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driven from Rome by the triumph of called Scazon Iambics : i. e. sambics Sylla's partisans : during his flight, he with a spondee as the sixth foot, which was compelled to hide himself in the are said to limp, oxáselv, owing to the marshes of Minturnæ, 'Cannâ palus- heaviness of the spondee [spondeos tri.' Cf. Juv. Sat. X. 276.

stabiles, Hor.]. Horace (A. P.79) is a 14. The sense is : we can hardly good commentator on this passage : make sure even of the present hour. "Archilochum proprio rabies armavit

Iambo," etc. Cf. Hor. Od. I. 16.

8. levis amica] “ like a playful 8. IN HUMAN AFFAIRS BLESSINGS

This subject is treated by Horace,
Od. II. 9: “Non semper imbres,” etc.


1. The Sirens were fabulous beings, 9. THE VARIOUS KINDS OF POETRY. believed to have the power of enchant

ing anyone who listened to their songs. The drift of the passage is this: the different kinds of poetry require soever swift.” Cf. Cæs. B. G. i. 22:

2. quamlibet admissas) “howcongenial metres and styles of expres. Considius admisso equo ad eum accursion. Thus, Hexameter verse is most rit,' “ rides up to him at full speed.” appropriate to Epic poetry ; elevation

3-5. Sisyphides] means Ulysses, and passion belong to Tragedy; the whom scandal asserted to be a son of familiar language of ordinary life Sisýphus. In 'sua corpora,' the plural [usus medii] is naturally the lan. is used poetically for the singular. guage of Comedy; Iambics are the


" unbound." favourite metre of personal invective: When Ulysses approached the isle on Elegiacs of love.

the beach of which the Sirens were sit1. Mæonio pede] “in Homeric ting, and trying to allure him and his measure,” i. e. in heroic verse. Mæonia friends, he stuffed the ears of his was an ancient name for Lydia: a pro- companions with wax, to prevent them vince of Asia Minor, in which Homer is from listening, and tied himself to the supposed to have been born.

mast, till he was beyond their reach. 2. deliciis] “for prettinesses,"

6. Rhodopeïus] from Rhodope, "pleasantries."

a mountain in Thrace. Cf. Virg. G. 3-5. The cothurnus was a high- IV. 461. heeled buskin worn by tragic actors: 6. Canem] Cerberus: whom Virthe soccus,' or slipper, was worn by gil, among other poets, stations at the comedians. • Usibus e mediis,'" from entrance of Tartarus: see Æn. VI. 417. ordinary customs," i. e. “ from common

7. Vindex...matris] Amphion life.” The well-known lines of Horace killed Lycus and Dirce, who had ill(A. P. 89) illustrate the text:

treated his mother Antiope. It is said “ Versibus exponi tragicis res comica that, when he played his lyre, the non vult :

stones spontaneously fitted themselves Indignatur item privatis ac prope into the walls of Thebes:

“ Dictus et Ainphion,” says Horace, Dignis carminibus narrari coena Thy-“ Thebanæ conditor arcis, Saxa movere tæ.”

sono testudinis, et prece blandâ Ducere, 5–7. stringatur] " let it be quo vellet.” A. P. 394. drawn," i. e. as a sword, " whether it 10. piscis] the dolphin, who, debe the quick lambic measure, or drag lighted with Arion's music, saved him the last foot: ” ailuding to what are from drowning.


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11. WINTER IN THE NORTH. quences of the action are the point in Ovid here describes the winter sea

view: in the English idiom, “You had son at Tomi, the place of his exile in better be quiet,” the action itself is Scythia.

regarded. 3. jactam) sub. nivem.

6. Celsus, the friend alluded to in 5. delicoit) perf. of deliquesco. this passage one of the few who did

prior) i. e. nix: “ the previous fall not forsake Ovid when his sentence of of snow."

exile arrived, prevailed upon him not 9. braccis] ‘Braccæ' is a Gallic to commit suicide. term, meaning trowsers: which 7. signis] “tokens," "symbols.” Herodotus calls αναξυρίδες.

Ovid was afraid to mention Celsas by 10. i. e. the face only is, lest he should excite the resent12. nitet] "sparkles."

ment of Augustus against him. candida] “ hoar.”

