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umph over the time-tested old if the plane of popular intelligence be low. Among the ignorant, valuable institutions may be shaken by the impudent and blatant competition of charlatans, fanatics, and false prophets. For a while people may turn from the hardwon and age-sifted truth to follow bubble promises and iridescent sophisms. That which is suited to man's deep and lasting needs may be abandoned for that which chimes with his fitful and passing desires.

The New
Not be



When, however, the plane of intelligence is high, the competition the New

of the new is to be welcomed, because it is chiefly competition that Forces the oid to keeps institutions adapted to the conditions they face and the peoAdapt It sell to Its ple they serve. Without this spur the institution stands still or Task

even degenerates. Since this is so, no institution ought to be shielded from competition by any special privilege or advantage. The youthful sect, party, college, doctrine, or ideal ought to have the same freedom to agitate, advertise, proselyte, and organize that the established enjoys. Moreover, individuals must be free to detach themselves from old organizations without unreasonable for

feiture and join new ones or none at all. Inter-party migration capped tends to liberalize parties; inter-denominational migration to liber

alize churches; inter-university migration to liberalize universities; inter-state migration to liberalize governments.

An institution that has the children of its members for nothing heritance need not cater to them and, if it will content itself with such folgiance is a lowing, it may petrify in its tracks. It is not good, therefore,

that the sons should inherit creed, party allegiance, college allegiance, local allegiance from their fathers; they should choose in freedom. The parent that fastens unescapable bonds upon the child before it has reached the age of choice confiscates the child's personality.

If, instead of inheriting their adherents, organizations had to win them, they would accommodate themselves to to-day. The contrasts between organizations would connect less with differences of origin and history and more with the actual contrasts of type in contemporary society. In religion, for example, Methodists and Catholics, Friends and Christian Scientists, Dunkers and Salvation Army, would, no doubt, find each a type they were best

The Automatic In

of Alle



tions in a

suited to, but certainly some of the one hundred and fifty sects

СВАР. in the United States would perish because their raison d'étre is in distant European conditions or remote centuries. The competition for public favor between parties, sects, schools, Democ

racy Im. universities, governments, manners, and ideals brings about that plies the

Freo Comadaptation of institutions to the will of the people which char- petition of acterizes democratic society. The competition of manners for

Instituadoption makes them direct and expressive instead of stiff and Pair Field formal. The competition of ideals for favor humanizes them and brings them into accord with the real soul of man. As organizations and institutions compete, their line of development becomes subject to the general trend of opinion and feeling. With status, institutions make the character of their people; with competition, the people make the character of their institutions. When everyone chooses his religion instead of inheriting it, the people make the religion instead of the religion making the people.



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Wilful Dir. ference in


TILFUL unlikeness in the outstanding features of life is We Resent

likely to beget misunderstanding and aversion, even hatred.

It is not the differing actions of other people we resent so much Ways

as the standards which these actions are supposed to reflect. The gentleman does not resent the overalls and horny hands of the workingman because he believes that the latter would lead a gentleman's life if he could. But if a man of means, contemptuous of the gentleman's horror of productive labor, deliberately gives himself up to real work, his conduct will be resented. When diversity of ways is perceived to run back to diversity of standards, hostility is aroused, for each regards the

ways of the other as a covert attack upon his own standards. Every Then, too, each people notices and plumes itself upon cases in People is Egocentric which its standard is higher or more exacting than that of an

other people and overlooks cases in which its standard is lower or laxer. Thus we despise the coolies of Canton for eating the unclean rat, but cannot understand that the Mohammedans and Jews despise us for eating an equally unclean animal, the pig. We rate the Japanese as immodest because formerly the sexes bathed together in undress, but it never occurs to us that the refined Chinese regard our nude paintings and statuary, our art posters, our advertisements of corsets and underwear, our décolleté gowns and our round dances as exceedingly immodest.

1“When one of the Imperial princes was en route to England, he attended his first foreign dinner in Shanghai. About twenty-five of the guests were English and American ladies, dressed in their most elaborate gowns, which means extreme décolleté. The attachés of the prince had tried to prepare his highness for the sight he was to witness; but they had evidently underestimated its startling qualities, because when the prince arrived and gave one amazed look at his hostess and the line of waiting ladies, he was nonplussed. He looked pitifully for his interpreter, and not receiving aid from him, put down his head, shut his eyes, and bravely stumbled around the room, groping blindly for each lady's hand, as he had been informed that he should shake hands with them.” Elizabeth Cooper, “The Harim and the Purdah."


