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CHAP.
XXI

Cooperation to put an End to Internal Strife by Creating Organs of Justice

Public
Works

and racial discipline which defends nations. Where the political bond is weak, the invasion at once disorganizes the state, upsets minds, shatters characters and in this growing disorder the invasion succeeds.3

The next weightiest motive for political cooperation is the establishment of tribunals for the settlement of disputes. The creation of the Icelandic Republic in the tenth century is an instance. Iceland, remote and poor, was not in need of foreign policy, army, fleet or exchequer. The settlements organized the Republic in order to provide machinery which should put an end to the destructive feuds which raged among them. It was a government without an executive side, developed only upon its judicial, and, to a much smaller extent, upon its legislative side. The League of Nations was born of the same motives which drew together the Icelandic communities.

Another common enterprise is the construction of public works. The early city builders — in Babylonia, for example, or in Russia — were tillers of the soil who were providing themselves with a stronghold, rather than a market-place. The essential thing was the walls rather than the houses, for in case of foray the peasants fleeing from the open country simply camped in the enclosure until the enemy retired. The residence and trading features of the city developed after it was a stronghold.

The control of water calls for combined labor. It is likely that the early appearance of the despotic state in the valleys of the Nile, the Euphrates and the Ganges sprang from the necessity of maintaining irrigation ditches and reservoirs. Stable organization was probably forced upon the Chinese by their need of huge embankments to protect them from the flood waters of the Hoang Ho. In northern Ceylon, concord and union were so indispensable in the community upkeep of the ditches and tanks that injunctions for their maintenance were sometimes graven on the rocks. A few years ago the most ancient and efficient governmental service to be met with in China was the control of the Min River for the watering of the Chêngtu plain. For two thousand years the officials have followed religiously the directions of the engineer Li Ping, who caught and tamed the Min. The upkeep of levees has magnified the Federal Government in

8 Op. cit., p. 50.

The Control of Water Forces Combined Effort

XXI

of tho

Scale

the eyes of dwellers along the Lower Mississippi, while their de

сHAP. pendence upon reclamation works gives certain of our Far Westerners a state-sense rare in other Americans.

Worship early becomes a community affair, for private deal. The Caro ing with the unseen powers is outlawed lest it be directed against Tribal one's fellows. The primitive agricultural tribe will have little Drills sense of security unless the gods who make the crops thrive be- Early Men

in come established as the principal members of the community. tion Hence, the immense significance of the covenant by which in return for their care of its interests the tribe undertakes to maintain for the gods temple, vestals, priests, sacrifices and worship. The domestication of the gods not only gave men confidence but trained them in combined action." Economic cooperation does not forge large groups, but gives Economie

Cooperarise to an infinity of small-scale undertakings, such as the collec- tion

Usually on tive hunting of a gregarious animal like the buffalo, or of a for- Smali midable creature like the elephant or the whale; the common protection of herds against beasts of prey; the common management of live stock owned by separate families; the common mowing of the meadows owned by the village community; and the common up-keep of highways and bridges.

Each crop has its own bearing on cooperation. In the chestnut Crops Difbelt of France, for example, the main task is not the tending of Their Do

mand for the trees, but the gathering of the nuts. Since there is here no Cooperachance for the exercise of superior diligence, skill, or foresight,

tion the nuts are gathered in common. Young and old, women and men join in the task and the nuts collected are a common stock for the whole family. Seeing there are no advantages in going apart, there is no tendency for the married son to set up for himself. On the other hand, the culture of the vine is individu

, alistic. Nothing is gained by cooperation, so that the married son sets up his household as soon as possible and there goes on a constant division and sub-division of vineyard properties. The vine, therefore, does not nourish the sentiment of solidarity.” As a rule, the supply of willing cooperation has been insuffi- Barely Has

There cient to meet the need of it. This chronic shortage comes from Boen Vol.

untary Co. • See Payne, "History of the New World Called America," Vol. I, operation DD. 480-6

Demolins, "Les Français d'Aujourdhui."

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the fact that, unlike bees and ants, we cooperate not from instinct but from reason. Indeed, certain of our instincts are sand on the axles of team work. Nearly every community has its blockheads who " see no use" in joint efforts which the intelligent

“ know are vital to the common safety or welfare, its slackers who hang back because they count on the rest going ahead. Hence, cooperation for common ends a little dim or remote cannot be effected without some compulsion. The anarchists err in decrying coercive authority as always the child of conquest or personal ambition. It is likely to spring up whenever there are life-and-death matters calling for the effort of all — and not get

ting it! Whatever it be - village palisade, city wall, aqueduct, lighthouse, dyke, fire-break, home guard, fleet, practice with arms

if purblind scoffers and slackers stand in its way, the wise will approve the leader who makes them do their “ bit.” 1 This is why, as you go back in European history, you come often upon occasions when the best elements rallied to the support of the King's authority."?

