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because it expresses, not merely a fact, 7. colli longitudinem] “her
9. i. e. She effected for the wolf a
cure that was dangerons to berself. FABLE III.
11. quæ... abstuleris] “ because
you have extracted.” The subjunctive THE PROUD JACKDAW.
is used because the relative, quæ,'has 1. alienis bonis] “in advanta- a causal sense. See L. E., p. 138, ges possessed by others.”
Rule xiii. 2. suo habitu] “in one's own condition."
FABLE VII. 11. tristem notam) "a sad mark of disgrace."
THE SPARROW AND THE HARE.
5. cessârunt] contracted for FABLE IV.
“cessaverunt.” THE DOG CARRYING A PIECE OF 8. lepus] sub. ait. FLESH ACROSS THE RIVER. mortis in solatio]
consolation for its own death." 3. lympharum in speculo] ' in the watery mirror.” 4. alio] sub. cane.
FABLE VIII. 5. After deceptâ ' sub. est.
THE ASS AND THE LION HUNTING, ?. nec adeo potuit] “and after all was unable."
1. virtutis ] “ courage."
expers] sub. homo. FABLE V.
2. ignotos] "strangers." 1. societas] "an alliance."
est derisui] “ becomes a jest.”
• Derisui' is the " dative of the pur2. propositum]
“sentiment," 16 assertion."
pose,” which is used with sum' and 5. vasti corporis]." of great to whom is it an advantage ?”
many other verbs : e.
cui bono est? size :" the genitive of description.
3. asello comite] abl. abs. “in 6. partibus factis] i.e. the
the company of an ass. stag having been divided into four portions.
6. ipse] " while he himself :" i.e.
the lion. 9. me sequetur] i. e. will be.
8. novo miraculo]" by a strange long to me. io. malo afficietur? lit. "hel the other animals could not account for
portent." The ass being covered up, will be visited with harm :" i. e. will
12. vocem premere]" to cease FABLE VI.
braying." THE WOLF AND THE CRANE.
13. opera, etc.] i.e. the service
rendered you by my braying. 1. pretium meriti] a reward for a service.” 3. deinde) " secondly."
FABLE IX. jam) i. e. when he has aided them.
THE STAG AT THE STREAN. 5. singulos] i. e. other animals, one by one.
1. The order of the words is as fol6. illud malum] 'that nuis- lows: 'liæc Darratio exerit (ea] quæ ance," i. e, the bore.
contempseris, sæpe inveniri utiliora
laudatis, more useful than things
FABLE XIV. which have been commended.”
THE DOG AND THE WOLF. 7. venantûm] contracted from venantium ;' sub. hominum.
4. unde sic nites? ] wbat 9. ferum] i. e. the stag.
makes you so sleek?” The words 12. vocem b. e.] “ to have ut
lupus ait' are understood.
so much tered these words."
flesh:” the partitive genitive.
7. est tibi] “is open to you." FABLE X.
20. quâ visum est] “ wherever I
please." The Fox AND THE CROW. 21. ultro] i. e. without my seeking
it. 8. vocem] "a musical voice.” 9. ille] i.e. the crow.
25. est animus] sub. tibi : " if
you have a mind." vult] When the particle dum’denotes what happens, while something
27. ut] “on condition that.” else happens, the present tense is usu
liber mihi] “my own master.” ally employed, although the perfect is the tense of the leading proposition.
FABLE XVI. See L. E. p. 174, § 2.
THE SHIPWRECK OF SIMONIDES. 12. corvi stupor] “the stupid crow.'
2. Simonides, one of the most cele13. re] "incident."
brated elegiac and lyric poets of Greece, 14. virtute] " strength.”
was born at Iulis, in Ceos, B.C. 556.
11. zonas] The zona was a girdle
worn by men to hold their money, FABLE XI.
money-belt.” Cf. Hor. Ep. II. 2, 40:
qui zonam perdidit:' " the man who THE FROG WHICH BURST, AND THE has lost his purse.”. Ox.
12. curiosior] “rather inquisi9. validius]
more effectually.” tive." See note on Fable II. 17. 10. jacuit] “ lay dead.”
15. qui plures] “those who were more,” i. e. the majority.
22. sermone ab ipso cogni. FABLE XII.
tum] “recognised by his conversation
alone.” 3. The construction is : 'traditum 23. familia] i.e. with attendance. est canes bibere currentes in Nilo flu- 'Familia' often signifies “the housemine, ne rapiantur a crocodilis.' Cor. hold servants.” codilis' is a transposition of the letters 24. tabulam] a picture of the to suit the metre.
shipwreck, which they carried about to 8. ille) i.e. the dog: sub. inquit. solicit alıns. See Horace, Od. I. 5, 13.
27. perît] contracted for periit.'