10. hajus] BELKTIK@s, as if point13. uda] “naturally liquid:” a

ing to his own heart; equivalent to better reading than 'nuda,' which

'meæ. Cf. the Greek Tóvdo ăvdpa Burmann prefers. Cf.Virg. G. III. 364: &ué, so common in the Tragedians. Cæduntque securibus humida vina.”

11-14. The sense is: I shall die, 14. h austa] draughts :" the

before I forget your kindness. participle is used as a substantive. Cf. Virg. G. II. 398: “Cui nunquam exhausti satis est,” where, says Prof.

13. “ SHORT IS THE SPAN OF Conington, on the authority of Servius,

LIFE.” exhausti'='exhaustionis.'

Burmann 3. editis]

thinks 15. concrescant] The subjunc

"editis” tive is used, because the clause is

profitemini;' the allusion indirect.

being to the registration of the ages of 16. fragiles aquæ] lit. “ the the citizens before the censors. water become brittle;" i.e. lumps of

we may construe : “ while you still ice.

record real years:" i. e. years of real 17. papyrifero] i. e. the Nile.

enjoyment. It is more likely that Join .ipse' with · Ister.'

"editis annos' is similar in meaning to 19. durantibus] “ freezing.”

the common phrase "terra edit fructus:' 20. tectis] i. e. covered with ice.

“ while you still put forth genuine 23. novos pontes]

“ novel years:" just as Shakespeare speaks of bridges :" i. e. bridges formed by the

“putting forth the tender leaves ice.

of hope."

6. præteriit] On the lengthening 12. FIDELITY IN FRIENDSHIP.

of the final syllable, see note on Ovid,

38, 29. 2. sustinuisse) “The Latin lan- 9. qui canent frutices]"which guage often admits the perfect infinitive are now gray," i. e. withered, "shrubs." where the English language uses the 13. a virgine] “from maidensimple infinitive; but it will be seen in hood :" i. e. from early life. such cases that the completion or con- 14. subitæ] “ suddenly." In Latin sequences of the action are regarded and Greek, the adjective is constantly more than the action itself.” Key, Lat. used, especially in poetry, for the Gram. § 125 b. Thus, in the words English adverb, •quiesse erit melius,' Liv. III. 48, which 16. cornua jacta]"the shedding mean literally, “ it will be better for of the horns.” See note on Ovid 39, you to have been quiet," the conse- 47, below.

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14. COURTESY PROCURES FRIENDS. has scarcely any room to advance 6. Chaonis ales) i.e. the dove: so

further. called, because doves were said to have 3. pluris? sub. pretii : brought the cominand to found the more account. oracle of Dodona, in Chaonia. Soph.

5. Paley says that the ‘Casa Romali' Trạch. 171.

was kept up in its original state, or acquos colat] “to inbabit:” cording to some traditional standard, note on Ovid 1, 8.

till a late æra in the empire. See Virg. 7. i. e. a bough which has

Æn. VIII. 658.

grown crooked on a tree can only be bent by

7. The temple was so low, that a full humouring it—not by violence. length statue of Jupiter could hardly

8. experiere] Ön this idiomatic be placed in it. use of the Latin future for the English

8. fictile) of clay ; not of gold, as present, see L. E. p. 178, Rule III. in Ovid's time. Even the four-horse Madvig's Lat. Gram. $ 339, Obs. 1. chariot, which was placed in the Capi. As to the sentiment, compare the par-baked clay, manufactured in Etruria


toline temple, when first built, was of allel passage in Soph. Ant. 706.

10. contra unda] i. e. against Nieb. R. H., I. 491. Paley thinks Ovid the current.

had in view the lines of Propertius, V. 13, 14. Nonacrinâ] means Arca 1. 5: dian: from Nonacris, an Arcadian

“ Fictilibus crevere Deis hæc aurea fountain. Atalanta was desired by her

templa, father to marry: when she made it a

Nec fuit opprobrio facta sine arte condition that her suitors should con

casa," tend with her in the footrace; he who 9. The order is: 'Frondibus ornaoutran her, was to be rewarded with bant Capitolia, quæ nunc [ornant] her love: those who failed, were to be gemmis.' put to death by her hand. Meilanion, 13. posito modo aratrol "just by the aid of Aphrodite, overcame her : after laying aside the plough.” Cf. Hor. and became her husband.*

Od. I. 12, 41, seqq. "Prætor' was the

ancient military title of the consul: 15. FORBIDDEN PLEASURE Varro, L. L., v. 887. Cincinnatus is

alluded to. • Jura dare' means "to le6. fulminis modo] “ like light

gislate": ‘jus dare,' “ to decide causes.'

