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— with short cuts for the very exceptional man and cross-paths
for one who changes his goal — should be worked out for every
position, and posted charts showing such routes should visualize
to each worker his path of possible advancement. The prick of
the spur will be sharpest when selection for advancement is made
on merit as revealed in carefully kept records of each man's
performance. In order to dispense with the need of calling in
the outsider — except to start a new line of work — each man
should train his best subordinate into an understudy for himself,
and his own promotion should hinge in part on his producing a
man competent to fill his shoes.
3. The isolated worker has the natural incentive to growth,

Blockhead but in a fixed system the supplying of incentive has to be care- Belies on fully considered. The appeal to fear is the first resource of the Get Him dull, unimaginative manager. Hence, in keying up performance, Results much more has been made of punishment than of attraction. Yet the low productiveness of all slave labor in comparison with free labor ought to have made it clear that the normal man can be led at a faster pace than he can be driven.

Graduated reward lures one to do his utmost. Pay, in addi- Money tion to a fixed element, should include an element varying with Important one's efficiency -- premium, bonus, a commission on one's sales, or on the profits of one's sales — or with one's length of service. Insurance, permanency of employment, and retiring allowance after a term of service leave good men free to do their best work. Since honor is coveted as well as money, honor should be as

Distinction carefully graduated and as punctually paid. A non-discriminat- Strong

Appeal to ing treatment of those on different rungs of the organization lad- the More

Imagina des flings away a precious means of stimulation. In order to

tive Type whet the eagerness to earn advancement, something, however slight, should be used to distinguish men of each grade from those below. It may be a uniform, a stripe, a band of gold brail, a cap, or a button. It may be the right of precedence, of dning at a reserved table, entering by a special door, sitting on a higher seat, or having one's desk behind a railing or on a raised fror. It may be the privilege of sitting in the presence of the irp man, of being addressed as "Mr.” or “Sir," of receiving a certain salute, or of donning a certain robe. Whatever be the mark of honor, it should be patent without being conspicuous, its value should be symbolic rather than intrinsic, it should be cer


Has a



de corps

tain to him who is entitled to it, and it should be consistently withheld from all others.

Pitting a man against his record or pitting gang against gang, shop against shop, branch office against branch office, school against school, battleship against battleship, rouses the spirit of emulation. The party organizer gets his workers vying to see whose ward will roll up the biggest majority for the party ticket. The gun squads of different battleships engage in the hottest rivalry for honors in marksmanship. The trusts stimulate production by playing plant against plant and mill against mill. In some armies certain regiments retain a historic individuality and for centuries accumulate trophies and honors.

4. In contrast to the fostering of loyalty and esprit de corps the earliest authorities made little use of “imponderables." “ Hear, tremble, and obey” was supposed to provide every incentive. But as we learn more about human nature more heed is given to the spirit of the rank and file.

It is something if the body to which one belongs is believed to render a valuable service to society. It is better yet if this value is openly recognized so that one feels himself a member of a popular and honorable organization. When the soldier's uniform commands respect, when a university is old and famous, esprit de corps comes of itself. Even street sweepers develop it after the public has been taught to appreciate the work of the streetcleaning department.

If the chiefs keep all the glory that comes from the achievement of their organization, the underlings have the deadening sense of being mere instruments. So, if he is wise, the commander passes the credit down to the common soldier, the administrator ascribes his success to his zealous subordinates, and the railroad manager attributes the safety on his line to the men at the throttle.

The rivalry of one organization with another soon kindles esprit de corps. The competition of two neighboring cities invigorates their commercial organizations. The approach of an election sets party workers “ on edge” even if there is no real issue between the parties. Intercollegiate contests in debating and athletics are valued for their production of " college spirit." When competing transcontinental railroads have been merged it

Distributing Credit

has been found advisable to preserve their distinct organizations in order to retain the stimulus of rivalry.


CENTRALIZATION In extended organization it is a problem how far the local The

Historical body should be subordinated to the general body. History Drift

Toward shows a marked drift of authority from the local toward the Centrali

zation general. Thus, in the earlier religious orders, each monastery was independent; its monks belonged to it. But the mendicant orders and all the younger orders had each its master-general, its provinces under a prior or warden, and the friars belonged not to any one house or province but to the whole order, and would be told off by the master-general to live in whatever friary or province he pleased. There is abundant evidence that religion tends to lose itself in In Things

Spiritual shallows unless the local congregation is knit up with others the

Union of into a general church. Without this steadying relation, religious Local beieis often become eccentric, while exacting ideals sag towards into":

Groups mmmon inclinations. In the same way a Greek-letter fraternity General

Body will see its standards lost sight of if it lacks in district organiza- Has a

Steadying tion and a strict supervision over its local chapters.

