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have come into England with our Danish

invaders tinguished by a notch somewhat broader than usual. and settlers many centuries before. The clog There were indications--but they are not easily bore the same relation to a printed almanac which described for the Golden Number and the cycle the Exchequer tallies bore to a set of account of the moon. The feasts were denoted by symbols books. It is a square stick of box, or any other resembling hieroglyphics, in a manner which will hard wood, about eight inches long, fitted to be be best understood by examples. Thus, a peculiarly hung up in the family parlour for common refer- shaped emblem referred to the Circumcisio Domini ence, but sometimes carried as part of a walking- on the 1st of January. From the notch on the

Properly it was a perpetual almanac, 13th of that month proceeded a cross, as indicative designed mainly to shew the Sundays and other of the episcopal rank of St Hilary; from that on fixed holidays of the year, each person being the 25th, an axe for St Paul, such being the incontent, for use of the instrument, to observe on strument of his martyrdom. Against St Valentine's what day the year actually began, as compared | Day was a true lover's knot, and against St David's

Day (March 1), a harp, because the Welsh saint was accustomed on that instrument to praise God. The notch for the 2d of March (St Ceadda's Day) ended in a bough, indicating the hermit's life which Ceadda led in the woods near Lichfield. The 1st of May had a similar object with reference to the popular fête of bringing home the May. A rake on St Barnaby's Day (11th June) denoted hay harvest. St John the Baptist having been beheaded with a sword, his day (June 24) was graced with that implement. St Lawrence had his gridiron on the 10th of August, St Catherine

her wheel on the 25th of the same month, and ta St Andrew his peculiar cross on the last of

November. The 23d of November (St Clement's Day) was marked with a pot, in reference to the custom of going about that night begging drink to make merry with. For the Purification, An

nunciation, and all other feasts of the Virgin, I

there was a heart, though what it should import, relating to Mary, unless because upon the shepherds' relation of their vision, Mary is said to have kept all these things and pondered them in her heart, I cannot imagine,' says our author. For Christmas there was a horn, the ancient vessel in which the Danes used to wassail or drink healths, signifying to us that this is the time we ought to make merry, cornua exhaurienda notans, as Wormius will have it. The learned writer adds : The marks for the greater feasts observed in the church have a large point set in the middle of them, and another over against the preceding day, if vigils or fasts were observed before them.

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Written and printed Almanacs.
The history of written almanacs has not been

traced further back than the second century of 709

the Christian era. All that is known is, that the Greeks of Alexandria, in or soon after the time of Ptolemy (100-150 A.D.), constructed almanacs ; and the evidence for this fact is an account of Theon the commentator on Ptolemy, in a manu

script found by Delambre at Paris, in which the with that represented on the clog ; so that, if method of arranging them is explained, and the they were various, a brief mental calculation of materials necessary for them pointed out. The addition or subtraction was sufficient to enable Greek astronomers were not astrologers. That him to attain what he desired to know.

pretended science appears to have been introduced The entire series of days constituting the year into Europe from the East, where it has prevailed was represented by notches running along the from time immemorial. Lalande, an assiduous angles of the square block, each side and angle inquirer after early astronomical works, has stated thus presenting three months; the first day of a that the most ancient almanacs of which he could month was marked by a notch having a patulous find any express mention were those of Solomon stroke turned up from it, and each Sunday was dis- | Jarchus, published about 1150. Petrus de Dacia,



about the year 1300, published an almanac, of lated from the French, and printed by Richard which there is a manuscript copy in the Savilian Pynson in 1497. It contains a large quantity of Library at Oxford. In this almanac the influence extraneous matter. As to the general influence of the planets is thus stated :

of the celestial bodies, the reader is informed that "Jupiter atque Venus boni, Saturnusque malignus ; ‘Saturne is hyest and coldest, being full old, Sol et Mercurius cum Luna sunt mediocres.'

And Mars with his bluddy swerde ever ready to

kyll. The “homo signorum' (man of the signs), so Sol and Luna is half good and half ill.' common in later almanacs, is conjectured to have Each month introduces itself with a description had its origin from Peter of Dacia.

in verse. During the middle ages, Oxford was the seat of

January may be given as an example : British science, mixed as that science occasionally Called I am Januyere the colde. was with astrology, alchemy, and other kinds of In Christmas season good fyre I love. false learning; and from Oxford the standard Yonge Jesu, that sometime Judas solde, almanacs emanated; for instance, that of John

In me was circumcised for man's behove. Somers, written in 1380, of Nicolas de Lynna,

Three kinges sought the sonne of God above ; published in 1386, and others.

