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Assump

tive Valuo of Races

from doing affects the racial opportunity for expansion. Our CHAP. VI war with Mexico in 1848 resulted in the substitution of some We Cannot millions of whites for the Indians and mestizos who by this time Making would have filled the annexed territory if this war of aggression tions as tad never taken place. How ought an impartial spectator, say to the

Comparaa philosophical Oriental, to regard this?

When we extended our Chinese exclusion laws to the Philippine Islands, we narrowed the sphere of expansion of the yellow race in order to reserve the islands for the posterity of the Malays. This may give the Malays a greater share in the ultirate population of the globe. Is this rational? The Monroe Doctrine enables a million and a third

Our Pollpersons

cies May mostly Indian in blood to possess Ecuador which, we are as- Affect Trosured, could easily sustain fifty millions of people. Everybody the Com

parative there prays for a white immigration which, however, refuses to

opportu. come so long as the country is kept in turmoil under the native nity of

Races to e'ement. In the hands of a European power Ecuador would Expand porvide room for the expansion of the white race and the home birth rate would not fall so rapidly. It is polite to insist that it is just as important to mankind to have more Ecuadorians as to have more Europeans, but is it scientific?

The West Coast countries of South America are worrying about Oriental immigration but they realize that they are not strong enough to exclude the Japanese and it may not be long before they will be unable to exclude the Chinese. But a large asweep of Oriental coolies would press the bulk of the Indian and the mestizo population of tropical South America to the wall, so that Asiatic blood would largely replace Indian blood in Western South America. The Indian blood is doomed unless the l'aited States throws its weight on the side of these countries in eir endeavor to bar out Oriental immigrants. If we are appealel to thus to extend the Monroe Doctrine, must not our decision rest upon some notion as to the comparative value of the Criental races and the Indian races ?

The prolificacy of the Negroes in the American South is so rear that, were it not largely offset by an appalling infant death 52*, the colored people would soon overwhelm the whites. If bith officers and social workers put forth as much effort to Ene: the death rate of colored children as they do to lower that cí white children, this overwhelming would actually take place.

CHAP. VI Under these circumstances is it the duty of the more intelligent

race to use its superior efficiency against its own expansion and

in furtherance of Negro expansion? The Stupid

The progress of civilization makes ever-severer demands upon Elements in People the intelligence and if we wish our civilization to be democratic, Constitute

Standing i.e., understood and sustained by the majority, we should bar tion to the out stupid elements. However amiable the dogma that at bottom Exploiter one race is as good as another, it is not only unscientific but and the Dema- positively mischievous at a time when the peoples are in movegogue

ment and decisions are being made which share the surface and resources of the globe among the various races.

DANGERS IN THE RECOGNITION OF RACE INEQUALITY Doctrines On the other hand, recognition of the unequal value of races of Race Inequality is fraught with great danger. Not only does it sow discord at a Will Be Used for

time when good will and the brotherly spirit were never so much Evil

needed, but it imperils the very existence of little and backward Purposes

peoples. Any stigma of inferiority we cast upon a race may be made the excuse for their maltreatment and exploitation, perhaps even their extermination, by the capitalists behind the imperialistic policy of nations. Rather than let loose upon the weak this devastating greed one would cling to the majestic declaration of Paul to the Athenians: “God hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the

earth.” 2

The conclusion of the whole matter is that what we know about the comparative value of races gives no people grounds for oppressing, dispossessing or exterminating any portion of mankind. On the other hand, we do know enough to have war. rant for preferring one race to another in disposing of opportunities to expand and for discriminating among races in admitting strangers to the national society.

2 Says H. G. Wells, “I am convinced myself that there is no more evil thing in this present world than Race Prejudice; none at all. I write deliberately – it is the worst single thing in life now. It justifies and holds together more baseness, cruelty and abomination than any other sort of error in the world.”

CHAPTER VII

THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT

VII

T is obvious that the characteristics of the immediate physical RA. environment --- climate, soil, minerals, topography, elevation,

Does Encontour, waterways, rainfall, harbours, etc.- dictate the size and vironment Bocal distribution of a population, the key industries, the basic the righer occupations, the lines of specialization, the mode of life, the Life of

Society as routes of migration, the channels of transportation and the char- It Does the

Lower? acter of commerce. In a word, the environment determines the general economic basis of society. Since no one disputes this, to dwell upon and illustrate it would be a waste of time. The real question is the influence of the environment upon human relations, social organization, institutions, moral and esthetic standards, the fine arts, religion and intellectual development.

Him

CLIMATE AND HUMAN ENERGY lo a very marked way climate conditions social phenomena. In the In the tropics where food is provided the year round without Nature Is

Too Easy abor oa man's part, where frost and drouth do not afflict, where

on Man; shelter and clothing are simple or even unnecessary, Nature has helpon done so much that there is little left for man to do. Hence it is Regions pot in warm and moist climes that man has mounted to civiliza- Hard on tion. The natives of the tropics have the reputation of being indolent and untrustworthy, mañana folk. Only where Nature requires man to exert himself for a living has he developed the energy and enterprise necessary for any signal achievement.