FABLE XVII. THE MULES AND THE ROBBERS.
THE MOUNTAIN BRINGING FORTH. 4. ille] “ the former.”
This proverb is alluded to by How 10. spoliatus] i.e. the mule which race, A. P., in the well-known line, bad been plundered.
“ Parturiunt montes: nascetur ridicu. 11. contemptum] sub. esse. lus mus."
SELECT PASSAGES FROM OVID.
OviD was born at Sulmo, a town about ninety miles from Rome, in the country of the Peligni, on the 21st of March, B.C. 43. Descended from an equestrian family, but possessed of only moderate wealth, he was designed by his father for the bar-a profession which his poetical predilections declined. After completing his education at Athens, he travelled with the poet Macer, in Asia and in Sicily. On his return to Italy, he married. But the union was not happy, and his affections, estranged from his wife, were devoted to Corinna. Corinna is by some supposed to have been only another name for Julia, the licentious daughter of Augustus: whose displeasure with the poet, apparently on account of an intrigue with some member of the
Imperial family, caused his exile, A.D. 8, to Tomi, a town on the Euxine, near the mouths of the Danube, on the very verge of the Roman Empire. The miseries of this banishment, from which he was never recalled, are the theme of his elegies styled Tristia.' He died in the sixtieth year of his age and the tenth of his exile, A.D. 18, a year memorable for the death of that “prince of historic painters," Livy,
During his residence at Rome, he sought the friendship of the most eminent poets of the day; and lived on intimate terms with Macer and Propertius, Ponticus and Bassus. Horace was considerably his senior : yet he had often heard him recite bis lyric odes. Virgil he only once saw ; that poet died when Ovid was only twenty-four; and the life of Tibullus was not sufficiently prolonged to allow him to cultivate his friendship.
9. qui duret] “ to endure :" i.e. 2. bonis] “ the advantages."
in order that it may endure. 'Qui' here 4. spatio] course:
" the meta
takes the subjunctive, because it signiphor being drawn from the race-course:
fies a purpose, being equivalent tout
is.' as in Cic. de Sen. 23, decurso spatio,' " when the race has been run."
adstrue) sub. animum: "join in5. hiantia] “open," i. e. in full tellect to beauty." bloom.
12. duas] i. e. Greek and Latin.
Cf. Horace's address to Mæcenas : 7. jam] “at last." 8. quæ...arent] “to wrinkle.” The
“ Docte sermones utriusque linguæ.” junctive is used, because the relative clause does not merely state a
2. THE RETURN OF SPRING. fact, but signifies a tendency: in other words, because it is used in a consecu- 3. fiore) is a poetical singular, used tive sense. See L. E. p. 141, Rule XV. collectively.
4. indocili]=indocto, “antaught." | sacrifice was offered to the Dii Manes vernat] “comes with the spring.” (avitæ umbræ): see Fasti, II. 533.
5. The sense is this: the swallow Februa was the old word for a purifycherishes her young in order to lose ing sacrifice, as Ovid says: “Februa the imputation of being a bad mother. Romani dixere piamina patres," Fast. The poet alludes to the fable of Procne, II. 19. who killed her son Itys, and served 10. duos ] i. e. January and Febhim up at a banquet to his father ruary. Tereus, in rerenge for an insult offered by him to her sister Philomela.
4. THE SORCERESS. Procne was metamorphosed into a 1. The belief, here alluded to, that swallow.
sorcerers could draw down the moon,
is illustrated by the passage of Ho3. THE ROMAN YEAR.
race, Epod. 17, 78, where the witch 1. conditor) i.e. Romulus. 'Urbs' Canidia says: Polo Deripere Lunam means Rome, κατ' εξοχήν.
vocibus possim meis. 2. quinque bis] The Romans 3. obliqua] “winding." Cf. Hor. ascribed their year of ten months to Od. II. 3, 11: “ Obliquo laborat LymRomulus ; their improved year of pha fugax trepidare rivo." twelve months to Numa.
4. viva] This word means naturah 5. Veneris] Venus was said to as opposed to artificial; hence, as have risen from the sea in the month applied to rocks, it means "rugged.”. of April, which was therefore her 6. certa] Burmann prefers this month. Cf. Hor. Od. IV. 11, 15 : reading to curta," on the ground “Mensem Veneris marinæ...Aprilem." that only a certain class of bones were
6. generis princeps] Venus was used in magic rites. the mother of Æneas,
7. The Sorceress forms a waxen ipsius... pater] Mars was the image of the person whom she devotes father of Romulus.
[devovet] to disease or death, and pricks 7. senibus; juvenum ] Fulvius the liver (jecur], the supposed seat of Nobilior, in his Fasti, says that the passions, with needles, expecting Romulus, after dividing his people that the original would suffer sympainto majores,' elders,' and 'juniores,' thetically with the image. Thus Cani'younger members,' called one month dia, in Horace, 1. c., profes Maius, another Junius, in honour of life to waxen images," movere cereas either class. Burmann.
imagines.' 8. numero] i. e. the other months were named according to their order of succession: the fifth month was called
5. THE TUTELAR DEITIES OF Quintilis; the sixth, Sextilis ; the se
CITIES AND NATIONS. venth, September, &c. Quintilis and 1. Cecropidæ] i. e. the AtheSextilis were afterwards altered into nians: so called from Cecrops, the reJulius and Augustus, in memory of puted founder of Athens. the two first Cæsars.
