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moner; substitutes positive law for custom; makes landed property an engine of exploitation; and gives birth to the centralized coercive state.

Has Pro

duced a Massing


of Human

Beings into Large


The compounding and recompounding of men by force has Violence immensely accelerated social integration. At present all mankind are embraced in not more than half a hundred sovereign group-units. Had the fraternal teachings of Buddha and Jesus, of Epictetus and Francis and George Fox been followed, such a stage of massing might not have been reached for thousands of years. The radiation and interchange of culture elements would in time have produced likemindedness, which paves the way for the spontaneous fusion of social groups; but, without waiting for this slow process to achieve results, conquerors and empirebuilders integrated men by violent methods. How different would be the grouping of human beings to-day if economic advantage rather than force had been the parent of societies! What woes would have been spared him if man had not early overcome his instinctive shrinking from combat with his kind and by the glorification and worship of dominion steeled himself to the wholesale taking of human life. Despising the gospel of peace cvilized man has hurried exultantly along the war path until now he finds himself holding a knife at his own throat. The next movement may sever his jugular.


Distinguishing according to the social bond-which depends not only upon the mode of origin of the society but also upon its age of development - Giddings recognizes the following kinds. ci society:


1. There is a homogeneous community of blood-relatives, Sympacomposed of individuals that from infancy have been exposed to Society a common environment and to like circumstances, and who, therefore, by heredity and experience are alike. Always conscs of themselves as kindred, their chief social bond is sympathy. The kind or type of society, therefore, that is represented by a group of kindred may be called the Sympathetic.


2. There is a community made up of like spirits, gathered Congenial perhaps from widely distant points, and perhaps originally strangers, but drawn together by their common response to a belief or dogma, or to an opportunity for pleasure or improvement. Such

CHAP. IX is the religious colony like the Mayflower band, or the Latter-Day

Saints; such is the partisan political colony, like the Missouri and the New England settlements in Kansas; and such is the communistic brotherhood, like Icaria. Similarity of nature and agreement in ideas constitute the social bond, and the kind of society so created is therefore appropriately called the Congenial.

"3. There is a community of miscellaneous and sometimes lawless elements, drawn together by economic opportunity — the frontier settlement, the cattle range, the mining camp. The newcomer enters this community an uninvited but unhindered probationer, and remains in it on sufferance. A general approbation of qualities and conduct is practically the only social bond. This type of society, therefore, I venture to call the Approbational.

"The three types of society thus far named are simple, spontaneously formed groups. The first two are homogeneous, and are found usually in relatively isolated environments. The third is heterogeneous, and has a transitory existence where exceptional economic opportunities are discovered on the confines of established civilizations.

Approbational Society


Authoritative Society


"Societies of the remaining five types are in a measure artificial, in part created by reflection - by conscious planning. They are usually compound, products of conquest or of federation, and, with few if any exceptions, they are of heterogeneous composition. They are found in the relatively bountiful and differentiated environments.

"4. A community of the fourth type consists of elements widely unequal in ability: the strong and the weak, the brave and the timorous, exploiters and the exploited-like enough conquerors and the conquered. The social bonds of this community are despotic power and a fear-inspired obedience. The social type is the Despotic.

5. In any community of the fifth type arbitrary power has been established long enough to have identified itself with tradition and religion. Accepted as divinely right, it has become authority. Reverence for authority is the social bond, and the social type is, therefore, the Authoritative.

"6. Society of the sixth type arises in populations that, like the Italian cities at their worst estate, have suffered disintegration of a preexisting social order. Unscrupulous adventurers come forward and create relations of personal allegiance by

means of bribery, patronage, and preferment. Intrigue and con- CHAP. IX spiracy are the social bonds. The social type is the Conspirital



"7. Society of the seventh type is deliberately created by cont agreement. The utility of association has been perceived, and a Society compact of cooperation is entered into for the promotion of the general welfare. Such was the Achæan League. Such was the League of the Iroquois. Such was the confederation of American commonwealths in 1778. The social bond is a covenant or contract. The social type is the Contractual.

