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With the advent of collective worship, religious feasts endear CHAP. V themselves as occasions of intense social pleasure. Moreover, the common worship of the gods for public ends makes them ageats of social discipline, props of order, bulwarks of family, property, and state. As ethical thought develops, the gods are conceived as deliverers from temptation rather than from misfortune. Philosophy blends with the theory of the gods and religion provides answers for the Why? Whence? and Whither? of the restless intellect. In the priestly cults religion becomes a stepping stone to power and so enlists ambition. The Hebrew prophets incorporate into religion their passion for social justice. Thus a great variety of human passions, instincts, impulses, and yearnings have at one time or another joined to magnify religion to the dimensions of a history-making force. No wonder that men have suffered themselves to be hewed in pieces raiter than give up their gods, that at times one has looked upon al co-worshippers as friends and all deniers of one's god as cacmies.


The religious interest cannot but wax and wane with the rela- The

Religious son of religion to men's necessities. The gods are remembered Interest in danger, forgotten in security, valued when the state rests on tremely authority, ignored when government is founded on consent, ating a tored as guardians of the right, but neglected after Justice gains her sword. Every forward stride in man's mastery of Nature ad control over men lessens his dependence on the Cnseen. A ense of security from violence, plague, calamity, and future oment weakens the fears behind religion. As people come to book to the policeman for protection, to the physician for healing, is the inventor for victory and to themselves for worldly sucCE>s, their anxious zeal in worship abates. Religion abides, purer ard nobler to be sure, but less potent as a maker of history.

ROOTS OF THE POLITICAL INTEREST Partly ally, partly rival of the religious interest is the political Origins IR! Test. At certain epochs of social history, people worry as Demand much about keeping a whole skin as about getting the next meal. orament Hience, for the creators and organs of security, they feel emoturis scarcely weaker than their feelings for wealth or for the

CHAP. V gods. In fear of having their throats cut by the enemy they

cheerfully submit to the will of the war leader. In dread of evildoers they rally round a power that can make law respected. They come to feel intense love and loyalty toward the statebuilding kings and dynasties who have allayed their terrors, and

hate the recalcitrant and disloyal. Origin

The appetite for power, however, impels the masterful to of the Supply supply more than enough government. In time the absolute of Government state reveals its true inwardness and men start back in affright Bringing Govern

before a Frankenstein. Then ensues a struggle to wrest from ment

government guarantees of individual liberties and rights. The Control next step is to dispense with governing families and classes and

organize a state whose master is the people. Finally the people's state is used for a multitude of services which never occurred to government in an earlier day.




The intensity of feeling about the state varies with its apmental Social

parent importance in the general scheme. Political loyalty is Evolution Changes strongest when enemy blows rain harmless on the shield the the of Govern. state holds over its people. The flame of patriotism rises or ment and

sinks with the approach or retreat of violence. To the degree Therewith the that peace and order, individual liberty and democratic control Strength of the are attained, the old fears and passions die. Free associations Political Interest

take over the promotion of culture. Public opinion comes to be the chief regulator of conduct and law but reflects public opinion. The non-political side of society comes forward and politics ceases to be an arch joiner and sunderer of men. If, however, social evolution should cause the state to absorb so much of the industrial organization as to play the role of a supreme earthly Providence, no doubt men's interest in it would grow again.


The intellectual interest has far outgrown the craving for lectual Intcrest knowledge inspired by the instinct of curiosity. For one thing Springs from Curi- intellectual subtlety, always a coveted species of prowess, gratiosity at First, but

fies the instinct for self-assertion. Even in the early stages of Has Grown culture a reputation for extraordinary wisdom brings the sage yond This fame, favor and wealth. Later, learning confers distinction and Instinct

has a value in bread-winning and mate-winning. As for real

Far Be


knowledge, it has been means as well as end. Its branches were Erst cultivated as badges of leisure-class superiority. Later the sciences were promoted because they relieved pain, prolonged lie, brought military victory and vastly augmented the production of wealth.