In the polar regions, on the other hand, where there can be no stock-raising, agriculture, or mining, where the food basis is extremely narrow and the woods, fibres, clays and metals we rely on are not to be had, where life is an eternal struggle with cold, darkness and famine, culture remains low and society does Dux advance beyond the rudimentary stage. No wonder, then, that it is in the intermediate climes that we come upon energy, ambition, self-reliance, industry and thrift. In the temperate

сHAP. VI

belt Nature offers few free gifts, but she recompenses man for the sweat of his brow and for his exercise of self-control and forethought. She braces him for labor and does not break down his habits of industry with enervating heat or a long benumbing

winter. Man's Ad

Significant is the migration within historic time of the major vance in the Art centers of human energy away from the warm belt. When the of Being Comfort.

curtain of history rises the brilliant foci are in Egypt, Palestine, able Even in the

Mesopotamia and India. During the classical period the peninCold Zones sulas of the Mediterranean are the brightest spots. In the Permits Him to Middle Ages northern Italy, France and Germany house the Live in the Most Stim. busiest hives. Modern times have seen Holland, England, Scanulating Climates dinavia, Russia, Canada, New Zealand, and Argentina come

to the fore. One cause of this secular movement of civilization toward the inclement climates is the development of the arts of conquering cold, which permits man to avail himself more and more of the stimulus afforded by the bracing winter and the sharp seasonal changes of the temperate zone. Had the art of cooling kept pace with the art of heating the story might have been different. Ever since he invented fire and clad himself in skins, man has been in the way of invading the harsher climes; but only our own time has seen the beginning of a technique of cooling which may yet enable him to conquer the tropics instead of succumbing to them.

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CLIMATE AND POLITICS The People In the tropics there is no real self-government nor is there of tho Tropics prospect of it. The natives of the hot humid zone lack the en, Are Always

ergy and self-control to provide themselves with such governRuled from

ment as they need. If, as is almost inevitable, they fall under the Tcm. perate the hand of powers in the temperate zone, their white residents Regions

constitute an upper caste and become the real rulers. The natives, although an immense majority, have little or no voice in their own government. Moreover, the white rulers tend to lose in time the democratic standards and ideals they may have brought with them and to gravitate toward the level of the na

tives rather than lift them to their own high plane. Tho

Climate, no doubt, is the key to many of the invasions and "Equato. rial Drift" conquests which have bent the current of history again and of Peoples again. Peoples living at ease in the warm lowlands have been

CHAP.
VII

overrun by hardier races bred in the more rigorous climates farther north or higher up. In time the invaders themselves become enervated and succumb to the onslaught of another people from a harsh environment. The descent of the Aryans into India, the conquest of the Chinese by Mongols and Manchus, the recurrent barbarian invasions of Greece and Italy, the southward movement of Toltecs and Aztecs in Mexico, the northward pressure of Kaffirs and Patagonians, the absorption of Africa into European “spheres of influence," illustrate the equatorward drive from the less kindly climates.

with the

RELIGION AND ENVIRONMENT Climate and scene write themselves clearly into the middle Closo

Correlation stages of religion. After the stage of fetichism religion appears of the

Religious as a means of accounting for and controlling those natural phe- Ideas of a

People nomena which seem most to affect human life. The mysterious annual rise of the Nile was a matter of life and death to the Climato

and Scene periple of Egypt, so the adoration of the Nile became a part of It Is Fa

miliar with ther religion. On the lofty plateaus of the Central Andes where it is always cold, sun-worship was quite natural. In ancient India the chief god was, of course, Indra the rain-giver. On the other hand, in Egypt the Satan was Typhon, the malevolent deity that sent the parching wind, while in India the Satan *25 V'ritra, who holds back the rain. In Norway the evil gods were she frost giants and the mountains. "In Norse mythology," says Whitbeck," heaven was a place Origin of

Conccp. of warmth and hell, a place of cold and mist, but in the religions tons of ví Palestine and Arabia hell is a place of heat -- eternal fire. and Hell To the Arab of the desert paradise was dreamed of as an oasis, of a garden, always having flowing water, shade trees, and fruit." To the ancient Hebrews, a settled people surrounded by marauding desert tribes, walls were the symbol of safety and hence braven or the “New Jerusalem" is a walled city with gates of frecious stones and streets of gold.

"Whether a people conceive of heaven as a place of eternal test or as a garden with shade and flowing water, or as a happy bunting ground, or a walled city or a great hall like the Norse

SR Dec. Ward, “ Climate," Ch. VIII. *Wiebeck, “Religion and Environment,” The Geogprahical Roview, Agel, 1918.

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