We feel that our care of the body suffices; but the Japanese CHAP. to take a hot bath every evening - even the humble coolie at least twice a week — complain that crowds of Americans are fensive in odor, while the Chinese have developed a care of the ears which is totally unknown to us. The Englishman not only regards fighting with the fists as a

Contrast proper means of settling personal differences, but he is inor- English

and Ori. dinately proud of the practice. He idealizes it and cherishes it entals in

the Resort as a precious national institution. The Asiatic, on the other to the hand, regards physical encounter - save in extremity - as be- Flats bring barbarians, and in the Englishman's propensity to strike cr kick those who have offended him he sees nothing but a vioLent and uncontrolled temper.

The irate Oriental feels that he marks himself off from the animal when he heaps opprobrious epithets on his enemy and inSuges in biting reflections on his character and ancestry - in cher words, when he assails the personality of the offender a:her than his person. The wrathful Occidental, on the other and, feels that the right thing to do is damage the anatomy of aloever has excited his ire. L’nder the greatest stress the Colombian never abandons the Two Ways

of Regard. firms of politeness and in his eyes the indignant, impatient ing Polito

ness Be| American who storms, swears, and threatens, is simply wanting tween Op.

in seli-control. The American, however, never thinks of his unrestraint as a sign of weakness, but is quite sure that the poreness of the Colombian to his adversary argues an insincere and treacherous character. The Georgian on the Canal Zone despies the Panamanian for his touch of the “ tarbrush," while e Panamanian looks down on the Georgian for his engaging in tranual labor.

The American is shocked by the Chinaman's lack of chivalry Much Detirnard his wise; the Chinaman is shocked by the American's lack the Point

of View of reverence toward his parents. The American jokes about the absence of toilet soap in his chamber in a French hotel, while the bocel kecper shrugs his shoulders at the American's willingness to use a cake of soap after previous guests instead of carrying his


940 soap.

These instances illustrate the propensity of every people and of every fragment of a people embedded in a composite population, to regard its own ways as refined and excellent, in accord

selves to One Another

CHAP. XX with reason and the will of God, and to depreciate others to just

the degree in which they depart from its own standard. Hetero- Now when elements with clashing traditions respecting diet, geneity Limits Co. dress, manners and social customs are intermingled, their mutual operation

aversion and contempt not only limits gravely their cooperation, It Is De

but may even cause friction and violent conflict. The persistence sirable that the within society of elements with quite incompatible standards is Social Elements therefore recognized as a weakness and a danger; so that

* Should Adapt

thoughtful persons and others in their thoughtful moments enThem.

deavor to find among the heterogeneous a basis for mutual respect and cooperation. Hence, partly spontaneously and partly as the result of intelligent effort, diverse ethnic elements gradually adapt themselves one to the other. The chief steps in the process are toleration, compromise, accommodation, and amalgamation.

2“ It is one of the most curious features of Austro-Hungarian life that there is not one of the many races that make up the inhabitants of the Dual Monarchy that is not regarded with hatred, or fear, or aversion or contempt by all the others.” Palmer, "Austro-Hungarian Life in Town and Country," p. 122.

3“ The impoverished Magyar always insists upon his social superiority to the equally impoverished Hun. The Pole looks with contempt upon the Lithuanian and the latter is prompt to assert his claim to a more remote ancestry and an older civilization than the former. This racial pride, equally strong in each race, is the cause of many conflicts between these men when they meet over their cups. In the early years of mining, it precipitated many a conflict between the immigrants of the various races from the British Isles, and the bloody and fatal quarrels which so frequently take place among the Slavs are due to the same cause. It has its influence upon the industry. The Pole and Lithuanian will not work together. Foremen have to study national proclivities, and prejudices with regard to the productive efficacy of groups of employees under their management. In large towns, where the mine employees live, the various races form colonies, and generally keep within the limits of the section appropriated by them." Roberts, Anthracite Coal Communities,' p. 25.

4.“ Difficulties sometimes arise between the Porto Ricans and the Japanese. The latter are seldom the aggressors and rather fear the Porto Ricans in individual disagreements, but on one or two occasions when their blood was up, it required prompt and energetic police interference to prevent a sudden extermination of the local Porto Rican population. The customs of the two people are so different that trouble is apt to result if they are placed in neighboring quarters. The Japanese, for instance, have a naïve disregard for proprieties of costume and occasionally walk about their camps in an absence of attire that Americans or Europeans tolerato only in works of art. Porto Ricans object to this in case of adults, and one or two small riots have occurred as a consequence." Report of U. S. Commissioner of Labor on Hawaii.

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