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Forced or

iess dominated by geography and more by affinity and preference. They are less a product of circumstances and more a product of choice. Social bonds become less and less territorial, more and “Politimore intrinsic and purely human. “Neighbor” means less;

cal" Asso"comrade" and "friend” more. Eventually, it would seem,

way for human society will be made up of numerous free-forming, closely Free As

sociation interlacing social organisms extending all over the civilized world.

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HAT makes us a society? Is it that we have certain things What

in common — language, religion, art, science, industrial

Society Is

technique? Or is it that we do something together? The fact is both likemindedness and cooperation enter into our idea of society. Therefore, we cannot do better than adopt the definition framed by Giddings: “Any group or number of human individuals who cultivate acquaintance and mental agreement, and who, knowing and enjoying their own likemindedness, are able to work

together for common ends, is a Human Society.” 1 Modes of

It is helpful to distinguish between primary association, i.e., Origin of Society the union of individuals or families into a social group and

secondary association, i.e., the union of existing groups into a larger group. Primary association occurs either by growth, multiplication, or by coming together, congregation. The union of groups, conjugation, is either free or forced, i.e., by alliance or by conquest.

Multiplication. No doubt there have been groups which grew out of the family. In the words of the Americanist Payne, “Evidently the tribe may come into existence as a simple development of the family." The family like the tribe is fundamentally a food-seeking organization. It might terminate as soon as the youngest offspring are able to provide for themselves; but it would tend in the absence of disturbing causes to become per

manent especially with man on account of the broad overlap of Expansion successive generations. Prolonged infancy attaches the children Family more to their parents and to one another. Parents likewise beTribe

come attached to their children and to each other. " The at-
tachments thus deepened survive the temporary relations in which
they originated, subsisting when the children have grown up and
have formed for themselves new associations of the same kind."
The family thus tends to generate a larger consanguineous group

1“ Inductive Sociology," p. 6.
2 “ History of the New World called America," II, p. 43.

into a

C1-asisting of members belonging to three or even more genera- CHAP. IX 1.00, who pursue food-getting in common. “Such an enlarged group would constitute the tribe in its purest and simplest form."

Formerly the natural expansion of the family was supposed to he the characteristic mode of genesis of a society. Now we look upon it as a rare occurrence because we are better able to recogsize bow considerations of food and safety have broken in upon the quiet growth of a family into a tribe.

From time to time local insufficiency of food will compel the kin group to break up. Thus Spencer remarks, “ The primitive wcial group ... never attains any considerable size by simple Itcase. Where, as among Fuegians, the supplies of wild food elled by an inclement habitat will not enable more than a score Co w to live in the same place – where, as among the AndamaTie e, limited to a strip of shore backed by impenetrable bush, lorty is about the number of individuals who can find prey with

going too far from their temporary abode – where, as among

nen, wandering over barren tracts, small hordes are alone

be, and even families are sometimes obliged to separate, since the same spot will not afford sustenance for all, we have extrenie instances of the limitation of simple groups, and the forma

of migrating groups when the limit is passed. Even in tol**2!!y productive habitats, fission of the groups is eventually Torcessitated in a kindred manner. Spreading as its number in773*, a primitive tribe presently reaches a diffusion at which ** parts become incoherent, and it then gradually separates into les that become distinct as fast as their continually-diverging Sects pass into different languages." 3

to the other hand, an unusually bountiful source of food — c. fisheries, game trails, and haunts of wild animals - will be

cd not by a single family but by various persons, and a Cargate society will result.

Tere is safety in numbers and hence, for the sake of mutual Mutual pritetit, people who derive no economic advantage from their as a

Mouve for ä-wrats may come together and stay together. An isolated Assobariy dares not wait till it has expanded into a tribe able to take ciation che of its own. Fear has been a great group builder. Aggre*n, by increasing the power and the temptation to aggress, has Brot a cause of aggregation in neighbors or rivals. Hence, the "Puntles of Sociology," Vol. I. 454-55.


CHAP. IX making of war or the dread of war, has continually forced men

into unions for which they felt no inclination.