Paley. ning."

14. Fabricius, when censor,, A.U.C. 11. The construction is: 'Danaë, quæ fuerat tradita virgo in thalamum 478, excluded Rufinus from the senate, perennem saxo ferroque [firmly built for having ten pounds' weight of wrought with stone and iron], mater erat. See silver. Gellius, N. A., IV. 8. Smith, Dict. Myth. Horace, Od. III.

18. quum]" although.”
19-21. The order is :

• Certant 16, fully explains this text.

quærere at absumant, (et) requirere

absumpta ;' they strive to gain, in order 16. THE LOVE OF MONEY GROWS

to consume: [and] to regain what they AS FAST AS MONEY ITSELF GROWS. have consumed; and these very alter1. habendi] sub. divitias. nations (of getting and spending) feed 2. The sense is: The love of money the vices [of avarice and luxury). * We beg pardon of Mr. Valpy, who, in

21. Comparisons of avarice to the his “ Electa ex Ovidio et Tibullo," p. 215. dropsy are common in the Roman poets. ascertains that Atalanta " was won by the See Hor. Od. II. 2, 13, On ab unda' deserving attentions of Meleager (!), and married him."

Paley says : " Ab is sometimes added


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with neuter verbs, and even with active, concolor] The toga was white, and when the cause rather than the instru- a festal day was metaphorically called a ment is implied.” See note on Ovid white day; and was marked by a white 33, 16, below.

stone; whence Persius (II. 1), writing 23. “Price, i. e. money, is now pre

to his friend on his birthday, says: cious :" a play on words: one of Ovid's “ Hunc diem numera meliore lapillo, favourite conceits : compare the passage Qui tibi labentes apponit candidus in Fasti III. 116, where there is a pun

annos." between tenere signa,'" to understand Cf. Hor. S. II. 3, 246 : “cretâ (white the celestial bodies," and the same words chalk] an carbone notandi” [scih in the sense “to grasp the standards.” dies ? ]

17, 18. fasces] The consuls, who 17. THE BIRTH OF THE NEW YEAR.

were preceded by lictors carrying 'fasces,' 1. Jane] See Myth. Dict.

the emblems of magistracy, entered on origo] Because the year began with their office on this day. January: see above, Ovid 3, 9.

purpura] i.e. the "trabea' worn 3. ducibus] He probably alludes to by the consuls on solemn occasions, Tiberias and Germanicus, the latter of Virg. Æn. VII. 612. whom had gained a victory over the ebur) the curule chair, made of Catti and Cherasci, and other German ivory. Virgil combines these two as tribes, A. U.c. 770.

badges of sovereignty in the speech of 5. Patribus].i. e. Senators. king Latinus, Æn. XI. 334: "Et sellam

6. templa] not the temple of Janus, regni trabeamque insignia nostri."
the opening of which was the signal of Paley.
war [Virg. Æn. VII. 611], but the 19. rudes operum] "unused to
temples in general. Paley remarks that work,” i.e. never yoked. Operum'
Janus bore a key as a symbol, whence after •rudes’is a Græcism, like Horace's

resera.' · Candida'=ómarmorea:' it “ famulis operum solutis," móvov delu.
was said of Augustus, that he “lateri- jévous, Od. III. 17, 16.
ciam [built of brick] invenit Romam, præbent ferienda] “lend their
marmoream reliquit.”

necks to the blow :” for the restiveness
7. linguisq u e... f a vete]= of a victim was accounted a bad omen.
eúpnueite: “ be holy in speech and Tac. Hist. III. 56.
thought.” “Favete linguis,' Hor. Od. 20. Falisca] The animals for sa-
III. 1,2: means, “keep holy silence :* crifice came chiefly from the domain
see Macleane ad 1.

of Falerii, in Etruria, near the Cli11. odoratis) Frankincense, cinna- tumnus. Keightley. The district was mon, saffron, etc., were burnt on the famous for a variety of white oxen. altars. Keightly

Paley. 12. spica cilissa) the saffron from 24. Digna coli a populo potente reMount Corýcus in Cilicia.

rum, a nation master of the world." sonet). “ crackles:" this was consi- Cf. Virgil's “Romanos rerum dominos." dered a good omen. Paley compares Tibull. II. 5, 81.

