. nuda, etc.] “ deprived of their 17. imagine somni] "a vision own rightful rulers."

in sleep,” i.e. a dream. Thus, in Ho

race, Europa asks, 'An vitiis carentem 23. TAE DREAM OF ILIA :

THE Ludit imago Vana,'"a mocking vision?” BIRTH OF ROMULUS AND REMUS.

18. somno clarius] “too disThe legend which forms the subject tinct for sleep." of these lines may be stated as follows: 19. Iliacis] The Vestal fire was At Alba Longa a succession of kings brought from Troy by Æneas: Virg. had reigned: one of the last of whom Æn. II. 296. left two sons, Numitor and Amulius.

aderam] “I was attending to:” The latter deprived Numitor of the she, as a vestal, had the custody of the kingdom, but allowed him to live on sacred fire. his private means. Fearful, however, 20. decidit] This was ominous : that Numitor's heirs would not submit as the sacred fillet was removed by the so quietly to his usurpation, he caused pontifex from the head of a vestal conhis only son to be murdered, and made demned for a breach of her vow. Paley his daughter, Silvia, also called Ilia, appositely quotes Tibullus II. 5, 53: one of the Vestal Virgins. As Silvia one day went into the sacred grove, to

“ Te quoque jam video, Marti placitura

sacerdos, draw water for the service of the god

Ilia, Vestales deseruisse focos; dess, a wolf met her, and she fled into a cave for safety; there Mars over

Concubitusque tuos furtiin, vittaspowered her, and consoled her with the que jacentes." promise that she should become the 21, 22. inde] probably means mother of heroic children. She gave “ from the ground," on which the fillet birth to twins, Romulus and Remus. had fallen. Amulius doomed the guilty Vestal and palmæ] emblems of triumph her babes to be drowned in the river. / representing Romulus and Remus


the larger palm (major) of course crocum floresque perambulet Attæ Fatypified Romulus.

bula, si dubitem;" i. e. “Stalks over 24. com a] a poetical equivalent floors fragrant with perfume and for fronde.' So Sophocles represents flowers.” The epithet rubro' is paa storm as πάσαν αικίζων φόβην ύλης | ralleled by the Virgilian crocumque trediados, “ tearing all the tresses of rubentem,' G. IV. 182. Martyn rethe foliage on the plain,” Antig. 417. marks that the three divisions of the 25. patruus] Amulius.

style have the colour of fire. 26. micat] “palpitates,” “ beats.” 5, 6. A heap of leaves formed a

27. gemino stipite] A poetical natural, ' sine arte,' stage in those variation of "utraque palma' in the days: leaves gathered from the woody next line,

Palatine. Cf. the parallel picture in pugnat] the woodpecker brought Virg. Æn. VIII. 347, seqq. food to the infants, and the wolf suckled 8. hirsutas] Hairdressers first them; hence they appeared to “fight” appeared in Rome 300 B.C. for the twins whom Amulius wished to 9. respiciunt] i. e. the Romans. destroy.

10. movent] Cf. Virg. Æn. III. 34: 30. refert] See note on Phædr. X. 9. “Multa movens animo."

34. subiit] crept beneath.” 11. Tusco) Stage-players origiNothing terrified the Romans more nally came from Etruria to Rome : than the extinction of the Vestal fire; Liv. VII. 2. it was to them a sign, says Dionysius, 14. rex] Romulus. του αφανισμού της πόλεως.

signa prædæ petenda] The sig. 36. opes] scil. regnum.

nal to seize on their booty (the Sabine

women),which they had been told to look 24. THE RAPE OF THE SABINES.

out for; Anglicè,“ the appointed signal.” “ The people of Romulus wanted 15. animum] “ their intent.” wives, and the nations round about constitit] A term often applied to would not give them their daughters colour: as in Livy, 39, 34 : in marriage. So Romulus gave out perturbavit regem, ut non color, non that he was going to keep a great fes- vultus ei constaret." tival, and there were to be sports and 26. “ Their modesty alone [ipse] games to draw a multitude together, might have graced many of them. The neighbours, including a great Or the infinitive present [decere) after multitude of the Sabines, came to see 'potuit:' see L. E. p. 159, Rule IV.; the show, with their wives and daughi- Key's Lat. Gram., § 1257; and the ters; when, as they were looking at note on Ovid, 38, 5, below. the games, the people of Romulus 27. The construction is: 'negabat rushed out upon them, and carried off [se] comitem [fore].' the women to be their wives." Arnold 32. dederis] On this idiomatic use (R. H. vol. I. p. 7; Livy, I. 10) re- of the future, where in English we precounts the legend.

