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CHAP. IV whose sex instincts are needlessly thwarted or perverted. Con

sider, too, the massing of unmarried immigrant men into tenement rooms and the condemning of some millions of migratory

workers to a wifeless existence. To Many Less and less is the instinct of workmanship stimulated as the the Ma chine minute subdivision of tasks makes labor a monotonous repetition. Technique Denies Handicraft gives way to machine-tending, which is so little abGratification of the

sorbing that, it is said, mental deficients make the best machine Instinct of tenders! Small zest can workers feel who do not understand the Workmanship relation of their own product to the finished article. Finally

comes scientific management which takes all planning away from the ordinary worker, leaving him a meaningless mechanical job at which no craftsmanship can be exercised and from which,

therefore, no joy can be derived. Industrial

Exclusive capitalist control of industry thwarts the workers' Autocracy Bafiles the impulse to self-assertion stirred as it is by the democratic ideas of Instinct of our time. This autocratic determination of conditions which Sell-asser

vitally affect the lives of the workers, as well as the experience of tion

being spied upon and dismissed for any endeavor to organize, makes for an unrest which no concessions as to wages and hours can allay. Behind the movement for a more democratic control of industry lies something more than agitation, viz., a suppressed demand of human nature. This is why the President's Mediation Commission urges the captains of industry to "aim for the release of normal feelings by enabling labor to take its place as a cooperator in industrial enterprise.”




HERE are certain great complexes which contribute to CHAP. V

satisfy a number of our innate cravings. Among them are Tho Health, Government, Religion, and Knowledge. Each of them 2e seals to so many sides of human nature that for most men it bon tes an object of abiding concern and desire. These derived wal forces may be called interests. They so mightily determire the attitudes and exertions of men that the interests of a gerople or an age give it its distinctive stamp. The forces which a':er from time to time the comparative strength of interests are amung the veritable makers of history.

THE ROOTS OF THE ECONOMIC INTEREST The arealth (or economic) interest has its tap root in the pangs Building ., Hunger and cold, which incite man to acquire material goods. Wealth

Interest !s time, however, all sorts of cravings, native and acquired, put

ansitions for such goods and thus whet greed to a keener

When personal emulation takes the form of “conspicu-> vaste," the instinct of rivalry prompts to acquisition. When

raileas'eves gold " gilds the straitened forehead of the fool." 31 will be prized as a means of winning the coveted mate. 1.ten entertainment is expensive, money is sought in order to noiy one's sociable needs. When it is believed that the gods tre rich presents, men will seek the wherewithal for costly

aces and sanctuaries. When wealth gives lordship over "-... the ambitious will rowel hard in the pursuit of fortune. ... the artist works for the highest bidder, the lover of beauty 2:10. his hand to money-making. When Dives is more hono, sand, better with God, is a more formidable suitor and

tzzer meshes in the law than the better man with the lighter nie, many streams of desire pour into the wealth-wanting chaneland avarice will swell to monstrous proportions.



We can Measure the Value of Wealth in Terms of the Things Against Which It Is Bal. anced

In general, the itch for wealth varies directly with its capacity to promote the satisfaction of one's desires. Since this capacity varies from place to place and from age to age, it follows that the value of wealth is subject to rise and fall, not, of course, in terms of any kind of material good, but in terms of the things against which wealth may be balanced.

For there are markets in which such balancing occurs. There are streets where woman's virtue is sold for money, communities where there is a ruling price for votes. From the pay scale of occupations which differ in respect to independence, safety, and good repute, one can compute the amount of money which will overcome the love of independence, of safety, and of good repute. We see individuals sacrificing health or leisure, or mating, or offspring, or friends, or liberty, or truth, for gain. The relative volume of such spiritual goods Mammon can lure into his market at a given time and place, measures the power of money. By the choices men make in such cases and by the judgment others pass upon such choices, we can arrive at the current social estimate of wealth. When gold cannot shake the nobleman's pride of caste, the statesman's patriotism, the soldier's honor, the wife's fidelity, the servant's loyalty, the scholar's veracity, the official's sense of duty, the artist's devotion to his ideal, wealth is cheap. But when maidens wed senile money bags, youths swarm about the homely heiress, judges take bribes, experts sell their opinions to the highest bidder and genius champions the course it does not believe in, wealth is held dear.