18. THE COMMANDS OF CUPID. 13. aurum] i. e. the gilded roofs. Ovid here intimates, that he would 15, 16. intactis] “new." gladly have written heroics instead of

Tarpeias arces) i. e. the Capitol. elegiacs, but Cupid forbad him. It was the practice, ever since A.U.C. 1. gravi] heroic. 601, for the consuls elect,followed by the 2. materiâ, etc.] "the matter people, to go in procession to the Capi- sniting the metre.” tol, and offer a sacrifice to Jupiter. 3. The lower verse was of equal

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length to the upper one; i. e. they were the sun, which melted the wax of his both hexameters.

wings. Cf. Hor. Od. I. 3, 35: 5. hoc...juris] "this privilege

Expertus vacuum Dædalus æthera over poetry.”

Penpis non homini datis." 7–13. The poet asks, what would 21. latuit] Cf. Hor. Epist. I. be the consequence if the various Deities 17, 10 : usurped each other's functions ?

“Nec vixit male, qui natus moriens. 8. ventilet] “ fan.”

que fefellit," " whose birth and death faces] i.e. the torch of Love.

have escaped notice." 10. virginis) i. e. Diana.

24. He was to have received the 15. quod ubique] sub. est.

horses of Achilles as a reward for spying in the Grecian Camp, but was

killed in the attempt. 19 “ LOFTY TOWERS CRASH TO THE

26. Cf. Hor. Od. II. 10, 23 : GROUND WITH A HEAVIER FALL.

“ Sapienter idem Horace touches the same theme in the

Contrahes vento nimium secundo beautiful tenth ode of his second book.

Turgida rela." He and Ovid had doubtless been trained, by their vocation as Court Poets, to

20. APART FROM CORINNA, HOME preach “ the philosophy of Moderation.”

IS CHEERLESS. Under the sceptre of the Cosars, political ambition, and even social distinc- 1. tertia] Pliny also speaks of tion, had become dangerous.

Sulmo as one of the three towns 1. usibus] by experience.” | whose districts composed the territory

edocto] “ thoroughly taught :” e in of the Peligni. composition signifies completeness. Sulmo] 'O' at the end of a proper

2. magna] Cf. Horace : "Dulcis name, is common in prosody. Kenn. inexpertis cultura potentis amici: ex- p. 132, § 211. perti metuunt,” Epist. I. 18, 86.

2. ora] a region." Sulmo lay in 7. summâ und â] “on the sur-the Valley of the Gizio, in a spacious face of the water." See L. E. p. 189, basin formed by the junction of that Rule III. 1.

river with several minor streams. 8. simul] “ together with itself.” 4. Icarus' dog discovered the place

9, 10. “If I had been warned of of its master's death, for which it was these traths :" for the construction, see translated among the stars. L. E. p. 20, Rale VII. After “debebam," 8. Pallada] i. e. the olive. sub. esse. Ovid alludes to his exile. Virgil's “oleæque Minerva Inventrix"

12. vagi] Ulysses, who was met (G. I. 18) explains the allusion. by the shade of Elpēnor, when he rarus ager]

" the light soil," visited the lower world.

most favourable to vines and olives, as 17, 18. quid fuit] sub. caussæ : opposed to 'spissas,' ' densus ager.' See " what was the reason ?” 'Agitarit' Prof. Conington on Virg. G. II. 275. is used in the perfect tense, because an 9, 10. The construction is : 'grami. event, completed in past time, is signi- neusque cespes obumbrat humum fied : signet' is used in the present, madidam rivis labentibus per herbas because the sea between the isles of resurgentes.' Icaria and Patmos was still called 11. ignis) i. e. Corinna.

. Icarian, from the fall of Icarus, in 13. medius, etc.] ‘between Cas. Ovid's days.

tor and Pollux." The same construc19 bic) Icarus.

tion occurs in Vell. I, 2 : ' Peloponnesii ille] Dædalus. Icarus flew too near | Megăram, mediam Corintho Athenis

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