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The instinct of pugnacity, however, is not at the root of most modern wars. The World War sprang from the conflict of rival Modern

Wars not in.perialisms. Behind these imperialisms was the greed of cer- Mere tain influential financial or business groups secretly molding the


tions of the foreign policy of government. The instinct of pugnacity came Fighting

Instinct into the situation only at the stage when it was necessary to win wide support for aggressions which could bring the common people nothing but peril. Then came politicians, orators, song writers and newspapers playing artfully upon the popular mind to evoke well-timed outbursts of Jingoism.

Politics has been a male affair and male pugnacity cropped out The Milin American politics as soon as the Jacksonian movement brought of Politics to self-consciousness masses of unthinking instinctive voters. The citizens divided into two hostile camps, filled political discussica with fighting words like “campaign," " battle,” “enemy," “chieís," " slogan " and " banner,” and imported military features such as uniforms, marching companies and torchlight processions, The one dread of politicians was the judicial attitude, and their one hope was " spirit,” i.e., a groundless hatred of opponents. The winning party celebrated a “victory,” declared “To the victors belong the spoils," and with the general approval of the veters of both parties proceeded to convert the salaried offices to private or party advantage. It is to be hoped that women voters il rid politics of these childish manifestations of male pugracity. A skillful teacher controls unruly children by various means

The Tradiargument, appeal, example, sarcasm, humor, etc. The rod will Treatment Dit be his chief reliance. Can any one doubt that society would sender Rele equally resourceful in dealing with offenders were it not that lects Male

Pugnacity se easily aroused emotions of anger and vengeance have stood constantly at the elbow of Justice, suggesting pain and ever more ann in dealing with the recalcitrant? If the agents of justice ced as much ingenuity as the skillful teacher, there would be route management in our dealings with trouble-givers and less punishment. Here again, where male instinct has botched the job, is 25 opportunity for the managing sex to try its hand.


THE GREGARIOC'S INSTINCT IN SOCIETY The gregarious instinct is one of the chief architects of modern society The sensational growth of cities is not due solely to


CHAP. IV economic causes. The multitude attracts men as the candle at-
The tracts moths. Many who grew up in the country and never found
Growth of
Cities not it dull, become restless in it after they have learned to vibrate
Wholly, an with the crowd. Slum dwellers develop a morbid passion for

huddling and no "garden city” apostle can persuade them to ex-
change the slum with its high rents, congestion, ugliness, dirt and

disease for the roomy and wholesome suburb. Society Formerly custom bound the country-born to the place and callmay Fool Called

ing of his forefathers. But universal newspapers and cheap upon to Check the

travel have extended to the remotest hamlet the solar pull of the Growth of herd. Even in thinly settled Australia and South America the Cities

country-born pile into the city as if the furrow had no need of them. Until near the close of the nineteenth century this drift vas balanced by the flooding of settlers into virgin lands in the temperate zone. Now that we are at the bottom of this sack, the rising cost of living warns that too many have abandoned food production. To restore the balance it may be necessary to teach the children of the farm the risks and drawbacks of urban life and even to require cities to contribute to the expense of making

country life more attractive. Why Do- The swarming of young women out from the home into places mestic Service of congregate work owes something to the gregarious impulse. Cannot Attract The factory, which pays only three-fifths as much as domestic Women from Fac

service, never lacks hands while the kitchens stand empty because tory Work they are lonely. Mr. Wallas induced a lady who possessed the

young women's confidence to ask of the girls employed in the laundries and poorer factories of Boston, “ Are you happy?” They took the question as meaning, “ Are you happier than if you had stayed at home instead of going to work?” And almost every one of them answered, “Yes.” Their reasons were that "the work takes up your mind," " You are of some use," " It's awful lonesome at home," or " There's an awful emptiness at home."


It is probable that philanthropy, anti-vice crusades, the prevenParental Instinct tion of cruelty to animals, and the protection of children are Is at Work Outside

largely manifestations of the parental instinct. It is significant the Home

that many of the prime movers are childless or have lost their children, so that, finding no object at home, their tenderness occu

5 The Great Society, pp. 341-2.

es itself with the helpless outside. Moreover, the support of CHAP. IV och movements is chiefly among those who in their own homes Dive evidence of possessing strong parental feelings. The zeal of

men for protecting child life and their indignation toward of'enders against children spring, no doubt, from their maternal stinct.

The original driving force behind the scientific movement was


at the Root se instinct of curiosity. It was also behind the religious specula- of Ro.

ligious is which, when they had crystallized into a regulative dogmatic Specula

tion, Free kem, obstructed further inquiry. The passion to probe deeper Inquiry,

. ** so imperious in the stronger minds that every persecution of a mother

of search and sceptical speculation has produced its martyrs. The Science ding of this passion, whether by vialence or by the prestige of

he ancients, as in the Silver Age of Greece, in China and under ! sceniasticism, leaves the intellectual elite restless and unhappy,

3'ereas the stimulation it meets with in an age like ours, which lizes the money worth of scientific progress, inspires men of ponius with self-confidence and optimism.