They kneeled downe, and dyd him homage, with love

To God their Lorde that is mans own brother.' An almanac for 1386 was printed as a literary curiosity in 1812. It is a small 8vo, and is thus Another very early printed almanac, of unusuintroduced : Almanac for the Year 1386. Tran- ally small size, was exhibited to the Society of scribed verbatim from the Original Antique Illum- Antiquaries on the 16th of June 1842. Dr Bliss inated Manuscript in the Black Letter; omitting brought it with him from Oxford. It had been only the Monthly Calendars and some Tables. found by a friend of Dr Bliss at Edinburgh, in Containing many Curious Particulars illustrative an old chest, and had been transmitted to him as of the Astronomy, Astrology, Chronology, History, a present to the Bodleian Library. Its dimenReligious Tenets, and Theory and Practice of sions were 2} inches by 2 inches, and it consisted Medicine of the Age. Printed for the Proprietor of fifteen leaves. _The title in black letter, was by C. Stower, Hackney, 1812. The Manuscript Almanacke for XII. Yere. On the third leaf, to be disposed of. Apply to the printer. Entered 'Lately corrected and emprynted in the Fleteat Stationers' Hall.' The contents are-1. The strete by Wynkyn de Worde. In the yere of Houses of the Planets and their Properties ; 2. the reyne of our most redoubted sovereayne Lorde The Exposition of the Signs; 3. Chronicle of Kinge Henry the VII.' Events from the Birth of Cain ; 4. To find the Almanacs became common on the continent Prime Numbers ; 5. Short Notes on Medicine ; before the end of the fifteenth century, but were 6. On Blood-letting; 7. A Description of the not in general use in England till about the Table of Signs and Movable Feasts ; 8. Quanti- middle of the sixteenth. Skilful mathematicians tates Diei Artificialis. Of the information given were employed in constructing the astronomical under the head, Exposycion of the Synes,' the part of the almanacs, but the astrologers supplied following extract may serve as a specimen : 'Aqua- the supposed planetary influences and the prerius es a syne in the whilk the son es in Jan', dictions as to the weather and other interesting and in that moneth are 7 plyos [pluviose) dayes, matters, which were required to render them the 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 15, 19, and if thoner is heard in attractive to the popular mind. The title-pages that moneth, it betokens grete wynde, mykel of two or three of these early almanacs will suffifruite, and batel. Aquarius is hote, moyste, ciently indicate the nature of their contents. sanguyne, and of that ayre it es gode to byg cas- A Prognossicacion and an Almanack fastened tellis, or hous, or to wed. The clumsy method together, declaring the Dispocission of the People of expressing numbers of more than two figures, and also of the Wether, with certain Electyons and shews that the Arabic notation had been but Tymes chosen both for Phisike and Surgerye, and recently introduced, and was then imperfectly for the husbandman. And also for awekyng, understood; for instance, 52mcc20 is put for Huntyng, Fishyng, and Foulynge, according to 52,220.

the Science of Astronomy, made for the Yeare of Almanacs in manuscript of the fifteenth century our Lord God M.D.L., Calculed for the Merydyan are not uncommon. In the library at Lambeth of Yorke, and practiced by Anthony Askham. At Palace there is one dated 1460, at the end of the end, Imprynted at London, in Flete Strete, which is a table of eclipses from 1460 to 1481. at the Signe of the George, next to Saynt Dunstan's There is a very beautiful calendar in the library Church, by Wyllyam Powell, cum privilegio ad of the University of Cambridge, with the date of imprimendum solum.' Then follows the Prognos1.482.

tication, the title-page to which is as follows: The first almanac printed in Europe was prob- A Prognossicacion for the Yere of our Lord ably the Kalendarium Novum, by Regiomontanus, M.CCCCC.L., Calculed upon the Merydyan of calculated for the three years 1475, 1494, and 1513. the Towne of Anwarpe and the Country thereabout, It was published at Buda, in Hungary. Though by Master Peter of Moorbeeke, Doctour in Phyit simply contained the eclipses and the places of sicke of the same Towne, whereunto is added the the planets for the respective years, it was sold, Judgment of M. Cornelius Schute, Doctour in it is said, for ten crowns of gold, and the whole Physicke of the Towne of Bruges in Flanders, impression was soon disposed of in Hungary, upon and concerning the Disposicion, Estate, and Germany, Italy, France, and England.

