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has scarcely any room to advance further.

3. pluris

more account."

sub. pretii: "are of

5. Paley says that the 'Casa Romuli' was kept up in its original state, or according to some traditional standard, till a late æra in the empire. See Virg. En. VIII. 658.

7. The temple was so low, that a full length statue of Jupiter could hardly be placed in it.

8. fictile] of clay; not of gold, as in Ovid's time. Even the four-horse chariot, which was placed in the Capibaked clay, manufactured in Etruria. toline temple, when first built, was of Nieb. R. H., I. 491. Paley thinks Ovid had in view the lines of Propertius, V.

"Fictilibus crevere Deis hæc aurea templa,

Nec fuit opprobrio facta sine arte

13, 14. Nonacrinâ] means Arca-1.5: dian: from Nonacris, an Arcadian fountain. Atalanta was desired by her father to marry: when she made it a condition that her suitors should contend with her in the footrace; he who outran her, was to be rewarded with her love those who failed, were to be put to death by her hand. Meilanion, by the aid of Aphrodite, overcame her: and became her husband.*

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9. The order is: Frondibus ornabant Capitolia, quæ nunc [ornant] gemmis.'

13. posito modo aratro] "just after laying aside the plough." Cf. Hor. Od. I. 12, 41, seqq. Prætor' was the ancient military title of the consul: Varro, L. L., v. 887. Cincinnatus is alluded to. 'Jura dare' means "to legislate": 'jus dare," "to decide causes." Paley.

14. Fabricius, when censor,,A.U.C. 478, excluded Rufinus from the senate, for having ten pounds' weight of wrought silver. Gellius, N. A., IV. 8.

18. quum] "although."

19-21. The order is: 'Certant quærere ut absumant, (et) requirere absumpta ;' they strive to gain, in order to consume: [and] to regain what they have consumed: and these very alternations [of getting and spending] feed the vices [of avarice and luxury].

21. Comparisons of avarice to the dropsy are common in the Roman poets. See Hor. Od. II. 2, 13, On 'ab unda' Paley says: "Ab is sometimes added

with neuter verbs, and even with active, when the cause rather than the instrument is implied." See note on Ovid 33, 16, below.

23. "Price, i. e. money, is now precious" a play on words: one of Ovid's favourite conceits: compare the passage in Fasti III. 116, where there is a pun between 'tenere signa," "to understand the celestial bodies," and the same words in the sense "to grasp the standards."

17. THE BIRTH OF THE NEW YEAR.
1. Jane] See Myth. Dict.
origo] Because the year began with
January: see above, Ovid 3, 9.

3. ducibus] He probably alludes to Tiberias and Germanicus, the latter of whom had gained a victory over the Catti and Cherusci, and other German tribes, A.U.C. 770.

5. Patribus] i. e. Senators.

concolor] The toga was white, and a festal day was metaphorically called a white day; and was marked by a white stone; whence Persius (II. 1), writing to his friend on his birthday, says: "Hunc diem numera meliore lapillo,

Qui tibi labentes apponit candidus annos."

Cf. Hor. S. II. 3, 246: "cretâ [white chalk] an carbone notandi" ~[scil dies?]

17, 18. fasces] The consuls, who were preceded by lictors carrying 'fasces,' the emblems of magistracy, entered on their office on this day.

purpura] i.e. the 'trabea' worn by the consuls on solemn occasions, Virg. Æn. VII. 612.

ebur] the curule chair, made of ivory. Virgil combines these two as badges of sovereignty in the speech of king Latinus, Æn. XI. 334: "Et sellam regni trabeamque insignia nostri." Paley.

6. templa] not the temple of Janus. the opening of which was the signal of war [Virg. En. VII. 611], but the temples in general. Paley remarks that Janus bore a key as a symbol, whence ' resera.' Candida'='marmorea:' it was said of Augustus, that he "lateri-μévois, Od. III. 17, 16. ciam [built of brick] invenit Romam, marmoream reliquit."

19. rudes operum] "unused to work," i. e. never yoked. 'Operum' after 'rudes' is a Græcism, like Horace's "famulis operum solutis," πóvov λeλv

=

7. linguisque... favete] = evonμeîre: "be holy in speech and thought." 'Favete linguis,' Hor. Od. III. 1,2: means, "keep holy silence:" see Macleane ad 1.

11. odoratis] Frankincense, cinnamon, saffron, etc., were burnt on the altars. Keightly.

12. spica cilis sa] the saffron from Mount Corycus in Cilicia.

sonet] "crackles:" this was considered a good omen. Paley compares Tibull. II. 5, 81.

13. aurum] i. e. the gilded roofs. 15, 16. intactis] "new." Tarpeias arces] i. e. the Capitol. It was the practice, ever since A.U.C. 601, for the consuls elect, followed by the people, to go in procession to the Capitol, and offer a sacrifice to Jupiter.

præbent ferienda] "lend their necks to the blow:" for the restiveness of a victim was accounted a bad omen. Tac. Hist. III. 56.