Down to about the middle of the eighteenth century it was a

Despite question whether supernaturalism might not crush or enslave turbing science; but since then science has so won the favor and confi- Upsetting dence of the people by her triumphs over disease and her con- Scienco quest of the forces of Nature, that it does not seem possible for Will Be the conservatives to bind her again in chains. Although to the Because great majority of men their religious traditions are infinitely Great dearer than the quest of Truth, they have been made to see that Services they cannot have from science the immense practical services she is rendering them unless they tolerate free inquiry. So, although the craving to find out is a very weak thing in human nature in comparison with the passions and interests which fear and hate it, it enjoys immunity because the world has learned that knowledge is power. Science labors ever with the noose about her beck; but it will not be drawn while science grants the health vainly besought by the worshipper; turns aside the pestilence; mures the husbandman his increase; and overcomes one's eneries.

THEORIES OF SOCIAL DETERMINISM The dominance of now this interest and now that, creates the One-sided

Theories llusion that some one force is the shaper of social destiny. At Which

Make Some € moment when the state attains its broadest significance the One Inter

est Recitary-political interest seems to be the swaying force in history.

sponsible As the moment when religion reaches its broadest significance for the the religious interest appears as the chief uniter and divider of Society's

Developtren. Now it happens that in modern times certain well-under- ment 53xd influences have weakened the political and religious interests and thereby thrown into bolder relief other interests, chief among is the economic. Economison, so helpful a key to the eletion of modern society, is now offered as the “Open same!" to the locked chambers of the past, the one magic forcula for the interpretation of history. Its one rival is intel

of the

CHAP. V lectualism which pivots the whole social life of an age on its

knowledge and beliefs. But these are one-sided theories and

cannot explain the past as successfully as they explain the present. Theory It is reasonable to suppose that men's attitudes and actions Worries depend most on what most worries them. When they worry as Prime Determin

chiefly about what the Unseen will do to them, the course of ers of

society will be most affected by developments in the field of reHistory

ligion. When they lie awake for fear their property or their lives will be taken, their attitude toward everything will depend on how it is related to the security-furnishing organization, i.e., the State. When their supreme anxiety is where the next meal is coming from, they will be for everything that promises to promote economic success and against everything which appears to hinder it. As soon as one worry is soothed it ceases to shape the course of history and some other supreme worry takes charge.



Race Have

F races differ in their original tendencies and in their response CHAP. VI

to the ideas by which original tendencies are moulded into Does Each desires, they will not develop the same type of society. The a Social question comes up, then, whether each race of men is marked out

Destiny of

Its Own? for a distinct social destiny and whether the contrasts we find among contemporary peoples in respect to character, manner and institutions are to be explained in terms of race.

RACE OR SOCIAL HISTORY? The ignorant always invoke race to account for any peculiarity common to a certain stock. Why is the Chinese a conservative? Race Why is the Turk a fatalist? Race. Why is the Semite a monotheist? Race. Why is the Nordic a Protestant? Race. The vulgar wonder why the Chinese toil so hard, the Jews trade, the English follow sport, and the Germans engage in philosophical Seculation, until some one tells them, “ It's in the blood.” Then they go away satisfied.

As soon, however, as we explore the social history of a people National se come upon good grounds for many of its puzzling traits. Which The Jew's distaste for farming is seen to be a traditional attitude

Have Their

Origin in 23rd by confinement in the Ghetto for several centuries and social

History dharment from owning farm land. The proverbial thriftlessness i the Irish peasant is traceable to centuries of alien landlordism 2: tack-renting. Were it a race trait it would show also in 1:9 cusins, the Welshman, the Cornishman and the Breton. The passion of the Dutch for cleanliness seems to be product cí a sxial standard made possible by easy access to water. In parts of China threaded by canals the standards of cleanliness are much higher than where water is not close at hand. On the other hand, the small use of water by the masses in Italy is said to be connected with the fact that many of the towns are scured on a hill so that water has to be brought from a distance.

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