Condicion of certaine Prynces, Contreys, and The first almanac known to have been printed Regions, for the present Yere, gathered oute of his in England was the Sheapheards Kalendar, trans- | Prognossicacion for the same Yere. Translated



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oute of Duch into Englyshe by William Harrys. quadrant aspect of Saturn with either two lights P At the end, • Imprynted at London by John Daye, Who is ignorant, though poorly skilled in astrodwellyne over Åldersgate, and Wyllyam Seres, pomy, that Jupiter, with Mercury or with the sun, dwellyne in Peter Colledge. These Bokes are to enforces rage of winds ? What is he that perceives be sold at the Newe Shop by the Lytle Conduyte not the fearful thunders, lightnings, and rains at in Chepesyde.

the meeting of Mars and Venus, or Jupiter and * An Aimanacke and Prognosticatyon for the Mars ? Desist, for shame, to oppugn these judg; Yeare of our Lorde MDLI., practysed by Simon ments so strongly authorised. All truth, all Henringius and Lodowyke Boyard, Doctors in experience, a multitude of infallible grounded Physike and Astronomye, 8c. At Worcester in rules, are against him.' the Hygh Strete.

In France, a decree of Henry III., in 1579, * 4 Newe Almanacke and Prognostication, Col- forbade all makers of almanacs to prophesy, dilected for the Yere of our Lord MÕLVIII., wherein rectly or indirectly, concerning affairs either of is expressed the Change and Full of the Moone, the state or of individuals. No such law was ever with their Quarters. The Varietie of the Ayre, enacted in England. On the contrary, James I., and also of the Windes throughout the whole Yere, allowing the liberty of prophesying to continue with Infortunate Times to Bie and Sell, take as before, granted a monopoly of the publication Medicine, Sowe, Plant, and Journey, &c. Made of almanacs to the two Universities and the Comfor the Meridian of Norwich and Pole Arcticke pany of Stationers. The Universities, however, LII. Degrees, and serving for all England. By accepted an annuity from their colleagues, and William Kenningham, Physician. Imprynted at relinquished any active exercise of their privilege. London by John Daye, dwelling over Alders- Under the patronage of the Stationers' Company, gate.'

astrology continued to flourish. Leonard Digges, a mathematician of some emi. Almanac-making, before this time, had become nence, and the author of two or three practical a profession, the members of which generally treatises on geometry and mensuration, was also styled themselves Philomaths, by, which they the author of a Prognostication, which was several probably meant that they were fond of mathema. times reprinted under his own superintendence, tical science; and the astrologers had formed and that of his son, Thomas Digges.* It is not themselves into a company, who had an annual properly an almanac, but a sort of companion dinner, which Ashmole, in his Diary, mer ons to the almanac, à collection of astrological ma- having attended during several successive years. terials, to be used by almanac-makers, or by the The Stationers' Company were not absolutely public generally. It is entitled 'A Prognostication exclusive in their preference for astrological aleverlasting of Right Good Effect, fructfully aug- manacs. Whilst they furnished an ample supply mented by the Author, containing Plaine, Briefe, for the credulous, they were willing also to sell Pleasant, Chosen Rules to judge the Weather what would suit the taste of the sceptical ; for by the Sunne, Moon, Starres, Comets, Rainbow, Allstree's Almanac in 1624 calls the supposed Thunder, Clowdes

, with other Extraordinary influence of the planets and stars on the human Tokens, not omitting the Aspects of Planets, with body heathenish,' and dissuades from astrology a Briefe Judgement for ever, of Plentie, Lacke, in the following doggrel lines : Sicknes, Dearth, Warres, &c., opening also many naturall causes worthie to be knowne. To these and

*Let every philomathy other now at the last are joined divers generall

Leave lying astrology ;