fer the present, see note on Ovid, 14, 8. 1. viduos] “unmarried.” 3. vela] “ awnings:” to keep off

25. FLORA. the heat; first introduced by Leotulus 1. Chloris] “ the name Chloris is Spinther.

akin to χλωρός,

green;' Flora is 4. croco] Saffron, mingled with related in the same way to Flos. water and wine, was employed to dif- Chloris and Flora are therefore kindred fuse a fragrant odour, in theatres and terms: but the latter is not, as the poet other places. Horace alludes to the says, actually derived from the furiner.” custom, Epist. II. 1, 79: "Recte necne Keightley.

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3. Nymphe] the Greek form of native of the principal sentence. Arnold. Nympha: used for the sake of prosody. 21. Therapnæo] i. e. from the

campi felicis) The “isles of the blood of Hyacinthus, a Spartan youth, blest” were not wholly imaginary, but beloved, and accidentally slain by they so called the beautiful group of Apollo, and turned into the flower of the Canary islands, which had early his own name: Metamorph. X. 162. become known to the Greeks by hear- Therapnæ was a town in Laconia, near say from Phænician navigators. The Sparta. "golden apples” of the Hesperides 22. querela] On the petals of the were of course the oranges which grew hyacinth * it was supposed that the there. Paley.

word aiai,' "alas,” could be traced. 4. rem) “ the abode.”

24. alter et alter] i. e. that he 5. vere fruor] Compare with this and his shadow were not different the splendid lines of Lucretius, V.736, persons. See Mythol. Dict. and Ovid, seqq.

4), below. “ Et rer et Venus, et Veneris prænun- 25. Crocon] Ovid elsewhere says tius ante

Crocus was metamorphosed into the Pennatus graditur Zephyrus, vestigia saffron flower which bears his name, by propter

Hermes. In Metamorph. X. 103, Flora quibus mater præspergens ante Cyběle changes Attis into a pine-tree. viai

Adonis, the son of Cinyras, was turned Cuncta coloribus egregiis etodoribus into an anemone : Metamorph. X. 728. opplet.”

27. coronis] The Romans used 7. dotalibus] “ dotal:" i. e. the flowers chiefly for making festive gardomains given her as her dowry. lands; and they do not seem to have

9. generoso flore] “the finest appreciated them, as we do, as beautiful flowers.” Cf. 'generosa uva,' Ovid, R. objects, or to have cultivated them A. 567; 'generosa pruna,' Met. XIII. much in gardens. Paley. 818. Paley remarks that this line is 29-33. Burmann has misunderstood full of peculiar beauty, as the Zephyr this passage. Flora says she is the -Flora's husband—was popularly sup- goddess of agriculture as well as of posed to wake the flowers. 'Flore' is horticulture: for the quality of the used for 'floribus,' poetically, like wheat crop depends on the budding

innumera ovis,'" countless flocks of [flowering) of the plant ; the quality sheep,” Tibull. II. 2, 42.

of the vintage on the blossoming 11. digestos numerare] to [flowering] of the vine; and so of olives arrange and count.” See L. E. p. 172, and apples. Rule II. 2.

eventum habent] “experience 12. numero major) beyond the result of this season :" i. e. prore enumeration."

by the amount of the crop whether the 14.comæ] See note on Ovid, 23, 24. blossoms have duly set in spririg. Paley,

15. Horæ] The Goddesses of the who compares Virg. G. IV. 142: Seasons, daughters of Jupiter and “Quotque in flore novo pomis se fertilis Themis. Hes. Theog. 900.

arbos 17. Charites] the Graces : see | Induerat, totidem auctumno matura Mythol. Dict.

ferebat." 19. prima...s parsi] “I was the 34. advena] “ foreign:" its source first who scattered.” To express 'the not being in Egypt. first person who did anything,' the Romans did not use a relative sentence,

• Not our hyacinth, but the Martagon,

or Turk's-cap Lily, the petals of which but made' primus'agree with the nomi- are pencilled by small black strokes.


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