20. Falisca] The animals for sacrifice came chiefly from the domain of Falerii, in Etruria, near the Clitumnus. Keightley. The district was famous for a variety of white oxen. Paley.

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24. Digna coli a populo potente rerum, a nation master of the world." Cf. Virgil's "Romanos rerum dominos."

18. THE COMMANDS OF CUPID.

Ovid here intimates, that he would gladly have written heroics instead of elegiacs, but Cupid forbad him.

1. gravi] heroic.

2. materiâ, etc.] "the matter suiting the metre."

3. The lower verse was of equal

length to the upper one; i. e. they were both hexameters.

5. hoc...juris] "this privilege over poetry."

7-13. The poet asks, what would be the consequence if the various Deities usurped each other's functions?

8. ventilet] "fan."
faces] i.e. the torch of Love.
10. virginis] i. e. Diana.
15. quod ubique] sub. est.

19 "LOFTY TOWERS CRASH TO THE GROUND WITH A HEAVIER FALL."

Horace touches the same theme in the beautiful tenth ode of his second book. He and Ovid had doubtless been trained, by their vocation as Court Poets, to preach "the philosophy of Moderation." Under the sceptre of the Caesars, political ambition, and even social distinction, had become dangerous.

1. usibus] "by experience." edocto] "thoroughly taught :" e in composition signifies completeness. 2. magna] Cf. Horace : "Dulcis inexpertis cultura potentis amici: experti metuunt," Epist. I. 18, 86.

7. summâ undâ] "on the surface of the water." See L. E. p. 189, Rule III. 1.

8. simul]"together with itself." 9, 10. "If I had been warned of these truths" for the construction, see L. E. p. 20, Rule VII. After "debebam," sub. esse. Ovid alludes to his exile.

12. vagi] Ulysses, who was met by the shade of Elpenor, when he visited the lower world.

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17, 18. quid fuit] sub. caussa "what was the reason ?" "Agitarit' is used in the perfect tense, because an event, completed in past time, is signified signet' is used in the present, because the sea between the isles of Icaria and Patmos was still called Icarian, from the fall of Icarus, in Ovid's days.

19 hic] Icarus.

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1. tertia] Pliny also speaks of Sulmo as one of the three towns whose districts composed the territory of the Peligni.

Sulmo] 'O' at the end of a proper name, is common in prosody. Kenn. p. 132, § 211.

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2. ora] a region." Sulmo lay in the Valley of the Gizio, in a spacious basin formed by the junction of that river with several minor streams.

4. Icarus' dog discovered the place of its master's death, for which it was translated among the stars.

8. Pallada] i. e. the olive. Virgil's "oleæque Minerva Inventrix" (G. I. 18) explains the allusion.

rarus ager] "the light soil," most favourable to vines and olives, as opposed to 'spissus,'' densus ager.' See Prof. Conington on Virg. G. II. 275.

9, 10. The construction is: 'gramineusque cespes obumbrat humum madidam rivis labentibus per herbas resurgentes.'

11. ignis] i. e. Corinna.

13. medius, etc.] 'between Castor and Pollux.' The same construction occurs in Vell. I, 2: Peloponnesii

ille] Daedalus. Icarus flew too near Megăram, mediam Corintho Athenis

que urbem, condidere,' "midway between Corinth and Athens."

19. premerem] scil. pede. This line is quoted in proof of the slight regard evinced by the Romans for the magnificent scenery of "those palaces of Nature," the Alps. Humboldt says: "No description of the eternal snows of the Alps, when tinged in the morning or evening with a rosy hue, of the beauty of the blue glacier ice, or of any part of the grandeur of the scenery of Switzerland, have reached us from the ancients, altho' statesmen and generals, with men of letters in their train, were constantly passing through Helvetia into Gaul. All these travellers think only of complaining of the difficulties of the way; the romantic character of the scenery never seems to have engaged their attention.

Silius

Italicus, who lived under Trajan, when Switzerland was already in a great measure cultivated, describes the district of the Alps merely as an awful and barren wilderness; altho' he elsewhere loves to dwell in verse on the rocky ravines of Italy, and the woodfringed banks of the Liris." Cosmos, vol. II. p. 24.

25. Draining and artificial irrigation were well understood in ancient Italy. See Nieb. R. H. vol. I. p. 131.

29. virides] Because they painted themselves with woad, as Cæsar (Bell. G. v. 14) says: 'Omnes se Brit. anni vitro inficiunt, quod cæruleum efficit colorem, atque hoc horridiore sunt in pugnâ adspectu.' Propert. (Eleg. II. 14) calls them 'infecti,' in allusion to this custom.

30. The rocks of Caucasus, where the eagle feasted on the liver of Prometheus.

31. The vine was often trained to the elm, as its support. Catullus (62, 49) draws a pretty comparison between the vine,without the elm's support, and a maiden, without a husband's support. 40. admissas] See note on Ovid, 10, 2.