RELEASE OF THE INSTINCT OF SELF-EXPRESSION The strength of the instinct of self-expression may be gauged Self-ez

pression in "a what happens when it is released after being long pent up. Revolufor the Revolution of 1917 the Russians interested in political Russia

tionary 25 sent on a " spree." There was no end of public meetings seakers. People went about from one meeting to another

Sunday and never tired of listening to utterances which forcs wuld have cost the utterer a jail sentence. There was a alle passion for " demonstrating.” Every political group tied to parade the street carrying banners or transparencies

ting its sentiments. Besides the motive of spreading one's 25 there was sheer pleasure in self-expression, like the whoop30 children let out of school.

BUTLESS SOCIAL REPRESSION OF CERTAIN INSTINCTS of customs and institutions grew right out of the impulses and often the Pristiences of the people, they would offer little check to harmless Regimo tin tendencies. But various crude products of thinking, half- frustratos

Human and teologies and philosophies, have had part in their shaping, Instincts


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so that we have no assurance that the social order will comport with ordinary human nature. Individuals with the skewest notions as to the chief ends of man — religious devotees, aged jurists, property owners, fox-hunting gentry — may shut up a people for generations in a frustrating régime. The Chinese have idealized toil to the point of eliminating provision for play. Until they came into contact with the West, sport made no appeal to them and their ideal of a delectable life was bodily ease and passive enjoyment. This was why they took to opium smoking but not to strong drink.

Communal ownership denied the Russian peasant a satisfying scope for his instinct of acquisition or possession. Rural Russia knows little of that “magic of property which turns sand into gold.” For this reason, perhaps, the peasants rarely develop that unremitting industry, thrift and hopefulness which are common

when each farmer has, or can look forward to, a farm of his own. The In

The moroseness and surrender to alcoholic excess of the In

dians of the Andean uplands from Ecuador to Bolivia probably dean Up

result from the bafflement of the instincts of self-assertion and Broken by liberty. Even to-day Cuzco Indians, women as well as men, doff pression hat to every white man they pass. In the remoter districts the

Indian who sees a white man coming along the trail will make a long detour to avoid him. If you approach an Indian abruptly he will fall on his knees, put up his arm to shield his face, and

“Don't hurt me, master!” The old brutalities are gone but fear continues to inhibit self-assertion, so that this broken-hearted race has little of the virtue and happiness it enjoyed before the Spaniards set their heel on its neck.

Through most of the Orient and particularly under Islam pression of women are so pent and obstructed in the gratification of ordinary Once Well

human instincts that their faces are stamped with sadness and

resignation. On the other hand, nowhere do women's counteversal

nances bear less evidence of balked disposition than in the United States and among the educated class in Russia. Thirty years ago when I began to addres groups of American women the faces marked with bafflement were far more numerous than they are

College girls to-day laugh and chatter more than did those of the eighties. Japanese and Chinese girls educated in American schools show in the countenance a light and a nobility of expression strange to the Oriental women. Under the conditions of

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cry, “

The Needless Re


security, freedom and male appreciation women here are entering CHAP. IV ca an unwonted fullness of life.

HOW MODERN SOCIETY OFFENDS AGAINST HUMAN NATURE It must not be supposed, however, that our own civilization Untu

Lately the does not sin against human nature. A generation ago the school- School master dealt repressively with child nature, dismissing the child's feelingly

Dealt Unpropensities to play, rove, hunt, collect or fight as a heritage from with Child

Naturo the "OH Adam." He acknowledged no obligation to make learnin interesting and complacently forced the child by fear of the serule to "get" his lessons. Such repression worked no great harm when those who abominated school could generally escape 1t. Now, however, that society insists on keeping the child in wol for eight or ten years, it behooves educators to make educatiun palatable by tying it to his native interests. Less task

rk and more play, less memorizing and more doing, less study vi books and more of things, is the order of the day. By the best tzacters, the rhythmic, dramatic, expressive, animistic, constructe and emulative instincts are recognized and appealed to.

In dealing with offenders the infliction of physical pain has Our Prison been given up as well as the martyrizing of the social self by Looks

More Hu027s of stocks, pillory, ear-cropping, branding, and whipping at mane than the cart's tail. We only confine offenders and, since they are

It Acto. *-warmed and fed and not overworked, we imagine our prison stern humane. The fact is, shutting a man up in a tiny cell in a great steel cage may torture the mind as the thumb screw tortures the body. It so violates the instinct for liberty that aliens have had to recognize a new disease, “ confinement insanity.” We enlightened than we, posterity will condemn our ignorant cie:y in breaking men who in a convict logging or road-building mp would have kept sane. G--vest of all is the trend of industry in obedience to the mo


tion of the Le of cheapening production. Incidentally and quite without Sexes by caice, ir dustrialism holds apart the sexes. One industry will Industry bare en workers while another located elsewhere will hire only * re, the result being an excess of men in some localities and of *Tea in others. In a certain collar-and-cuff manufacturing

*** CDi 46 per cent of the population are males while in a Foring electrical manufacturing center 54 per cent. are males. fiere a few miles apart are two groups of involuntary celibates

ally Is

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