Minoïa C. D.] Crete is so called turba] Compare the Greek use of from Minos, the ancient monarch of the oxlos, when things or persons of island. The Cretans worshipped Dicsecondary importance are spoken of tynna, supposed to have been identical collectively. Paley.
with the Greek Artěmis, or the Roman 9. Janum] January was sacred to Diana. Janus.
2. Hipsipylæa] i. e. Lemnos, of avitas umbras] In February a | which Hipsipyla was the Queen when
" to give
it was visited by the Argonants. Virgil, tress - being called “the horn of Æn. VIII, 454, calls Vulcan “ Pater Amalthea." Lemnius."
When he was flung out of Olympus by Jupiter, he fell in Lemnos : Hom. Il. I. 93.
7. THE INCONSTANCY OF FORTUNE. 3. Sparte] Sparta, Argos, and 1. “All things belonging to men Mycenæ were Juno's favourite cities : hang by a slender thread:" i.e. all Hom. II. IV.51.-Mycenæ is here styled human possessions are held by a frail
Pelopeïas,' from Pelops, its ancient tenure. . Hominum' is the genitive of king.
possession. Compare the somewhat 4. Mænalis ora] a poetical similar use of the present participle as phrase for Arcadia. Mænalis' is a a finite verb by Virg., G. II. 133 : fem. adj. from Mænalus, a mountain in “Folia haud ullis labentia ventis," where Arcadia. Cf.“ Ausonis ora,” F. II. 14. labentia'=' labuntur:' III. 505: “ar
6. rem] “wealth:” as in Horace's deptes oculi”—ardescunt oculi:' line:
Æn. VII. 787. “Et genus et virtus, nisi cum re, ri. 2. valuere] “have been flourishior algâ est."
3. cui] the dative of the agent: as 6. THE GOAT WHICH NURSED JUPI. in Virgil, G. III. 6: “Cui non dictus TER WHEN A CHILD.
Hylas ? ” “ by whom bas Hylas not Ovid here represents Amalthea as
been sung ?” for wbich, in prose, having fed Jupiter with the milk of a
See L. E.
quo' would be more usual. goat. This goat having broken off one
p. 39. of her horns, Amalthea filled it with
4. nempe tameu] “ Yet, to be fresh herbs and fruit, and gave it to
sure.” • Nempe' is ironical. Croesus, Jupiter, who transplanted it, together king of Lydia, was conquered by Cyrus, with the goat, amongst the stars.
king of Persia, B.C. 546, who spared
his life. Ovid therefore describes him as 1. Nais] for · Nympha,' the spe- having received his life from his foe cies for the genus. Keightley. 3. Huic fuit] “she had” a she- (vitam tulit ab hoste].
5. The allusion is to Dionysius the goat, the mother of two kids.
4. Dictæos] Dicte was a mountain younger, tyrant of Syracuse, who mainin Crete.
tained himself after his fall by " the 5. aeriis...recarvis] "lofty and humble profession" [humili arte] of curved backwards.” “Terga,' plural for
a schoolmaster at Corinth, B.C. 343. singular.
6. Magno] i. e. Pompey, surnamed 6. quod]=quale.
'Magnus,' owing to his victories. After 9. Nymphe) Núuon : the Greek his decisive defeat at Pharsalia, be fled termination is used, for the metre's sake.
to Egypt, the throne of which was filled 11. res]" the Empire”: as in Livy, by Ptolemy, a minor, whose father owed I. 32,"Res (supreme power] ad Patres the recovery of his crown to Poinpey: rediit."
in reference to which, Ovid calls the son 13. fertile fecit] changed it into
Pompey's a cornucopia. Hor. Od. I. 17, 14.
9-13. ' Ille’ implies celebrity: 'ille
Marius'="the illustrious Marius.” This Hinc tibi copia
general, who was seven times consul, Manabit ad plenum benigno captured Jugurtha, the Numidian so
Ruris honorum opulenta cornu.' vereign, B.c. 106, and defeated the 14. The poet says : the horn bears Cimbri and Teutones in a great battle, even to this day the name of its mis- B.c. 101. At the age of 70, he was