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rupted scene of treasonable conspiracies, which the reader will find described in Lord Orrery's "State Letters," who was Lord President of Monster, in “Cox's History," and in "Secret consults and intrigues of the Romish party," which is inserted in State Tracts, vol. III. p. 615. It appears that the Tilular Primate, Reilly, was the chief fomenter of these treasonable conspiracies, that one Harris, a Jesuit, was an active instrument une der him, and that they both went to France to procure arms and ammuni. tion. (Letter of Lord Orrery of the 6th of June 1666.) They had four provincial meetings, which Harris attended, for the purpose of organizing the people, that they might rise in concert, and join the French on their land. ing. (Same of 17th June, 1666.) Lord Orrerry was in hourly expectation of a descent of the French at Kinsale, as he had intelligence that they were on the point of embarking at Brest. (Same of January 11, 1666.) The conspirators fabricated pike-heads and spears, and their Clergy levied money on the people of all orders, which they did previously to the rebellion of 1798.-(Idem.)--Primate Reilly was arrested on reasonable charges, and was taken to London.—(Cox's History of Charles Ild's reign.) The Duke of Ormond, Viceroy of Ireland, said, in a letter of the ?d June, 1666, to the Secretary of State, that there was scarcely an hour in the day, that he had not serious apprehensions of coqspiracies breaking out.-(Cox's History, Vol. II. p. 8.)-I think it right to remind the reader, that the penal laws did not exist at that time. It would exceed my circumscribed limits, to delineate the woeful persecution wbich the Protestants suffered, after the landing of James II, in Ireland, subsequent to his abdication, and wheo the Papists had that ascendancy to which they now aspire. The Popish convention which assembled at that time, and usurped the powers of Parliament, passed the following, among other oppressive laws, for the purpose of overturning the Protestant Establishment: one for repealing the act of settlement, one for attainting every Protestant, whom they could discover to be possessed of any property, and another for making Ireland independent of England. The Protestaat Clergy were deprived of their churches and their subsistence. The men, bers of the Established Church were universally disarmed, and removed from all offices; and under severe penalties, any more than five of thera were prohibited from assembling in any place. From midsummer 1689, till winter, all Protestant gentlemen were indiscriminately imprisoned, without a warrant or any form of law; and they were denied ihe benefit of the Habeas Corpus Act.*

The Protestant state, after having patiently endored, for nearly 209

* Archbishop King's State of the Protestants in lieland.

years, the treasonable conspiracies and rebellions of the Irish Papists, were driven to the necessity, after the revolution, of imposing penal restrictions on them; which, while they existed, though seldom enforced, kept them tolerably peaceable and obedient to the government; but ever since their repeal, they have returned to their former dangerous practices. Mr. Francis Plowden, a voluminous writer on Catholic emancipation, and a -strenuous supporter of it, with a singalar degree of candour, has made the following assertion, in page 17 of his “ Case stated;" published in 1791; and of its truth we have had sad experience the last 20 years :-" If any one says, or pretends to insinuate, that the modern Roman Catholics, who are the objects of the late bounty of Parliament, differ in one iota from their predecessors, he is either deceived himself, or he wishes to deceive others. Semper eadem is more emphatically descriptive of our religion than our jurisprudence."*

The penal restrictions have been removed in his present Majesty's reign, and in addition to this, the Papists obtained the elective franchise, in the year 1793. On the 25th of April of that year, the general committee of the Catholics assembled in Dublin, and expressed the deepest gratitude to the King, the Viceroy, the Parliament, and the Protestants of Ireland, for their great liberality. They declared, that in future they would le regardless of all religious distinctions. They resolved, (See P.A. p. 298.) “ that the snim of 2000l, be applied to the erecting a statue to our most gracious Sovereign, George III. as a monument of our gratitude for the important privileges which we have obtained from Parliament, through his paternal recommendation." This statue never was erected. At the same time they resolved, “ that the sum of 15001., together with a gold medal, of the valde of 30 guineas, with a suitable inscription, be presented to Theobald Wolfe Tone, Esq., agent to this committee, as a testimony of his services and our gratitude." Thus, on the same day that they expressed their gratitude to his Majesty, for these important concessions, they rewarded the zealous exertions of the traitorous Tone, who had recommended separation from England, as the only means of regenerating Ireland, in the year 1791,+ and who, it was discovered, in the year 1794, had been some time negotiating with the French Government, then administered by Robespierre, for aid to accomplish it. On that discovery he abscond

