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ents distinct traditions they adopt the superior, combine the best CHAP. XX
elements of both, or else discover an independent standing ground
for themselves. Thus vanished the historic oppositions of Is-
raelites and Canaanites, patricians and plebeians, Romans and
Goths, Gauls and Franks, English and Danes, Normans and Eng-
lish. Amalgamation is, then, the end term of the process of
adaptation."

But no such happy ending is possible in case the physical dif-
ferences between juxtaposed races offer a barrier to intermar-
riage. Observes Bryce: “It was the good fortune of the Ro-
man Empire that the vast majority of the races whom it conquered
and absorbed had no conspicuous physical differences from the
Italians which prevented intermarriage and fusion. Race and
birthplace were no great obstacle to a man of force. Two or
three of the Emperors were of African or Arab extraction.
Moreover, the peoples of Southern Europe seem to have less re-
pulsion of sentiment towards the dark-skinned races than the
Teutons have. The Spanish and Portuguese intermarry not only
with the native Indians of Central and Southern America, but
also with the negroes. The French of Canada intermarried more
freely with the Indians of North America than the English have
done." 15
The color line, as it presents itself in various parts of the world A... Color,

is a and particularly in our South, makes race blending impossible. Structural

Weakness This is why no " solution” of the "negro problem” is in sight, in a Deno

cratic Soaltho much may be done to improve the relations between whites clety and blacks. The living side by side of elements which disdain to mix is not objectionable in a society of the Asiatic type which does not aspire to spiritual unity. But in a “democratic ” society, A People

Bar out a ** When precious culture elements are in danger of being diluted and Race it is finally lost by fusion, the prohibition of intermarriage is justifiable. Ne- Unwilling hemiah did the right thing on finding that the Jewish colony at Jerusalem

to Mato

With was threatened with absorption among the heathen peoples which encircled it. In his own words

* In those days also saw I Jews that had married wives of Ashdod, of Ammon, and of Moab:

* And their children spake half in the speech of Ashdod, and could not reak in the Jews' language, but according to the language of each people.

* And I contended with them, and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and plucked off their hair, and made them swear by God, saying, Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters unto your sons, or for yourselves.” Nehemiah xiii, 23-25.

is “ Seudies in History and Jurisprudence," Vol. I, pp. 293-94.

CHAP. X3 which covets a social mind, a color line is a source of weakness.

Such a society should guard its future by barring out any immigrating race with which its members are loath to mate.

COOPERATION

CHAPTER

XXI COOPERATION XXII THE ORGANIZATION OF EFFORT XXIII THE ORGANIZATION OF WILL XXIV The ORGANIZATION OF THought XXV THE DETERIORATION OF SOCIAL STRUCTURES CHAPTER XXI

COOPERATION

CHAP.
XXI

All Large Free Groups Are Formed for Cooperation

Coopera-
tion for
Defense
the Chief
Builder of
Large
Permanent
Unions

lowship, all large permanent groupings — when they are not the product of conquest — exist for some purpose, which without them could be attained not at all or else not so well. In a word they are cooperations. This is why In union there is strength. If there be no call to cooperate, In union there is weakness; for no degree of likemindeness reconciles people to being held together in an organization which is not doing anything for them. On the open frontier the love of absolute freedom always leads to the complete independence of each family, unless there is need of cooperation. In South Africa, among the wandering or "trek” Boers, strife with the Bushmen was the one thing which made for organization.

The most ancient and frequent motive to union has been cooperation in fighting. The migrations of nomads into settled areas and their predatory invasions of strong peoples draw them into large, loose unions, such as that of the Israelites making their way into the land of Canaan, of the Vedic people descending into India, of the Cimbri, Teutones and Gauls clutching at Italy. But such unions are temporary, because attack is optional, whereas defense is imperative. For not being ready to attack there is no such penalty as for not being ready to defend. Hence fear of being attacked is the master builder of big permanent unions. The antagonism between tribes and nations has forged men into solid masses. It was not breaking into the land of Canaan which welded the twelve tribes of Israel under Saul and David, but their wars with the neighboring peoples. The Iroquois confederacy of six Indian tribes resulted from the encroachments of the English. Says Barton: “ The economic purpose for which the clan organization was formed by the primitive Semitic folk was the defence of their date-growing oases and the domestic animals in their pasture lands, or for attack

Submis.

CHAP. upon similar possessions of their neighbors.” Fearful of rob

XXI ber bands armed for plunder, clans "would settle on an oasis, and their older and weaker men would aid the women in cultivaring the date palm, while the more hardy of the men led the small flocks and herds out into the neighboring pasture lands.” 1 The mercantile city-states of the Middle Ages — Genoa, Venice,

sion to the Leghorn - came into being chiefly to protect their trade from State Fluc

with piracy and to maintain consuls in the Levant who should look the Sense

of Formid. after their commercial interests. So long as there were Indians ablo Eneto be fought and so long as the Dutch were in New York and mies the French in Canada, the American colonists had a lively statesense. But when they no longer had cause to fear, internal liberty expanded and jealousy of the state and of the colonial governor grew.

A race too independent in spirit may be ruined from failure to to Coopermoperate when common action is imperative. Fustel de Coul- ato May anges shows that the Germans of the fifth century were the mere Fatal dibris of a weakened race which had been whipped for three centuries by the Romans, vanquished by Slavs and Huns, above all turn by long internecine wars. Gone were nearly all the peopies Tacitus describes and praises. They had torn one another to pieces through inability to cooperate politically, to form a strong and stable state. We find only Franks, Alamans, Saxons; out tribes but mere bands or fighting hordes; for Franks=warriors, Alamans = all sorts of men, Saxons: =axe men. These wandering bands accompanied by their women, children, lites and serís were without attachment to the soil, settled life, and the idea of fatherland. They no longer had stable traditions, custorrs, laws, elders and assemblies. The old legal and peaceful gosime Tacitus beheld had gone under in the centuries of confusion. They still chose their duke or king, but he was end wed with unlimited power on the sole condition of dividing de broty fairly. He insists that “ Gaul was conquered by Cæsar not because

Success in

War Due the Gauls were timid but because they would not unite and fight Less to

Personal together. In great wars and in the face of invasions personal Courage curage is worth little. It is the strength of public institutions and Pro

Team 1 * A Sketch of Semitic Origins," p. 38.

?" Histoire des Institutions Politiques de l'Ancienne France," Vol. I, DD 353-4.

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