Owing to the hedgehog in man, the discipline from one species of cooperation may facilitate other cooperations. The habits forced upon the medieval townsmen by the military necessity of guarding their walls made possible their superb team work in pushing their trade and in rearing noble public edifices. Already I have shown how the long struggle of the Dutch with Spain filled them with the spirit of the hive. No doubt the smoothest team workers to-day are the Prussians and the Japanese — both of whom have learned in the army to subordinate self to the whole. On the other hand, that fine race, the Chinese, work

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6 In the Canadian Northwest not only is fire fighting obligatory on all the settlers, but transcontinental trains have been held and the passengers compelled to help fight a prairie fire.

7" Those who wanted government to be efficient, and desired to carry on an energetic foreign policy, would not wait on the long task of educating opinion. Illustrations of this may be found in the opinions of Wolsey and Cromwell in England, and later in the views of Cecil and Bacon, and again in those of Laud and Strafford. All these men wanted something done — order introduced into the chaos of administration; a single authority everywhere recognized; the tangle of competing and confused governmental agencies reduced to a simple and smoothly working system which would enable ideas to be realized at once without regard to average stupidity. They were all quite honestly on the side of the one power which on principles of natural selection had proved its necessity to the public welfare." Cambridge Modern History," Vol. III, p. 737.

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CHAP.

together poorly because, exempt from the necessity of military cooperation, they never learned even the A B C of discipline."

MUTUAL AID
The simplest cooperation is mutual aid, i.e., the spontaneous

Mutual

Aid combination of efforts without submission to authority. Since Springs

up in Hard it goes against the grain it is more resorted to in hard times than Times or in easy times. Merchants band themselves into guilds when Among the striving for the recognition by King and priesthood, artisans pressed when struggling for legal rights. Wage-earners will not form unions until they have suffered much, employers until the labor unions are pressing them hard. Fruit growers, cotton growers, tobacco growers, do not combine to control their production until they are at their last gasp. Settlers practice mutual aid most when they are poor and struggling. The American pioneers had their "bees” for sewing, quilting, corn-husking, harvesting, threshing, barn-raising, walnut-shucking, and road mending. If a man was sick, his neighbors " turned in " and with hurrah and good cheer gathered his crop. If he was “burnt out," they came Ingether and cut, hauled and fitted logs for a new cabin. They practiced "exchanging work" in harvest time and no one hesitated to borrow or lend. A generation or two later, when everyene is " well fixed," most of these mutual-aid customs die out and the thoughtful lament that prosperity brings selfishness. Mutual aid is more in favor with the lower social classes than

Pride an

Obstacle with the upper. The latter are too proud to lean on one another, to the

Practice of eg, borrow and lend. With them standing alone is a point of Mutual

Ai Among honor. The humble, on the other hand, are not too proud to the Social depend on one another and, besides, they can hardly survive Superiors, un!e-s they stand together. The laboring folk of ancient Rome kinded themselves into collegia. There was a union for each trade to protect its members against the upper classes, insure secarity in work, and lend some dignity to existence. Each had its festivals and sacred banquets, its banner, its common fund, its bouses and lands, its elected head. No wonder Christianity, the

*" There is nothing the Chinese lack so much as discipline. Discipline of the army, the workshop. the ship. the school, the athletic field – yes, even of the home - is needed if they are ever to develop that smooth, mtelligent team work which makes our race so formidable." Ross, " The Charging Chinese," pp. 335-6.

CHAP.

Bent of the Slavs for Cooperation

Facility of of the Japanese in Team Work

religion of love and brotherly aid, captivated this class long before it won over the high and proud.

Races just out of the old-time communal organization are readier in mutual aid than races like the Dutch, English, and, still more, the Hebrews, which have been longer individualized. Says Palmer, "For all the Slavs the principle of cooperation has a peculiar fascination that almost inevitably attracts them towards one or another of the many possible forms of Socialism. The Slavonic ideal in Austria, as well as in Russia, has always tended in the direction of groups of small manufacturers, cooperating with one another, rather than vast industrial concerns in the hands of a single owner, or controlled on behalf of a company by irresponsible autocratic managers. The typical Slav has an intense dislike - I might almost say an instinctive dread - of

the great capitalist, and it is especially this feature in his character that renders friendly relations between Slavonic workmen and Jewish capitalists nearly impossible. The ideals of the two races are the direct antithesis of one another." 9

The Japanese, too, have the communal background. A government investigator in Hawaii reports:

"The Asiatics possess a powerful, and as yet but partly appreciated instrument of competition in their genius for cooperation. They manage in some way to agree among themselves in their company contracts; one man does not shirk or lie down upon his fellows when it comes to hard work, and they figure so closely and successfully in these undertakings that it is almost useless to try to compete with them. To specify a single instance, an American builder took the contract to construct a residence upon one of the Government reservations at Honolulu. A Japanese company, or “hui,” subcontracted the job from him not only for less than he could do it for himself, employing white mechanics, but for less than the cost would be were he to employ only Oriental labor at prevailing rates of from $1 to $1.50 a day and supervise the work personally. The builder furnished materials and made advances that is, he was the capitalist and the company worked its own hours, elected its own foreman, completed its contract satisfactorily, and divided the proceeds without any friction that ever came to the knowledge of its employer."

9 "Austro-Hungarian Life in Town and Country," p. 250.

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