• It is unequivocally proved in the Prot. Adv. pp. 308 and 309, that the most eminent modern Romish divipes insist on the infallibility of ail the doctrines of their Church, and that all their votaries must implicitly adhere to them. Ms. Pluwden's assertion is there quoted also.

+ Report of the Secret Committee of the House of Commons, Appendix II. p. 7.

1 The reader will find all this in a pamphlet, printed for J. J. Stockdale, Pall-Malla entitled, “ The Proceedings of the General Committee of the Catholics of 1792 and 1793,

ed, but he was afterwards taken on the coast of Donegal, in: a French fleet, conveying an arıny, (in which he was an officer) destined for the invasion of Ireland, in the year 1798.; and having been convicted of high treason, he committed suicide, to elude the sentence of the law. At the same timc, the General Committee "returned thanks to John Sweetman, Esq. secretary to the Sub-conmittee, and to Richard McCormick, Esq. secretary to the General Committee, for their candour and integrity, for the spirit, activity, and diligence, equally honourable to themselves, and serviceable to the Catholic cause, with which they discharged the trust reposed in them.” The former was arrested on treasonable charges, in the year 1798, and having confessed his guilt, was transported with a numerous batch of traitors, to Fort George in Scotland. McCormick, conscious of his guilt, fled to France. It appears by the reports of the secret committees of the Lords and Commons, that the sub-committee of the Catholics, sitting in Dublin, continued their exertions to separate Ireland from England, till the year 1798. It is stated in the report of the Lords, published in 1797, " that, they had unequivocal proofs, that a traitorous correspondence had been, carried on between them and the executive directory of the French Government, in the month of Jane 1795."-(p. 49. Appendix III.)-It appears by a report of the same assembly, published in August 1798, “ that Joho Edward Lewins, who now is, and has been for some time, the accredited resident ambassador of the Irish rebellious union, to the French republic, was the person then dispatched in the summer of 1795."--(p. 8.) It is also stated in the same, that in consequence of an application made by the Irish rebellious union to the executive directory of the French Government, early in the year 1796, the latter, through Theobald W. Tone, then resident in France, proposed that an army should be sent to Ireland, for the purpose of separating it from the crown

; and it further appears by the same report, that the armament sent to Bantry Bay was the result of ihis application.—(Idem. p. 8. 9.)- In

pages 10 and 11 of the same report, it is stated, on the evidence, upon oath, of Doctor William James McNevin, one of the most enlightened reputed members of the Catholic committee, that he was sent by the Irish directory to the French government, in the month of June 1797, to recommend a second invasion, on which he had many conferences with the ministers of the French republic ; that he represented the necessity of


compared with those of 1810 and 1811. It is an original document, published by the authority of that Committee ; and it has been reprinted in 1811, with a Preface, copious Notes and Illustrations. It throws more light on the state of Ireland for the last twenty fears than any thing that has yet appeared.

Many members of that Committee, were hanged, transported, or acd from


" the

sending an additional supply of arms, from the great seizure which had been made by Government of arms collected for rebellion." He also presented a memoir, " to persuade the French government to continue the war, till Ireland should be saparated from the British crown,'

"* which they promised to do --(Idem. p. 11.)- In the month of August 1797, the Irish disectory received a dispatch from their minister at Paris, announcing that an armament in the Texel was ready to invade Ireland; but it was defeated by the glorious and ever memorable victory of Lord Duncan.- (Idem, P. 11, 12.)