Congregation. This is the convergence of non-kinsmen upon the same locality and their cohesion into a group. This occurs

particularly in Coming

(a) New countries. Iceland, discovered in the ninth century, Together of Stran- was speedily settled from the Norse communities of Norway, Iregers in New land and Scotland. All the provinces of Christian Spain contribCountries

uted to the repeopling of the lands vacated by the retiring Moors. The “ Africanders” of South Africa are a blend of Dutch and French Huguenots. The colonies of England in North America attracted, besides all the British peoples, Dutch, French Huguenots, Swedes, and Germans. In the course of the last forty years immigration has made the Americans one of the most heterogeneous and polyglot of modern peoples. California, on account of its sky, scene and natural wealth, has been a magnet for the whole earth. For this reason it contains besides Americans from all parts of the Union over 5000 representatives of each of the following countries: Germany, Ireland, England, Canada, Italy, Mexico, Russia, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, Portugal, Nora way, France, Denmark, Austria, Wales, Turkey, Spain, Greece, China, Isles of the Atlantic, and Australia. Argentina, next to the United States the greatest absorber of strangers, is rapidly filling from the Iberian and Italian peninsulas and bids fair to become for the Latins what the United States once was for the

Anglo-Saxons and the Celts. and in

(b) New towns. In the ancient world the walled city was Towns

so prized on account of the security it offered that it tended to become a depot, a market, and a trade center. As theater of opportunity it lured the enterprising from afar, so that its population became extremely mixed while yet the surrounding country was pure. Consequently it was in the city that the immemorial kinship grouping first broke down. The old families had to admit strangers into the social organization and the bond of common residence succeeded to the bond of common blood as the chief social tie.

The modern commercial city is not a place of peculiar security; but from its position on the routes of travel and trade it becomes exceedingly motley in composition. This is especially true of the ports at the meeting points of traffics and races, such as San


Francisco, Manila, Singapore, Shanghai, Harbin and Buenos CHAP. IX Aires. (c) Sites of valuable natural deposits. The gold rush first Gold


Deposits a impressed upon California its cosmopolitan character. The lure Magnet of the Rand drew into the Transvaal so many Uitlanders that the Boers lost their country. Gold-mining camps like Nome, Leadville, Deadwood, Carson and Cour d'Alene are slow to develop a community sense, because the residents are so diverse that they have few ideas or aims in common. The oil fields of California, Oklahoma, Texas, and Mexico attract every species of North American, just as the nitrate beds of Chile attract every species of South American.

However mixed its original population, intermarriage will in Blending three or four generations cause the congregate community to be Hetero

geneous almost as consanguineous as if it had developed from a single family. What therefore finally determines the psychology of the community is not whether it was formed of blood kin or of strangers, but whether the component elements freely intermarry and whether such likemindedness as it achieves is not continually raveiled out by immigration. Conjugation. The peaceful union of groups is exemplified by Morging of

Voluntary the Covenant with Jehovah by means of which Moses bound a Groups aur.ber of desert tribes into the people of Israel, the Achæan Larger

Group and Etolian leagues of Greece, the drawing together of the crcle of communities about the coasts of Iceland in order to Ceate a law-making body and a tribunal which could settle disşuies, the union of six Indian tribes into the Iroquois confedcracy, the league of New England colonies to wage war with the Indian combination effected under Philip, the union of thirSeen Eaglish colonies to free themselves from Great Britain, and the coníederacy of the slave-holding states of the South to draw oat írom the American union.

Says Spencer: “ The scattered Greek communities, previously aegregated into minor confederacies by minor wars, were rompted to the Pan-Hellenic Congress and to the subsequent co

Ca visiting Shanghai some years ago, I found the composition of the foreign population of the French Concession to be as follows: French 436, German 12X. American 44, English 314, Australian 3, Austrian 12, Belgian 12 Korran 1, Danish 19, Spanish 2, Eurasian 68, Indian 17, Greek 2, Dutch

Italian 12, Japanese 103. Manilans 3, Norwegians 14, Parsee 8, Porta* 15, Russian 7, Swedish 4, Swiss 7, Tonkinese 207.

into a

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