Such fluctuations in the market where wealth is balanced against other kinds of goods might originate on either side. Some insist that it is the latter which vary, arguing that wealth derives its primary esteem from its relation to our bodily wants, which are as stable as the organism itself. Probably, however, it is wealth that changes in value rather than the satisfaction of the sex instinct, the parental instinct, the instinct for liberty or self-assertion, or workmanship; rather than built-up values such as honor, caste pride, and moral standards. The reason is that, since wealth is means not end, its importance is bound to fluctuate owing to changes in the power of material goods to gratify desire.

Wealth Fluctuates in Value Rather than what It Is Compared with



Adds Con


WHAT MAKES WEALTH APPRECIATE The advance of technique constantly augments this power. The Ado Thus the introduction of perfumes and spices gave new sensuous Techniquo gratifications, spirituous liquors provided a short-cut to social stantly to pleasure, armor opened a way to safety in battle, the coming in the Cate.

gories of oi cattle enabled heads of kine to be trophies as well as scalp Material ocks and captives. The discovery of medicaments gave new weapons against disease. The art of embalming met in a way be longing for immortality. The origination of art products provided new embodiments of beauty. Since by exchange any material good may be converted into any other, each of these darges added to the desirability of wealth in general.

When in China one marks how much more the treaty port missommary gets from his little income laid out on the products of Western knowledge and skill than the rich mandarin from his wealth of Chinese products, one realizes how invention has mulsed the categories of material goods. In his medicine case, eye-glasses, microscope, field glass, camera, talking machine, mo*** cycle, swivel chair, vacuum cleaner, fruit orchard, driven bell, etc., the missionary has values all the money in China cannot

este from native skill. of custom and opinion affect the importance of maral godis sometimes favorably, sometimes adversely. At varius times the power of wealth and consequently the Certain

Opinions 2rag for it have been augmented by the custom of wife-pur- and Cus

toms Add tae, the system of wergeld or money compensation for crimes, to the te acceptance of damages as a salve for injury, the passing of Power of

Wealth este from trophies of personal prowess - such as heads, cs, and bear's claws - to herds, acres, and bonds, the reliSe uon clothing instead of tattooing as a means of charming the imposite sex, the belief that burnt-offerings win the favor of te gods or that masses deliver the soul from purgatory, the *3.3 cí political power from the Elders or the Fighters to the renythe decay of the distinction between “noble” and Yen" employments, the yielding of patrician ranks to the

care of the new-rich, the lapsing of birth as a ground of rice superiority, the gaining of "conspicuous consumption

conspicuous leisure" as a means of good repute, the enlist

CHAP. V ment of the artist in the service of Croesus instead of the service

of temple or church.

WHAT MAKES WEALTH DEPRECIATE Modern On the other hand, there are movements which have shorn Reforms which lucre of some of its power. Woman's resumption of free disRedeem Stretches posal of herself, the rise of romantic love, the custom of courtof Indi.

ship, and the dispensing with the "marriage portion," have nearly vidual or Social Life freed Cupid from Mammon! “ Justification by faith,” the supfrom Mam monism pression of masses, pilgrimages and indulgences, the dispensing

with altar and image, the open Bible, the lay chalice and the unadorned “meeting house” have well-nigh separated the favor of God from the payment of money. The protection of the law is no longer exclusively for those who can pay for it. Public hospitals and free dispensaries socialize the healing art. The printing press and the free library have popularized the sweets of literature. The abolition of hireling armies, of imprisonment for debt, of child labor and of property qualifications for the suffrage are so many dykes reclaiming smiling stretches from dreary commercialism.



A primary factor in the religious interest has been the desire Tap-root of the to experience ecstasy. Primitive peoples know and highly value Religious Interest

this enlargement of consciousness and no one who has seen persons“ getting happy” at a camp meeting will doubt the reality or the seductiveness of such states. Then the wonder aroused by the more arresting phenomena of nature sets up speculations as to their causation which gratify the impulse of curiosity. Moreover, man's sense of helplessness before the personal powers he conceives as causes of fear-inspiring natural events excites in him the instinct of submission and throws him into the attitude of self-abasement. Intimidated he seeks by acts and ges

tures of propitiation to assure his safety. In time he conceives Its Numer the idea of utilizing these imagined personal powers. He covous Side Roots enants with them that in return for regular praise and sacrifice

they shall grant increase and prosperity. Thus the gods acquire economic importance. Becoming more fully domesticated they are approached with confidence and worship is prompted by love and gratitude as well as by fear, or expectation of benefits.

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