21. ON THE DEATH OF A PARROT.

2. occidit] present perfect : "is dead."

exsequias] in prose we should have had ad exsequias.' frequenter] "in flocks." 5. horrida] "stiff," i. e. neglected through grief.

pro] "instead of mourning locks :" which it was customary for women to cut off, and throw on the funeral pile. lanietur] "The third person singular and plural and first plural of the present subjunctive are given in the grammars as parts of the imperative mood. They belong only to the subjunctive. The use of this mood as an imperative is due to an ellipsis of another verb." Key's Lat. Gram.

1167. 'Lanietur' is equivalent to jubeo lanietur,' "I bid that it be torn."

6. tuba] This instrument was used at Roman funerals.

7. Ismarii] i. e. Thracian, from Mt. Ismărus in Thrace. See note on Ovid, 2, 5.

tyranni] scil. Tereus.

8. "That complaint of yours has filled up the measure of its years:" i. e. Philomela has complained long enough of the crime of Tereus, and should now go and mourn at the parrot's funeral. 'Iste' is compounded of 'is' and 'tu,' and means "that of yours:" it is the demonstrative pronoun of the 2nd person. Macleane.

10. antiqui] "antiquated," "obsolete. " 'Divertite' is addressed to Procne and Philomela, the swallow and the nightingale.

12. The turtle-dove has been reared with the parrot.

15. Phoceus] Pylades, the son of Strophius, king of Phocis.

17. quid] sub. juvit? rari coloris] is the descriptive genitive, or genitive of quality.

19. ut datus es] "since you were presented."

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puellæ] Corinna, Ovid's mistress.

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21. smaragdos] The final e in 'hebetare' is shortened by poetic license; this license is more tolerable in a Greek word, like smaragdus,' or a proper name, as in Virgil's 'nemorosa Zacynthus.' Ovid perpetrates a more daring license in the line, Her. V. 26, 'Est in quâ nostri literă scripta memor.'

24. bene] "prettily:" in a more literal sense, bene' would contradict 'blæso sono,'" lisping accents."

25. invidia] "through envy" of your happy lot.

28. inde] "for that reason:" i. e. from their very pugnaciousness.

"to

29. Ora] is the accusative of reference after 'vacare:' lit. it means, have leisure as to your palate:" idiomatically: "nor could your mouth find leisure for much food, owing to your love of talking." See L. E. p. 26, Rule XI.; Kenn. Lat. Gram. p. 93, § 117. 33. aëra] the Greek accusative, ἀέρα.

34. auctor] nuntius, "the herald:" Burmann. Compare "lucis prænuntius ales," Fast. II. 767. Horace calls the crow "Imbrium divina avis imminentum," Od. III. 17, 12; and aquæ augur," III. 27, 10.

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35. cornix invisa Minervæ] The crow forfeited Minerva's favour in the following manner: the goddess had shut up Erichthonius, a son of Vulcan, in a chest, and delivered it to the three daughters of Cecrops to keep, with orders not to open it. This, however, they did: and the crow, who saw them, told Minerva: when the goddess, instead of rewarding the bird, cast her off for her officiousness. Ovid, Met. II. 551, seqq. Macleane.

37. imago] "the echo:" as in Horace, Od. I. 20: "redderet laudes tibi Vaticani Montis imago," the sportive echo of the Vatican hill."

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40. "Inferior things fill up the number of their days;" i. e. live out their full time.

41. Phylacide] Protesilaus, of Phylace, in Thessaly.

45. septima] the seventh day since the parrot fell sick.

46. vacuâ] All the thread of the parrot's life had been spun out.

51. si qua fides dubiis] "if we may trust such doubtful tales." 52. obscœnæ] "of ill-omen." Cf. Virg. Æn. III. 241, 262.

55. Junonia] the peacock.

58. "Attracts the birds to its own accents:" i. e. causes them to admire itself.

59. pro corpore] "in proportion to his body."

60. par sibi] "as short as itself;" i. e. as the stone.

62. plus ave] "beyond a bird." The usual prose construction is 'plus quam avis.'

22. THE CAPTURE OF GABII BY
TREACHERY.

"This story of Sextus Tarquinius and the people of Gabii, a city twelve miles from Rome, with whom it had long been engaged in war," says Niebuhr, Vol. I. p. 512, "is patched up from two well-known ones in Herodotus, III. 154, V. 92, without any novel invention." It is also related by Livy, I. 53.

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1. gentis] depends on regna: "Tarquin was enjoying the last reign over the Roman people."

namque] This explains the 'turpis ars.' Sextus, the youngest son of L. Tarquinius Superbus, is called 'proles manifesta,' because he showed by his deeds, viz. by this affair of the capture of Gabii, and the subsequent tragedy of Lucretia, that he was one 'nomine quem simili vita superba notat,' himself a second Superbus. Paley. 7. nudârant] "had drawn."

8. hoc cupiant] Virgil (En. II. 104) puts a parallel expression into the mouth of Sinon, who facilitates the capture of Troy by the Greeks through a similar piece of treachery: "Hoc Ith

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