And write true astronomy, pleasant Tables, with many compendious Rules,

And I'll bear you company.' easie to be had in memorie, manifolde wayes profitable to all men of understanding, Published Thomas Decker, at a somewhat earlier period, by Leonard Digges. Lately Corrected and Aug- evidently intending to ridicule the predictions of mented by Thomas Digges, his sonne. London, the almanac-makers, published The Raven's Al1605. The first edition was published in 1553 ; manacke, foretelling of a Plague, Famine, and the second edition, in 1555, was 'fructfully aug-Civill Warr, that shall happen this present yere, mented,' and was imprynted at London within 1609. With certaine Remedies, Rules and Receipts, the Blacke Fryars.' In his preface he thus &c. It is dedicated . To the Lyons of the Wood, discourses concerning the influence of the stars to the Wilde Buckes of the Forrest, to the Harts (the spelling modernised): 'What meteoroscoper, of the Field, and to the whole country that are yea, who, learned in matters astronomical, noteth brought up wisely to prove Guls, and are born the great effects at the rising of the star called rich to dye Beggars. By the Lyons, Buckes, and the Little Dog? Truly, the consent of the most Harts, are meant the courtiers and gallants, or learned do agree of his force. Yea, Pliny, in his fast young men of the time. History of Nature, affirms the seas to be then There was perhaps no period in which the

promost fierce, wines to flow in cellars, standing phetic almanacs were more eagerly purchased waters to move, dogs inclined to madness. Fur-than during the civil wars of Charles I. and the ther, these constellations rising-Orion, Arcturus, parliament. The notorious William Lilly was Corona-provoke tempestuous weather; the Kid one of the most influential of the astrologers and and Goat, winds ; Hyades, rain. What meteor- almanac-makers at that time, and in his autobio. ologer consenteth not to the great alteration and graphy not only exhibits a picture of himself mutation of air at the conjunction, opposition, or little creditable to him, but furnishes portraits

of several other almanac-makers of the seven• L. Digges's Prognostication was published 1553, 1555, teenth century, Dr Dee, Dr Forman, Booker, 1556, 1567, 1576, 1578, 1605.

Winder, Kelly, Evans, &c. The character of


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Sidrophel in Hudibras has been supposed to re- above the Horizon. Printed for the Company of
present Lilly, but probably Butler merely meant Stationers.
to hold up to ridicule and scorn the class of persons Poor Robin has four lines of verse at the head
of whom Lilly nay be regarded as a type. He of each of the odd pages of the Calendar. For
was evidently a crafty, time-serving knave, who instance, under January, we have
made a good living out of the credulity of his
countrymen. He was consulted as an astrologer Now blustering Boreas sends out of his quiver
about the affairs of the king, but afterwards, in

Arrows of snow and hail, which makes men shiver;
1645, when the royal cause began to decline, he

And though we hate sects and their vile partakers,

Yet those who want fires must now turn Quakers.'
became one of the parliamentary party. He was
born in 1602, was educated at the grammar-school | As a specimen of his humour in prose, under
of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, came to London when he January we are told that there will be much
was about eighteen years of age, and spent the frost and cold weather in Greenland.' Under
latter part of his life at Hersham, near Walton- February, We may expect some showers of rain
on-Thames, where he died in 1681. In the chapter this month, or the next, or the next after that,
of his autobiography, Of the Manner how I came or else we shall have a very dry spring.' Poor
to London, he states that he was engaged as a Robin first appeared in 1663. Robert Herrick,
servant in the house of Mr Gilbert Wright, who the poet, is said to have assisted in the compilation
could neither read nor write, lived upon his annual of the early numbers. It was not discontinued
rents, and was of no calling or profession. He till 1828. The humour of the whole series was
states : 'My work was to go before my master to generally coarse, with little of originality, and a
church; to attend my master when he went great deal of indecency,
abroad; to make clean his shoes ; sweep the street; In 1664, John Evelyn published his Kalen-
help to drive bucks when he washed ; fetch water darium Hortense, the first Gardener's Almanac,
in a tub from the Thames (I have helped to carry containing directions for the employment of each
eighteen tubs of water in one morning); weed the month. This was dedicated to the poet Cowley,
garden. All manner of drudgeries I performed, who acknowledged the compliment in one of his
scraped trenchers,'&c. .... "In 1644, I published best pieces, entitled The Garden.' It was per-
Merlinus Anglicus Junior about April." In that haps in this almanac that there appeared a sage
year I published Prophetical Merlin, and had counsel, to which Sir Walter Scott somewhere
eight pounds for the copy.' Alluding to the comet alludes, as being presented in an almanac of
which appeared in 1677, Lilly says : •All comets