Subsequent to the month of October 1797, the Irish Directory received several dispatches from their Minister at Paris. The two first contained a general renewal of friendship and support from the French Government; and the last announced, that the projected invasion would take place in the month of April (Idem, p. 12). Our readers should recollect, that the rebellion broke out on the 24th of May. It was resolved by the conspirators, that, on the breaking out of he rebellion, estates or property of all those who were inimical or hostile to the cause of liberiy should be confiscated and converted to the national benefit." (Report of the Secret Committee of the House of Commons of 1797, Appendix Il. p. 20 ) It is thus stated in the Report of the Secret Com. mittee of the House of Lords of 1797 :-“ Jt bas also appeared to your Committee, that in the event of success on the part of the conspirators, it has been decided, that all persons, who, from their principles or situation, may be deemed inimical to the conspirators, shall be massacred t. The first proscribed list, it has appeared to your Committe, has been calculated, by one of their leaders, at tbirty thousand. The indiscriminate massacre of Protestants, which took place in many parts of the province of Leinster, in May and June 1798, particularly at Scullabogue, Vinegarhill, and Wexford-bridge, afforded melancholy proofs that these allega. tions, made before a Committee of the House of Lords, upon oath, were well founded.

As the rebellion of 1798, and the scenes of robbery and murder which, for five years, preceded it, were devised and promoted by the Catholic Convention of 1793, the public may form an idea of the designs of the Committee which sat in Dublin in 1811, when they resolved, on the gth

• This has been the main object of the liish Papists for 300 years. During a war, they uniformly solicited assistance from the enemy of the empire to accomplish it; and is ie to be supposed that they will relinquish it at this favourable juncture, when their spiritual father the Pope is reconciled to his beloved sor in Christ, Buonaparte

+ This means the Protestants, as they were loyal,

of July in that year, " that the survivors of the delegates of 1793, should constitute an integral part of the Convention, and that until the New Convention should be elected, the management of Catholic affairs should be confided to the Catholic peers, baronets, and survivors of the delegates of 1793."

It is melancholy to reflect how far a spirit of party will lead some men. Though this dreadful rebellion was organized in the year 1791, for the purpose of extirpating all the Protestants, and of separating Ireland from Great Britain, which objects the Irish Papists have been endeavouring to accomplish for almost 300 years, some members of Parliament, of exalted rank, in both islands, apologized for the Irish rebels, pitied them as innocent sufferers, who had been driveo into rebellion by the wanton tyrapoy and cruelty of Government, though the conduct of the Government had been bighly conciliatory.

The Earl of Moira, misled, I am convinced, and imposed upon, went to Ireland, and, in a long speech, on the 19th of February 1798, condemned the conduct of the King's ministers, advised the repeal of the penal laws *, and the adoption of such conciliatory measures as may allay apprehension and discontent; and for that purpose, his Lordship recommended Catholic emancipation, and a reform of Parliament. How often, has honour been duped by knavery, and loyalty by seditious cant! Though this amiable nobleman did every thing in his native country, that unbounded charity and generosity could effect, to gain the esteem, and respect of the people ; at a county meeting of United Irisbmen, held at Saini field, in the county of Down, on the 4th of February 1798, " nothing parricular was done, except that the Earl of Moira's character was discussed, at full length, 10 know whether he was a man that could be depended on, by the people, or not. It was agreed, thar he was as great a tyrant as the lord Lieutenant, and a deeper do signing one t." This meeting was held near his lordship’s house, where his humane and charitable disposition were well known The following resolution was passed by the rebel provincial committees of Ulster and Leinster, on one day, the 19th of February 1799, and at both meetings in nearly the same words: “That we will give no attention whatever to any attempt made by either House of Parliainent, to divert the public mind from the grand object we have in view; as nothing short of complete emancipation of our country will satisfy as 1." This meant separation, which, it is obvious, they had in view.

* They were all repealed at that time. + Report of the Secret Committee, Appendix, No. xiv. p. 115. Ilem. Appendix, xix. p. 149. Complete emancipation ische cant phrase of the

a 1 present. **VOL. I. (Prota. Adv. May, 1813.) 3 M

Irish Papists

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