"8. Society of the eighth type exists where a population Idealistic collectively responds to certain great ideals, that, by united efforts, it strives to realize. Comprehension of mind by mind, confdence, fidelity, and an altruistic spirit of social service are the social bonds. The social type is the Idealistic." "1

Giddings goes on to show 12 that these types observed from early times have suggested to thinkers as many different theories of the nature of society. In tribal mythologies we find sympathy or natural brotherhood theories. The society of congenial spirits suggests the consciousness-of-kind theories voiced in the proverb, Birds of a feather flock together," in the saying of Empedocles that "Like desires like," and in the word of Eccleasticus that "All flesh consorteth according to kind, and a man. will cleave to his like." From approbational societies have come

ir natural-justice theories. From despotic societies have come theories that might makes right in the sense of creating law and cder. From authoritative societies have come theories of the divine right of kings; from conspirital societies have come Machiavellian theories of the inevitableness of intrigue and cons.racy; and from societies long used to deliberative assemblies,

charters of liberty and bills of rights have come the social-covenant or social-contract theories of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau.

Giddings, "Descriptive and Historical Sociology," pp. 10-13. 13 American Journal of Sociology, Vol. X, p. 169.

of Society


istics of

Effects of





BEFORE the days of the scientific study of human nature,

romancers often imagined what a man would be like who had grown up without human association. In every case they portrayed a being with our faculties and reactions, although quite without culture. We know now that a child with only animals for nurses and companions would never develop the distinctively human traits. Its mentality would be arrested on a plane but little above that of an imbecile. The observations upon human beings of "wild" upbringing who at various times have been brought among civilized people show them to be characterized by a vegetative type of existence, automatic reactions, unconsciousness of self, inability to learn the use of language, absence of social emotions, and indifference to human companionship. Selfconsciousness, the rise of personality, and the ordinary capacity for thought and emotion are impossible without the give-and-take of life in society.

About a century ago, from observing the mutual contamination of prison inmates, some were led to advocate the solitary confinement of prisoners, at least for the first part of their term of incarceration. It was argued that in the silence of his cell the offender would come to see his misconduct in a new light and would resolve to change his ways. But the results of the policy showed how little the penologists understood the social side of human nature. In 1821, by act of the legislature of New York, eighty convicts in the Auburn prison were put into solitary cells without labor. At the end of a year five were dead, one had killed himself, another was mad, and the rest were melancholy. The next year the experiment was abandoned. In 1842, in England, Pentonville prison began to confine the prisoner in solitude for the first eighteen months of his sentence. For the next eight years the insanity rate among Pentonville prisoners was ten times

as great as in other English prisons. Since solitude is most rack- CHAP. X ing to the more developed personalities, it is not surprising that of the Fenian leaders locked up at Mountjoy from 1865 to 1867 nearly one-half went mad before their release and many others died soon afterward. After repeated experiments, in the course of which numerous prisoners went insane, the English prison authorities cut down the maximum period of solitary confinement first to nine months and later to six months.


Victims of long-enforced solitude generally become the prey of Hermit of melancholia, delusions, and hallucinations. They cease to have emotions, shrink from the sight of others, and perhaps return voluntarily to their cell as to a grateful shelter. Hermits, too, exhibit a variety of forms of mental disintegration. The biographies of the anchorite saints record strange noises and mysterious voices which the devout of their time deemed supernatural, but which were really sense hallucinations in no wise different from those which visit to-day the isolated lighthouse keeper, or the lonely shepherd of the Sierras.

The struggles of the social self against death are pathetic. In an Italian prison Pellico gained new life when he could wave a handkerchief at a fellow-prisoner, and his spirits rose at the mere sight of a human being. In cellular confinement prisoners devise many ingenious signals to convey sympathy. In Russian prisons the "politicals" developed a clever code of taps on walls or pipes as a means of communicating. In their mad thirst for companionship the immured make pets of mice, rats, and birds, even

ders, ants, and flies. In lieu of anything better, a flower or a struggling plant may furnish support to the starving social self. corrigible prisoners have been softened and transformed by having small animals to pet or even a flower box to tend.


One of the early "finds" of child-study was that not a few Imaginary ren have imaginary companions with names and clearly ons marked traits, with whom they talk, play, quarrel, and make up. Sometimes the isolated child projects a number of imaginary playtates with distinct personalities, who have varied experiences, develop life-histories, and live on with their creator into adult He. One investigator brought to light fifty cases of children who have invented such companions. Akin to this is the practice of "talking to one's self" which grows up in hermits, trappers, prospectors, and other solitaries, and which seems due to the fact that


of the

Social Self

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