Charles II.'s time-namely, that every man ought
signify wars, terrors, and strange events in the for his health's sake to take a country walk of a
world. He gives a curious explanation of the mile, every morning before breakfast- and, if
prophetic nature of these bodies : “The spirits, possible, let it be upon your own ground.'
well knowing what accidents shall come to pass, The next almanac-maker to whom the attention
do form a star or comet, and give it what figure of the public was particularly directed was John
or shape they please, and cause its motion through Partridge, chiefly in consequence of Swift's pre-
the air, that people might behold it, and thence tended prophecy of his death. Partridge was
draw a signification of its events. Further, a born in 1644, and died in 1714. He was brought
comet appearing in the sign Taurus portends up to the trade of a shoemaker, which he practised
'mortality to the greater part of cattle, as horses, in Covent Garden in 1680; but having acquired
oxen, cows, &c.,' and also prodigious shipwrecks, some knowledge of Latin, astronomy, and astro-
damage in fisheries, monstrous floods, and de- logy, he at length published an almanac. Swift
struction of fruit by caterpillars and other ver- began his humorous attacks by Predictions for
mine.' Lilly, in his autobiography, appears on the Year 1708, wherein the Month and the Day of
one occasion to have acted in one of the meanest the Month are set down, the Persons named, and
of capacities. There is no doubt that he was em- the Great Actions and Events of Next Year par-
ployed as a spy ; but the chief source of income ticularly related as they will come to pass. Written
to Lilly, and to most of the other astrologers, was to prevent the People of England from being further
probably what was called casting, nativities, and imposed upon by the Vulgar Almanac-makers.
foretelling, or rather foreshadowing, the future After discussing with much gravity the subject of
events of the lives of individuals ; in fact, fortune- almanac-making, and censuring the almanac-

makers for their methods of proceeding, he con-
It has been mentioned before that the Station- tinues as follows : 'But now it is time to proceed
ers' Company had no objection to supply an to my predictions, which I have begun to calcu-
almanac to the sceptics and scoffers who treated late from the time the sun enters Aries, and this
the celestial science with ridicule and contempt. I take to be properly the beginning of the natural
Such an almanac was · Poor Robin, 1664: an year. I pursue them to the time when he enters
Almanack after a New Fashion, wherein the Reader Libra, or somewhat more, which is the busy time
may see (if he be not blinde) many Remarkable of the year; the remainder I have not yet ad-
Things worthy of Observation, containing a Two- justed,' &c. . . My first prediction is but a trifle,
fola Kalender-viz., the Julian or English, and yet I will mention it to shew how ignorant those
the Roundheads or Fanatics, with their several sottish pretenders to astronomy are in their own
Saints' Daies, and Observations

concerns. It relates to Partridge the almanac-
Written by Poor Robin, Knight of the Burnt maker. I have consulted the star of his nativity
Island, a well-wisher to the Mathematics ; calcu- by my own rules, and find he will infallibly die
lated for the Meridian of Saffron Walden, where on the 29th of March next, about eleven at night,
the Pole is elevated 52 degrees and 6 minutes of a raging fever ; therefore, I advise him to con-

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sider of it, and settle his affairs in time.' and other eminent men.”Notes and Queries,
Partridge, after the 29th of March, publicly vol. iv. p. 74. Mr Robert Cole, in a subsequent
denied that he had died, which increased the fun, communication to Notes and Queries, vol. iv.
and the game was kept up in The Tatler. Swift 162, states that he had purchased from Mr
wrote An Elegy on the Supposed Death of Par. William Henry Andrews of Royston, son of
tridge, the Almanac-maker, followed by

Henry Andrews, the whole of the father's manu-

scripts, consisting of astronomical and astrolo-

gical calculations, with a mass of very curious
Here, five foot deep, lies on his back

letters from persons desirous of having their
A cobbler, starmonger, and quack,

nativities cast. Mr W. H. Andrews, in a letter
Who to the stars, in pure good-will,

addressed to Mr Cole, says : 'My father's calcu-
Does to his best look upward still.

lations, &c., for Moore's Almanac continued during
Weep, all ye customers, that use
His pills, his almanacs, or shoes ;

a period of forty-three years, and although,
And you that did your fortunes seek,

through his great talent and management, he in-
Step to his grave but once a week.

creased the sale of that work from 100,000 to
This earth, which bears his body's print,