Effect Owing to chance, circumstances, and faults of leaders, any local association for general objects is subject to vagary and fatuousness unless it is steadied by membership in a general orRanization, which of necessity has attained to clear-cut aims and rational methods. Possessing the advantages of experience, breadth of view, and able leaders, the general organization may well exercise control over the local. In the management of common affairs there is much to be said for the general as against the local political body. Too often local control sacrifices general and permanent interests to individual and immediate interests. Local control of education leaves its fate on the whole to men of less caliber and vision than those who determine it under stałe control. Local care of highways means less outlay on the Poults of

Local roads of the commonwealth than sound economy demands. Lo- Control cal administration of forests or care of public health will generally be less enlightened than that of the state. Law enforcement by locally chosen officers permits each locality to be a law atto itself. In a word, removing control farther from the or


of Central

At a Given
Time AU

dinary citizen and taxpayer is tantamount to giving the intelligent, farsighted, and public-spirited element in society a longer lever

to work with. Economy

The state, too, enjoys the ecoñomy of large-scale service. The Control county has too few blind, deaf-mutes, or feeble-minded to care

for each class in a special institution. The management of state charitable institutions by a single central board instead of by separate local boards has proven highly successful.

On the other hand, matters which can be appreciated by common-sense, such as the providing of local conveniences, etc., should be left to the local community.

Although, as we have seen, the characteristics of an organizaOrgani.

tion flow primarily from the nature of the task, there is, neverzations in Society theless, a tendency for organizations to agree in pattern. The Partake of a Certain principle of the dominant organization or organizations is likely Character

to reappear in all the rest. Thus if, in government, the relation of superior to subordinate is purely authoritative, this spirit may be expected to prevail in family, school, church, business, industry, and voluntary associations. If, on the other hand, government admits into this relation a consultative element, something like it will be found in most other organizations in society.

We have seen that the requirements of combined effort go Organi

rather against the native grain. As organization comes to emBaises the brace more of us, certain adjustments are necessary if human beProblem

ings are not to become painfully warped. One is ample proation and Leisure

vision for holiday and recreation, to allow the bent bow to straighten. Another is access to a variety of means of recreation. The more closely the individual is boxed in while at work by schedule, routine, and direction the wider should be his range of choice out of working hours and the more scrupulously should his freedom to choose be respected. The more one's work conforms to plan, or pattern, or orders the more one's manner of life and one's disposal of leisure time must be relied on to nourish and to express an individuality. This is why that unity in moral and religious ideas and in ground pattern of life which has sometimes worked out quite well among a peasant or fisher folk is an utterly impossible and undesirable ideal for a people subject to the trying discipline of modern organization.

Growth of


of Recre





of the


N organization may receive its direction either from the will CHAP.

XXIII of an individual or from the will of a group. The process

The Organby which a group will is arrived at may be termed the organisation ization of

Wil Is tho of will. In the organization of effort, the movement is from the

Reverse one toward the many, i.e., from the controlling purpose to the co

Organizaordinated efforts of the various persons who contribute to its tion of accomplishment. In the organization of will, the movement is from the many toward the one, i.e., from the wills of individual members to the single purpose which comes to direct and unify the activities of the group.

Organizations may be represented graphically by the cone, the base of the cone representing the individuals organized, the apex their unifying purpose. The organizing of will may be thought of as a movement from base toward apex; the organizing of efjort as a movement from apex toward base.

These two types of organization may exist separately or com- Organizatined. In an army, a railroad, a government department, and a Both wa municipal service, we see only organization of effort. In a within the church framing its creed, a party drawing up its declaration of Group principles, a Futurist group hammering out its manifesto, a gild standardizing mercantile usage, and a labor union passing upon a trade agreement, we see only organization of will. On the other hand, workingmen engaging in a strike which has been ordered by the union, farmers delivering their milk to a creamery established by their co-operative effort, the fellows of a learned sciety prosecuting co-operative research upon lines laid down by the society illustrate how, with respect to the same matter, both will and effort may be organized within a single group. This double process marks what is at once the most difficult and the most evolved type of organization. An extremely informal organization of will is presented in

tion of

and Effort


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