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THE MAKE-UP OF THE POPULATION
HE traits and tendencies of society are in no small degree CHAP. I determined by its human composition. It is therefore necessary to consider, first of all, how the make up of the population varies in respect to age, sex, nativity, marital condition and mental capacity.
In old countries the sexes are rather evenly distributed but in the process of settling a new country the sexes become in some degree dissociated. Thus in the United States west of the Missouri River there are about three men for every two women. In mining and cattle raising states like Nevada, Montana and Wyoming the ratio is near two to one.
In Alaska and Hawaii the disproportion is even greater.
5 10 15
In general the population agrapple with rude Nature will be strongly male, altho it makes a difference whether the attack is on
some DisBocation Sexes
PROPORTION OF MALES TO FEMALES IN THE TOTAL POPULATION, BY COUNTIES: 1910.
Thirteenth Census of the United States: 1910.
forests and minerals or on the soil. Agriculture is more hos- CHAP. I pitable to women than lumbering and mining.
Less hedged about than women, men are readier to break home ties and try their fortune in a strange land. In our earlier foreign immigration males were to females as three is to two; but in the new immigration, coming for high wages rather than land, they were three to one. Districts which have lost by emigration have more women than men. South Carolina shows 25 women to 24 Foreign form while
men, Massachusetts 20 women to 19 men and, for the native stock, 11 women to 10 men.
Cities are magnets as well as new regions and cities with their offer of security and the opportunity of self-support lure more women than the rude frontier. Hence, men preponderate in the Sow to new regions, while women often outnumber men in the currents to the cities.
Cities, however, differ greatly in their attraction for women. Commercial cities abound most in opportunities for men. Very naturally Minneapolis has 115 men to 100 women; Portland, Ore- Residence gn, 150; Seattle, 153; San Francisco, 144. No wonder such cities are marked by energy, daring and prompt decision! Be- Women cause of their demand for personal or domestic service, residence cities show an excess of women. Washington, Richmond, Cambridge and Nashville have from 113 to 116 women for every
CHAP. I hundred men. Manufacturing cities lure now men, now women, according to the character of their industry. Metallurgical cities like Bridgeport, Birmingham, Pittsburgh and Detroit draw more men; while textile cities like Lowell, Fall River and Paterson draw more women. All this is not to suggest that comparative
equalizes the sexes
in number when Work does not
economic opportunity dominates the sex composition of any community. The numerical inequalities between the sexes in different cities are but a residue which has not been overcome by sex attraction. Cupid abhors "he" towns and "she" towns, so that automatically an excess of men sets up a demand for women, and vice versa.
We have no means of knowing what traits a female community
wou'd develop, but we do know that the male community has a character of its own. In case it is too remote or rude to attract bme-making women-e.g., in the Far North or on the rim of cvilization - its population is a continual flux, for the men tire of a womanless life and presently return to "God's country" to marry and settle down." Such a community becomes the theatre of a ruthless greed, for its denizens treat it not as home, but as merely a place for making money. Since they do not think of it as their children's country, they butcher the land, waste its rescarces and maltreat the indigenous population. No one cares for the future of the country. Each is in haste to gather the spoil and return home. This is why,
"There runs no law of God nor man to the north of Fifty Three."
In the male community law is weak, public opinion scarcely exists, and each does what is right in his own eyes, save in so far as he is checked by respect for the other man's weapon. Lifeone's own as well as another's is held cheap and is staked on sht issues. Suicide is frequent since often "nobody cares." The daredevil spirit prevails. Men resort gleefully to a saloon which calls itself "The Bucket of Blood." Few pay any attention to religion. It used to be said in the Northwest, "No Sunday west of Bismarck, and west of Miles City no God." Every one ths of making his "pile" and getting away. There will be
e enough then to look after his soul.
ness of the
With the coming of women, homes and children, the temper of Women The community changes. The sense of responsibility for his de- Homes and e-dents makes the man slower in risking his own life or in taking Favors at of another. A new-born appreciation of security causes Stability 1 and duel to be stamped out. Men begin to lay deep foun- Sense of ds for law and morality when they expect to rear their chil- buty cren in the community. Intemperance ceases to be a joke after the women teach their men folk to look upon it as deliberate selfning. The adventuress, queen of the male community, is aned and becomes the "fallen" woman as wives and mothers ke their influence felt. From women, who love security and
at the wanton creation of risk, emanates a sentiment against e furious gambling by which the male community relieves its Unable to use the saloon for sociability and recognizing this demoralizing male resort its deadliest enemy, the home