500,000, yet, strange to say, all he received for
You 'll find has so much virtue in 't,

his services was £25 per annum.'
That I durst pawn my ears 'twill tell

The Ladies' Diary, one of the most respectable
Whate'er concerns you full as well

of the English almanacs of the eighteenth cen.
In physic, stolen goods, or love,

tury, was commenced in 1704. Disclaiming as-
As he himself could when above.'

trology, prognostications, and quackery, the
Partridge, having studied physic as well as astro-editor undertook to introduce the fair sex to the
logy, in 1682 styled himself Physician to his study of mathematics as a source of entertain.
Majesty, and was one of the sworn physicians of ment as well as instruction. Success was hardly
the court, but never attended nor received


to have been expected from such a speculation ;
salary. His real epitaph, and a list of some of his but, by, presenting, mathematical questions as
works, are printed by Granger in his Biographical versified enigmas, with the answers in a similar
History. Partridge wrote a life of his contem- form, by giving receipts for cookery and pre-
porary almanac-maker, John Gadbury.

serving, biographies of celebrated women, and
The Vox Stellarum of Francis Moore was the other entertaining particulars peculiarly adapted
most successful of the predicting almanacs. There for the use and diversion of the fair sex, the
has been much doubt as to whether Francis Moore

success of the work was secured; so that, though
was a real person, or only a pseudonym. A com-

the Gentleman's Diary was brought out in 1741
munication to Notes and Queries, vol. iii. p. 466,

as a rival publication, the Ladies' Diary continued
states that · Francis Moore, physician, was one of to circulate independently till 1841, when it was
the many quack doctors who duped the credulous incorporated with the Gentleman's Diary. The
in the latter period of the seventeenth century. projector and first, editor of the Ladies' Diary,
He practised in Westminster.* In all probability, was John Tipper, a schoolmaster at Coventry.
then, as in our own time, the publication of an

In 1733, Benjamin Franklin published in the
almanac was to act as an advertisement of his city of Philadelphia the first number of his
healing powers, &c. Cookson, Salmon, Gadbury,

almanac under the fictitious name of Richard
Andrews, Tanner, Coley, Partridge, &c., were all Saunders. It was commonly called Poor Rich-
predecessors, and were students in physic and ard's Almanac, and was continued by Franklin
astrology. Moore's Almanac appears to be a per-

about twenty-five years. It contained the usual
fect copy of Tanner's, which appeared in 1656,

astronomical information, besides many pleasant
forty-two years prior to the appearance of Moore's and witty verses, jests, and sayings.' The little
The portrait in Knight's *London is certainly spaces that occurred between the remarkable days
imaginary. There is a genuine and certainly of the calendar he filled with proverbial sen-
very characteristic portrait, now of considerable tences inculcating industry and frugality. In
rarity, representing him as a fat-faced man, in a 1757, he made a selection from these proverbial
wig and large neckcloth, inscribed “Francis sentences, which he formed into a connected
Moore, born in Bridgenorth, in the county of discourse, and prefixed to the almanac, as the
Salop, the 29th of January 1656-7. John Pra- address of a prudent old man to the people attend-
pentier, delin. et sculp.”. Moore appears to have ing an auction. This discourse was afterwards pub-
been succeeded as compiler of the Almanac by Mr lished as a small tract, under the title of The Way
Henry Andrews, who was born in 1744, and died to Wealth, and had an immense circulation in
at Royston, Herts, in 1820. “Andrews was as-

America and England. At the sale of the In-
tronomical calculator to the Board of Longitude, graham Library, in Philadelphia, an original
and for many years corresponded with Maskelyne Poor Richard's Almanac sold for fifty-two dolars.

-Notes and Queries, vol. xii. p. 143.
• Francis Moore, in his Almanac for 1711, dates from

In 1775, the legal monopoly of the Stationers'
the Sign of the Old Lilly, near the Old Barge House, in Company was destroyed by a decision of the
Christ Church Parish, Southwark, July 19, 1710.' Then

Court of Common Pleas, in the case of Thonias
foliows an advertisement in which he undertakes to cure

Carnan, a bookseller, who had invaded their ex-
diseases. Lysons mentions him as one of the remarkable clusive right. Lord North, in 1779, brought in
men who, at different periods, resided at Lambeth, and a bill to renew and legalise the Company's
says that his house was in Calcott's Alley, High Street, privilege, but, after an able argument by
then called Back Lane, where he practised as astrologer, Erskine in favour of the public, the minister's
physician, and schoolmaster,

bill was rejected. The defeated monopolists,

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